AP PSYCHOLOGY: UNIT V Motivation, Emotion & Stress: Stress & Health

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Transcript of AP PSYCHOLOGY: UNIT V Motivation, Emotion & Stress: Stress & Health

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AP PSYCHOLOGY: Unit VMotivation, Emotion & Stress: Stress & Health

Part oneStress & Health: The Basics

Stress & Health: The BasicsStressThe process by which we perceive & respond to certain events (known as stressors) that we appraise as threatening and/or challengingStress is notA simple stimulus or responseNecessarily a negative thing

Stress & Health: The Basics Two major classifications of stressAcute StressorsRelatively short in duration with a clear endpointAn encounter with a belligerent customerA major examAn impending natural disaster

Chronic StressorsRelatively long in duration with no apparent endpointPersistent financial strainsA sick family memberA hostile boss Part twoStress & Health: Types of Stress

Stress & Health: Types of StressFrustration (Daily Hassles)Occurs in any situation in which a hassle or annoyance is presentInsignificant (in terms of stress)TrafficBroken air conditioner Aggravating people

Significant (in terms of stress)Failure and/or loss

Stress & Health: Types of StressConflictOccurs when two (or more) incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expressionApproach-Approach ConflictA choice must be made between two attractive goals

Avoidance-Avoidance ConflictA choice must be made between two unattractive goals100 Multiple Choice Questions OR 5 Short Answer Essays

Approach-Avoidance ConflictA choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive & unattractive aspects

Stress & Health: Types of StressSignificant Life ChangesAny significant alteration to ones circumstances that require readjustmentGoing off to collegeMarriage or divorceDeath of loved oneLoss of job

Stress & Health: Types of StressCatastrophesEvents causing great and often sudden damage or sufferingWar/ConflictsNatural disasters (floods, hurricanes, fires)Prevalence of PTSD following disastersBombing34%Plane crash into hotel29%Mass shooting28%Rates of Acute Stress DisorderTyphoon7%Industrial accident6%Mass shooting33%Violent assault19%Part threeStress & Health: Stress Responses

Stress & Health: Response to StressFight or flight How the body responds

Sympathetic nervous systemHeart rate and respiration increasesDigestion slowsRelease of sugars

Adrenal glands Excrete epinephrine and norepinephrine

Outer part of adrenal glandsSecrete glucocorticoids stress hormonesPhysiological Response to StressHeart diseaseSpecifically coronary heart disease (90% of heart related deaths)

Increase heart rate Higher levels of stress hormones Higher blood pressure

Increased respiration can cause asthma attacks or hyperventilation

Muscle tension can lead to tension-type headaches or migraines

ReproductionTestosterone production, sperm production and maturationAbsent or irregular menstrual cycles (or changes in length)Premenstrual symptoms become worsened cramping, bloating, etc.

Stress & Health: Response to StressHans Selyes General Adaptation SyndromeBodys adaptive response to stress is as general as an alarm soundingConsists of three separate stages:Alarm reaction activation of sympathetic nervous system

Resistance coping with stressor; resistance can only last so long

Exhaustion reserves depleted; vulnerable to collapse or illness

Stress & Health: Coping with StressEmotional ResponsesDependent on the stimulus (and ones personality)Common responses to stress typically occur along three dimensions of emotion(1) Annoyance, frustration, anger, rage(2) Apprehension, embarrassment, anxiety, fear(3) Dejection, depression, sadness, grief

Emotion-focused copingTrying to reduce negative emotional responsesPraying, eating, drugs/alcohol, disclosureUsed when we cannot change situationor when we believe we cannot change situationStress & Health: Coping with StressProblem-focused copingAddressing stressors directlyUsed when we feel a sense of control over a situationWe believe we can change the circumstances or change ourselves to alleviate the stress

Example:You have a disagreement with a friend and confront the individual directly to discuss the issueHow would emotion-focused be different in this case?Stress and Health: Coping StrategiesPlanning, information seeking

Seeking social support

Turning to religion

Venting of emotions



Adjusting expectationsStaying busy to take your mind off an issue



Taking control

Evaluating pros and cons

Relaxation, meditationProblem-focused OR Emotion-focused Coping Strategies(Does this help me solve the problem?)Stress & Health: Coping with StressConstructive CopingHealthy efforts to deal with stressful eventsHow?Realistic appraisal of the stress & coping resources

Learning to recognize, and in some cases regulate, potentially disruptive emotional reactions to stress

Direct confrontation of the problemPart fourStress & Health: Effects of Stress

Stress & Health: Effects of StressPsychological EffectsBurnoutPhysical & emotional exhaustion, as well as cynicism and a lowered sense of self-efficacyGenerally brought on by work-related stress

Psychological problems & disordersPoor academic performance, sleep disturbances, sexual difficulties, alcohol & drug abuse, etc.

Positive effects?Resilience Successful adaptation to significant stress & trauma

Part FiveStress & Health: Personality Factors

Stress & Health: Behavior Pattern

(Friedman and Rosenman)

Type AGeneral CharacteristicsCompetitive, self-critical, supermotivatedTime-conscious & impatientAnger & hostility Easily annoyed; tend to overreact

In lifeTend to be workaholicsOften successful, but frequently unsatisfiedFind it very difficult to relax/to do nothing

More prone to..?High blood pressure and heart disease

Stress & Health: Personality Factors

Type BGeneral CharacteristicsEasygoing & slow to angerRelaxed & flexibleLess competitive

In lifeDont stress over deadlinesLess time-bound