Motivation, Emotion, and Stress and Health

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Motivation, Emotion, and Stress and Health. Chapters 12, 13, and 14. Motivation Categories. Needs—Instinct Theory Drives—Drive Reduction Motives—Maslow Incentives—Cognitive— Bandura , Rotter , Kelly. Early Perspectives on Motivation. Motivation was INSTINCTUAL Darwin —Survival - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Motivation, Emotion, and Stress and Health

Motivation, Emotion, and Stress and Health

Motivation, Emotion, and Stress and HealthChapters 12, 13, and 14Motivation CategoriesNeedsInstinct TheoryDrivesDrive ReductionMotivesMaslowIncentivesCognitiveBandura, Rotter, KellyEarly Perspectives on MotivationMotivation was INSTINCTUALDarwinSurvivalJames/McDougallSocial InstinctsExamplesModest, Kind, etc.Why?Criticism????Drive ReductionHull (We are motivated to reduce our drives and maintain homeostasis)Criticism????

Early Perspectives on MotivationMaslows Hierarchy of Needsmust fulfill basic needs before you can move onto other needs and to eventually become self actualized.Most never become self actualized because other needs get in the way. Ex.Examples of Self Actualized People:

Are you self actualized?Acceptance and RealismFocused on Helping OthersSpontaneousopen and unconventionalNeed for Autonomy and SolitudeAppreciation of the WorldInspiredPeak ExperiencesIntense Joy, Wonder, Awe

Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsPrimary Physiological MotivesMaintain HomeostasisHungerHypothalamus (LH vs. VMH)External vs. InternalExternal Eating starts @ 3 yearsGlucose drophungercut stomach?Eat Slow20 min. & Learn to like foods 17 timesSet Point TheoryCan you change your set point?Garcia EffectEating DisordersAnorexia, Bulemia, ObesityBMI handoutCultural DifferencesBody Image Survey

Primary DrivesThirst DriveYou need to drink water or you will dieCant sham it like with foodCells need hydrationCan go almost 2 weeks without food, but only a couple days without water

Survey Scale of 1 to 51 being strongly disagree and 5 being strongly agreeTeens who engage in sexual intercourse tend to stay together longer.The birth control pill is 100% effective and prevents STDs or STIsI would be comfortable having a friend with HIVPeople can be born gay.Expectations about sex and marriage are the same for men and women.Survey Scale of 1 to 51 being strongly disagree and 5 being strongly agree6. Abstinence only education is the most effective program in preventing teen pregnancy and STDs or STIs7. I am comfortable talking to my parents about sex.8. My parents are the ones who gave me the most information about sex.9. Condoms are 95% effective in preventing pregnancy and STDs or STIs.10. The country with the highest rate of teen pregnancy is the US.What are the main reasons American teens get pregnant more, have more abortions, and suffer from more STIs?Study shows ignorance, guilt, lack of communication about birth control, alcohol use, and mass media norms.STIs are growing fastest amongst people under 25 with teen girls being the most vulnerable. 4 factors were identified in study that linked to sexual restraintintelligence, religious activity, father prescence, and participation in community service.

Primary DrivesSex Drive--HypothalamusSexual Response CycleMasters and JohnsonExcitement, Plateau, Orgasm, ResolutionKinseyHormonesEstrogen and TestosteroneLevels affect libido--sex driveGender Differenceswhy to a partner!Sexual Coercionis learned, not a driveSexual OrientationSimon LevayHypothalamusDisc uss with a partner!

Primary DrivesIs Maternal Drive a primary, unlearned drive?Are women biologically prepared to be good mothers?Do we have a maternal instinct?Do men have any type of paternal drive or instinct?Stand up for your opinion!

Stand up--Review TimeHow would the drive reduction theory explain someone who takes a higher paying job that requires much more work and time away from home?What aspects of hunger are controlled by the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus?The balanced physiological state we are driven to attain by satisfying our needs is called?Stimulus MotivesUnlearned, but not necessary for survivalExploration and CuriosityWhat are people like to have a high need to exploration and curiosity?SurveyNaturally want to explore our environmentHow do we learn not to?Naturally curiousthink of little kids who ask lots of questionsHow do we learn not to be curious and not ask lots of questions?

Stimulus MotivesUnlearned, but not necessary for survivalManipulationWe want to experience things first handtouch, etc.If that is the case, then what is the best way to learn?

Stimulus MotivesUnlearned, but not necessary for survivalContactHarlowInfants need contact to flourishInfants without contact develop a lot of problems

Stimulus MotivesUnlearned, but not necessary for survivalArousalmotivated for stimulationOptimal ArousalThere is an optimal level of arousal for certain tasksYerkes-Dodson LawEasyHigh ArousalComplexLow ArousalSensory Deprivation--We dont like a non-aroused state, so we create stimulation

Review TimeWhat did Masters and Johnson add to the field of psychology?Why were Kinsey and LeVay treated so poorly?What hormone drives libido?What is the Yerkes-Dodson curve referred to as?What do we tend to do when we are sensory deprived?Learned MotivesExtrinsic vs. IntrinsicIf we got rid of grades, would you still find school motivating? Discuss with a partner!

Theory X vs. Theory YSurvey results--discussWhich type of boss is best? Discuss with a different partner!

Learned MotivesAggressioninflicting intentional physical or psychological harm on another.Examples:BanduraAggression is learned through modeling and imitationAgree or DisagreeStand up!

Learned MotivesSexual Coercionsexual harassment to rapeMost underreported crimewhy?Learned, not a drive!Motivated to do it for power and controlMiami Case StudyCollege Case StudyResponse

Learned MotivesGet blue book and turn to page 352

Answer the following questions using the picture on p. 352What led up to the moment?What is he thinking?What is he feeling?What is likely to happen next?

Stay tuned for results!

Learned MotivesNeed for AchievementnAchMurray said some have a greater nAch than others. Examples:McClelland developed the TAT or the Thematic Apperception Test to test someones nAch.How did you score? Does it seem valid and reliable? Discuss with a neighbor!

Learned MotivesNeed for Power and ControlSome of us have a greater need for power than others.How high is your need for power? What do you do to satiate your need for power?What careers tend to attract people who have a high need for power?

Learned MotivesNeed for AffiliationnAffStanley SchacterMisery LOVES Miserable CompanyWe need to affiliate with people who are like us and who share our feelings!

Stand UP! Review TimeWhat does nAch stand for?What test do they give to test nAch?What is the primary difference between primary motives, stimulus motives and learned motives?Why do miserable people love miserable company?Is aggression instinctual or is it learned?

Emotion Expression and Interpretation is Universal

EmotionJames-Lange TheoryStimuliPhysical ResponseEmotionExampleJimmy calls you, you get a weird feeling in your tummy, you feel love for JimmyExampleJimmy calls you, you feel nothing, you tell Jimmy you are just not that into himYour own example???

EmotionCannonBard TheoryStimuliPhysical and Emotion occur simulataneouslyThought Thalamus was emotional center, but were wrongwhat is it?Amygdala

EmotionCognitive Appraisal Theory AKA Two Factor TheorySchacter--SingerMost current emotional theory!StimuliCogntive Appraisal + Physical Response--Emotion

Which theory do you agree with most?EmotionFacial Feedback TheoryPencil ExperimentSmiling vs. FrowningResults

EmotionNon-verbal vs. Verbal Emotional CommunicationNot good at verbally expressing our emotions80% is non-verbalExamplesFacial Expressions, Body Language, Distance, Gestures, ActionsCharades!

EmotionWhat are the differences between men and women when it comes to emotion?If we did a PET scan of both a man and a woman during an emotional moment, what would the two PET scans look like? Draw them--get a marker to color in the hot spots.

Music ReviewSongMotivation TheoryEmotion Evoked1. and HealthWhat do health psychologists study?StressBehavior that leads to stressPersonality types that lead to stressHow people cope with stressHow stress effects healthSources of stress How the body responds to stress

Stress and HealthDefine StressWhat is the difference between eustress and distress?

Stress and HealthHow does our body respond to stress?GASGeneral Adaptation SyndromeBy Hans SeyleAlarmFight or FlightResistanceStress HormonesCortisol Exhuastion--Parasympathetic

Stress and HealthWhat causes stress?Daily HasslesExamplesLife ChangesExamplesHolmes and Rahe SRRSp. 484 in blue book80% of people who scored high developed illness in the following year.What is the lesson to be learned?

Stress and HealthWhat causes stress?Pain and DiscomfortFrustrationIrrational Beliefsp. 489 in blue bookConflictApproach-ApproachAvoidance-AvoidanceApproach-AvoidanceMultiple Approach-Avoidance

Stress and HealthWhat causes stress?Personality TypeType A vs. BType A has more stressgreater chance of a heart attackp. 490 in blue book

Stress and HealthHow do we cope with stress?Self Esteem WorkSense of HumorPredictabilitySupportRelaxationPsychological HardinessInternal Locus of Controlp. 493 in blue book

Debate TopicsStress causes illness, therefore holistic medicine is most effective VS. Stress does not cause illness therefore modern medicine is most effective

Most humans are extrinsically motivated therefore a Theory X manager is most effective VS. Most humans are intrinsically motivated therefore a Theory Y manager is most effective

Abstinence education regarding sex is most effective VS. Abstinence education regarding sex is not effective.

Obesity is biological (nature) VS. Obesity is learned/cultural/psychological (nurture).

5.Sexual orientation is biological (nature) VS.Sexual orientations is learned/cul