ïƒ Motivation ïƒ Drives ïƒ Emotion ïƒ Stress EMOTION,...
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- Motivation Drives Emotion Stress EMOTION, MOTIVATION AND STRESS
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- True or False? T/F Getting away from it all by going on a vacation from all sensory input for a few hours is relaxing. T/F People feel hunger due to contractions in the stomach. T/F Fashion magazines can contribute to eating disorders among women. T/F Money cant buy you happiness. T/F You may be able to fool a lie detector by squiggling your toes. T/F Vacations can be stressful. T/F Type A people achieve more than Type B people, but they are less satisfied with themselves. T/F Humor helps us cope with stress.
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- Motivation Instinct: Inborn behavior that is characteristic of an entire species. Drive: A state of tension or arousal brought on by biological needs. Drive-Reduction Theory: Motivated behavior is aimed at reducing a drive.
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- Motivation Primary Drive: A physiologically based unlearned motive, such as hunger. Homeostasis: A state of balance and stability in which the organism functions effectively.
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- Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: A desire to perform a behavior that originates within the individual. Extrinsic Motivation: A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment.
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- Hunger The hypothalamus contains: Hunger center: Stimulates eating. Satiety center: Stops eating. A fall in the glucose level stimulates neurons in the hunger center and inhibits neurons in the satiety center. Leptin may play a role in obesity.
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- Sex: Response Cycle (Masters and Johnson) Excitement: Penile erection (males) and swelling of breasts and clitoris (females). Plateau: Sexual tension levels off. Orgasm: Male ejaculation and female uterine contractions; a loss of muscle control for both sexes. Resolution: Relaxation and a decrease in muscle tension.
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- Hormones Hormones play an important role in the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics. Pheromones may influence sexual attraction in humans.
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- Need for Contact Harlows monkeys demonstrated the importance of contact and affection.
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- Learned Motives Aggression Achievement Power Affiliation
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- Humanism Creator: Abraham Maslow Postulates of Humanistic Psychology: Human beings cannot be reduced to components. Human beings have in them a uniquely human context. Human consciousness includes an awareness of oneself in the context of other people. Human beings have choices and responsibilities. Human beings are intentional (Meaning/Value/Creativity).
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- Yerkes-Dodson Law There is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task: Easy tasks--relatively high Difficult tasks--low arousal Other tasks--moderate level
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- Emotion James-Lange Cannon-Bard Cognitive Facial Feedback
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- James Lang physio. changes stimulus emotion cerebral cortex
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- Cannon-Bard stimulus cerebral cortex physio. reactions emotion
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- Cognitive stimulus environ- mental cues physio. reactions cerebral cortex emotion
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- Facial Feedback Theory Emotion is the experience of changes in our facial muscles.
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- Types of Non-Verbal Communication Facial expressions Body language Personal distance Explicit acts
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- Sources of Stress Change Hassles Pressure Frustration Conflict Self-imposed stress
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- 5 Sources of Frustration in American Life Delays Lack of resources Losses Failure Discrimination
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- Conflict The simultaneous existence of incompatible demands, opportunities, needs, or goals.
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- Dealing with Stress Direct coping: Action taken to change an uncomfortable situation. Defensive coping: Convincing yourself that you are not really threatened or do not really want something that is unattainable.
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- Types of Direct Coping Confrontation: Acknowledging a stressful situation directly and attempting to find a solution to the problem. Compromise: Choosing a more realistic goal when an ideal goal cannot be met. Withdrawal: Avoiding a situation when other options are not practical.
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- Coronary Heart Disease Mental stress predisposes one to CHD. Personality also plays an important role. Type A behavior: Respond to life events with impatience, hostility, competitiveness, urgency, and constant striving.
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- Stress & the Immune System Stress can lead to: Colds or flu Depression Greater susceptibility to upper respiratory infections Increased vulnerability to cancer
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- Sources of Extreme Stress Unemployment Divorce and separation Bereavement Catastrophes Combat and other personal attacks
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- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder A psychological disorder characterized by episodes of anxiety, sleeplessness, and nightmares resulting from some disturbing event in the past. Occurs in soldiers, rape victims, victims of disasters.