Motivation, Emotion, and Stress Saad Almoshawah Ph.D
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Transcript of Motivation, Emotion, and Stress Saad Almoshawah Ph.D
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- Motivation, Emotion, and Stress Saad Almoshawah Ph.D
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- Motivation psychologists have always had A strong interest in trying to determine why people do the things they do. What made the life-styles of Donald Trump and Sam Walton so different? What motivated them? More importantly, what motivates us? Motives can arise from an internal need, such as when we are hungry and are motivated to find something to eat. Other motives originate from outside ourselves, as when some external stimulus or incentive pulls or entices us to act. After finishing a huge meal, some people yield to the temptation of a delicious dessert
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- Motivation Definition Motivation is defined as arousal associated with a specific goal. In the learning process, the motive determines the goal to be activated and the direction behavior associated with that goal will take. Since motivation and reinforcement are closely related, theories of reinforcement help to explain motivation. Do we do the things we do because of our inherent nature the inborn, biological urges that push us from within? Do we act because of the incentives that pull us from without?
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- Motivation Theories Obviously both forces influence us, but theories of motivation differ in the relative power they attribute to each. The most thoroughly biological theories of motivation are the instinct theories.
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- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation: An activity is pursued as an end in itself because it is enjoyable and rewarding. For example, A person anonymously donates a large sum of money to a university to fund scholarships for hundreds of deserving students. Extrinsic motivation: An activity is pursued to gain an external reward or to avoid an undesirable consequence, A child reads two books each week to avoid losing television privileges.
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- Drive-Reduction Theory: Striving to Keep a Balanced Internal State According to Hull (1943) all living organisms have certain biological needs that must be met if they are to survive. A need gives rise to an internal state of tension or arousal called a drive, and we are motivated to reduce it. For example, when we are deprived of food or go too long without water, our biological need causes a state of tension, in this case the hunger or thirst drive. We become motivated to seek food or water to reduce the drive and satisfy our biological need.
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- Drive-reduction theory is derived largely from the biological concept of homeostasisthe tendency of the body to maintain a balanced, internal state in order to insure physical survival. Body temperature, blood sugar, water balance, oxygen in short, everything required for physical existence must be maintained in a state of equilibrium, or balance. When this state is disturbed, a drive created to restore the balance. But drive theory cannot fully account for the broad range of human motivation. Why do people seek activities that actually create a state of tension, horror movies, or bungee-jumping sky diving?
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- Arousal Theory: Striving for an Optimal Level of Arousal How does arousal theory explain motivation? Arousal theory can answer some of the puzzling questions that drive-reduction theory cannot answer. Arousal refers to a person's state of alertness and mental and physical activation. It ranges from no arousal (as in the comatose), to moderate arousal (when we are pursing normal day-to- day activities), to high arousal (when we are excited and highly stimulated). Unlike drive reduction theories, arousal theory does not suggest that we are always motivated to reduce arousal or tension. Arousal theory states that we are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal. If arousal is less than the optimal level, we do something to stimulate it; if arousal exceeds the optimal level, we seek to reduce the stimulation.
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- Biological needs, such as the needs for food and water, increase our arousal. But we also become aroused when we encounter new stimuli or when the intensity of stimuli is increased, as with loud noises, bright lights, or foul odors. And of course, certain kinds of drugsstimulants like caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocainealso increase arousal.
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- The Opponent-Process Theory: Emotions on a See-Saw Another attempt to explain why people seek high-arousal activities is the opponent-process theory, Solomon and Corbit apply the opponent-process theory to motivation. They claim that in the opponent process, the emotional state we feel in response to certain activities or stimuli usually gives way to the opposite emotional state. Consider a frightening activity, such as parachute jumping. Solomon claims that the tremendous relief and elation following a sky-diving experience leads a person to repeat the activity in order to re-experience the feeling of elation.
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- According to the opponent-process theory, the initial emotion gradually weakens with repetition of the activity. The opposing emotion becomes stronger and eventually provides the motivation for the activity. The terror of the free-fall gradually subsides, leaving the person to experience more of a thrill. The opposite emotion, that is, the elation and the exhilaration, intensifies and is pro- longed, thus motivating the person to repeat the activity. Solomon (1980) further suggests that the opponent-process theory helps explain why "repeated pleasures lose a lot of their pleasantness" and "repeated aversive events lose a lot of their unpleasantness
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- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Putting Our Needs in Order Humans have a variety of needs or motives. Clearly some needs are more critical to sustaining life than others. We could live without self-esteem, but obviously we could not live long without air to breathe, water to drink, or food to eat. Abraham Maslow (1970) proposed a hierarchy of needs to account for the range of human motivation. He placed physiological needs at the bottom of the hierarchy, stating that these needs must be adequately satisfied before higher ones can be considered.
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- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Putting Our Needs in Order If our physiological needs (for water, food, sleep, and shelter) are adequately met, then the motives at the next higher level (the safety and the security needs will come into play. When these needs are satisfied, we climb another level to satisfy our needs to belong and to love and be loved. Still higher are the needs for self-esteem and the esteem of others. At the top of Maslow's hierarchy's the need for self actualization, the need to actualize or realize our full potential.
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- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Putting Our Needs in Order Although Maslow's hierarchy of needs has been a popular notion, appealing to many, it has not been verified by empirical research. The steps on the hierarchy cannot be said to be invariant, or the same for all people. We know from our own experience that for some people, the desire for success and recognition is so strong that they are prepared to sacrifice safety, security, and all other relationships to achieve it. A few people are willing to sacrifice their very lives for others or for a cause to which they are committed. Perhaps they too, have a hierarchy, but one in which the order of needs is somewhat different.
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- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Putting Our Needs in Order Self- Actualization Need to realize one's fullest potential Esteem Needs Need to achieve, gain competence, gain respect and recognition from others Belonging and Love Needs Need to love and be loved; need to affiliate with others and be accepted Safety Needs Need for safety and security Physiological Needs Need to satisfy the basic biological needs for food, water, oxygen, sleep, and elimination of bodily wastes
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- Emotions Until relatively recently, almost all psychological research into emotion concentrated on negative emotions, and in particular on fear and anger. This is partly because these emotions appear to link much more closely with physiological arousal, but psychological research also reflects the values of the society in which it is located, and modern society also neglects or undervalues the positive emotions.
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- Emotions Although emotions are difficult to define precisely, we can say that they contain the following two elements: (a) they always involve either physiological arousal or depression; and |b] unlike motives, they are always evaluative. Theories that attempt to explain what causes emotions and what determines which emotions we feel include the James-Lange theory activation theory, the physiological cognitive interpretation, and cognitive appraisal.
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- The James-Lange theory of emotion The introspections psychologist William James proposed that emotion occurs as a result of our perceptions of physiological changes taking place in the body:' We do not weep because we feel sorrow: we feel sorrow because we weep. Essentially, James was arguing that we produce a physiological reaction to some emotion- producing stimulus, and we then notice this reaction and try to make sense out of it. He gave an example of tripping on the stairs and catching the banister: at the time of tripping and grabbing the banister, no fear is felt; but afterwards, the heart starts beating faster, we sweat more and breathe more deeply. And it is then,