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MOTIVATION, EMOTION, & STRESS. Fast Track Chapter 5 (Bernstein Chapters 11 & 13). What is MOTIVATION ?. MOTIVATION is what drives people to do the things they do; the internal and external factors that direct behavior - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • MOTIVATION, EMOTION, & STRESSFast Track Chapter 5(Bernstein Chapters 11 & 13)

  • What is MOTIVATION?MOTIVATION is what drives people to do the things they do; the internal and external factors that direct behaviorEach persons motivation is unique. In other words, the same things dont make us all tick the same way.

  • Theories of Motivationexplains motivation through instinctual behaviorinstinct an unlearned, innate, and automatic response to a specific stimulusinfluenced by Charles Darwins evolutionary perspective that holds organisms are motivated to perform certain behaviors to enhance their survival of the survival of their speciese.g., geese flying south in response to colder weatherA criticism of instinct theory is that it provides labels and descriptions of behavior instead of explaining why and how behaviors occur.INSTINCT THEORY

  • Theories of Motivationhomeostasis the premise that the body oversees and maintains its internal physiological systems at a constant, stable levelneed a biological requirement essential to proper bodily functioningdrive (thirst, hunger, sex, pain) a psychological state of tension, or arousal, that directs an organism to take action to reduce the driveA biological need for equilibrium is what motivates organisms.When internal conditions fall below or raise above a desired level, your brain detects this change and alerts the body to return to a normal and acceptable level. e.g., When a persons temperature rises above 98.6 degrees, homeostasis detects this and the body starts sweating to cool itself.DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY

  • Theories of MotivationDRIVE REDUCTION THEORY (Clark Hull) suggests motivation is based on the desire to reduce internal tension within the body that is caused by biological needs not being met through homeostasis.e.g., dehydrationthrough homeostasis, brain alerted that fluid levels are lowneed for water is created and drive (thirst) is producedcauses or motivates you to get a drink of water (restoring homeostasis and reducing drive)Drive reduction theory cannot account for all types of motivation.continuing to buy lottery tickets (not a biological need)eating or drinking when not hungry or thirsty (social reasons, stress)DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY

  • Theories of MotivationPeople are motivated out of curiosity to try new experiences, and this curiosity causes an increase in arousal.arousal the result of several heightened physiological states (including rapid heartbeat, intensified breathing, and muscle strain)The OPTIMUM AROUSAL THEORY suggests people try to maintain an ideal level of arousal through various behavioral activities.Motivation is directed at maintaining a stable level of arousal.People tend to perform well in activities with a maintained, moderate level of arousal and are more likely to make mistakes when arousal is either too high or too low.Yerkes-Dodson law difficult or challenging tasks cause arousal to be lower while easy tasks cause arousal to be higherOPTIMUM AROUSAL THEORY

  • Theories of MotivationINCENTIVE THEORY suggests that external stimuli push people to positive incentives and pull people away from negative incentives.based on the principles of physiological, cognitive, and social factorsPhysiological factors such as food may appeal to a hungry person but not one who has just finished a large meal.Cognitive factors involve the liking of an incentive (based on the immediate pleasure it brings) or wanting of an incentive (based on the value a person places on it).Social factors define which incentives are good and which are bad based on the influence and opinions of others.e.g., What factors influence an individuals preference for a particular kind of car?Not all motivation can be explained by incentives as some people help others without the expectation of a reward. They simply help for the sake of being helpful.INCENTIVE THEORY

  • Theories of MotivationHUMANISTIC THEORY suggests people seek to build a positive self-concept and are motivated to fulfill their potential.Most humanistic psychologists believe motivation to achieve ones potential is innate but that the environment can either support or hinder this potential.Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs is an attempt to explain how a person achieves his or her potential.According to Maslow, at each level of the hierarchy, the individual has needs that must be satisfied before the the individual can address the next level.Level 1 (Physiological Needs) food and waterLevel 2 (Safety Needs) security and stabilityLevel 3 (Belongingness and Love Needs) supportive friendships, intimate relationshipsLevel 4 (Esteem Needs) feelings of worth and accomplishmentLevel 5 (Self-Actualization) achievement of ones potentialHUMANISTIC THEORY

  • Theories of MotivationHUMANISTIC THEORY

  • HUNGERThe most important signals that start and stop hunger come from the blood.The brain monitors two activities in this process:the amount of nutrients absorbed in the blood send from the digestive systemthe level of hormones released into the blood in response to the nutrients in the bloodstreamCCK (cholecystokinin) hormone released as food moves from stomach to bloodstream; detected by the brain and acts as neurotransmitter signaling short-term satiation (fullness)Leptin hormone responsible for longer-term satiation; released into bloodstream as fat supply increases; when leptin levels are high, a person feels full; low leptin levels lead to hunger sensationsGlucose sugar that the body uses for energy; when glucose levels drop, hunger increasesInsulin hormone used to convert glucose to energy; affects the amount of glucose in the body; when insulin levels rise, glucose levels decrease, causing the sensation of hungerWHAT CAUSES IT?

  • HUNGERThe hypothalamus plays an important but not exclusive role in starting and stopping hunger. It affects a variety of behaviors and drives, not just hunger.ventromedial hypothalamus involved in satiation/stopping hunger; damage to this area of a rats brain led to obesity and peculiarities in eating patternslateral hypothalamus role in initiating hunger; damage to this area of a rats brain reduced food intake; the lateral hypothalamus produces orexin, a hormone that triggers hungerTHE BRAINS ROLE IN HUNGER

  • BODY WEIGHTThroughout the day, 1/3 of a human beings energy is spent on maintaining a lifestyle (daily physical and cultural activities) while 2/3 is used for vital functioning (breathing, heart rate, brain activity)BMR (basal metabolic rate) regulates the expenditure of energy used to maintain our bodys vital functionsFactors affecting the functioning of a persons BMR:as age increases, BMR slows downwomen have a slower BMR than menheavier people have a high BMRgenetics influence a persons BMRMISCONCEPTION: If you eat less, you will lose weight.REALITY: Lowering caloric intake also slows BMR. Its better to eat several smaller meals and keep the BMR working and burning off calories rather than not eating regularly.

  • BODY WEIGHTSET POINT THEORY a persons ideal weight (or set point) is maintained through increases or decreases in the BMR; consistent with the way homeostasis maintains and monitors body conditionsIf a person eats more than than the amount of calories that will keep him/her at the set point, the BMR will increase to adjust for the increased caloric intake.If a person eats less, the BMR will slow down to conserve the amount of calories necessary to maintain the set point.HOWEVER...the number and size of fat cells play a role in body weight maintenance.The types of food a person consumes can increase the size of his/her fat cells.If fattening foods continue to be eaten, the number of fat cells will increase as well.An increase in the number of fat cells a person has increases his/her set point which also impacts the BMR functioning.Once the number of fat cells increases, there is no way to decrease it naturally.SET POINT THEORY

  • BODY WEIGHTBMI (Body Mass Index) the measure of a persons weight in proportion to his/her heightnormal BMI: 18.5-25overweight BMI: 25-29.9obese BMI: over 30NOTE: BMI does not take into account muscle mass or bone density. A muscular individual may have a BMI that indicates he/she is overweight when he/she really is not.OBESITYFactors (not excuses) contributing to obesity in America today: genetics, higher number of fat cells, lack of physical activity, availability of highly fatty foods, large portions in restaurants, etc...What NOT to do if obese--cut calories! This will only slow your BMR. Very bad!Very VERY bad!

  • BODY WEIGHTANOREXIA NERVOSA an eating disorder characterized by a dramatic drop in caloric intake and an obsession with exerciseprimarily affects young womenmay be a genetic predisposition or a biochemical imbalancealso influenced by cultural and media expectations promoting thinnessBULIMIA NERVOSA an eating disorder characterized by periods of binging (eating large amounts of food) and purging (getting rid of consumed food by intentional vomiting or use of laxatives)more likely to be females who have problems with eating habitscan lead to throat damage and tooth decaygroup therapy and antidepressants used to help improve eating habitsEATING DISORDERS

  • ACHIEVEMENT & MOTIVATIONThe desire for achievement also directs and affects motivation.COMPETENCE MOTIVATION (NEED MOTIVATION) shown by people who are driven to master a task or achieve a personal goalACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION when people try to outdo or beat other peopleSELF-EFFICACY BELIEF (Albert Bandura) the level of confidence one has when facing the challenges and demands of a situationplays an important role in determining personal achievementIf a person has positive self-efficacy beliefs, then he/she has a higher chance of achievement and suc