POLITICS OF THE GILDED AGE

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POLITICS OF THE GILDED AGE. POPULIST MOVEMENT . FARMING DOMINATED THE LIVES OF MOST AMERICANS IN THE SOUTH AND WEST DURING TIMES OF DEPRESSION (1873 & 1893) FARMERS SUFFERED A GREAT DEAL FAILURE OF RAILROADS – CONSOLIDATION BY WEALTHY BUSINESS OWNERS COMPETITION OF OTHER FARMERS LOWER - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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POPULIST MOVEMENT FARMING DOMINATED THE LIVES OF MOST AMERICANS IN THE SOUTH AND WEST

DURING TIMES OF DEPRESSION (1873 & 1893) FARMERS SUFFERED A GREAT DEAL FAILURE OF RAILROADS CONSOLIDATION BY WEALTHY BUSINESS OWNERS COMPETITION OF OTHER FARMERS LOWER PRICES BANKS FAILED RECALLED LOANSFARMERS CALL FOR THE GOVERNMENT TO STABILIZE THE ECONOMY REDUCE TARIFFSPRICES OF FARM GOODS WAS HIGHWORLD MARKET FOR AMERICAN GOODS WAS LOWMONETARY POLICY (MONEY SUPPLY)INCREASED MONEY SUPPLY = INFLATIONDECREASED MONEY SUPPLY = DEFLATIONFARMERS CALLED FOR INFLATION OF THE ECONOMYCHEAPER LOANSHIGH PRICES FOR THEIR GOODSMONETARY POLICYGOLD STANDARD (GOLD BUGS) REDUCED AMOUNT OF MONEY IN CIRCULATIONSILVER STANDARD (SILVERITES) INCREASED MONEY IN CIRCULATION BLAND-ALLISON ACT 1878 CREATE MORE SILVER MONEY SHERMAN SILVER PURCHASE ACT (1890) INCREASED LEVEL OF SILVER PURCHASED BY GOVERNMENTFARMERS PROTEST GROUPS

THE GRANGE FORMING OF COOPERATIVESPRESSURED STATE LEGISLATURES TO REGULATE BUSINESSFARMERS ALLIANCES UNITING OF FARMERS IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF UNITED STATES CALLED FOR:FEDERAL REGULATION OF RAILROADSINFLATIONANTITRUST LAWSINCREASED FARM CREDIT

GOVERNMENT ACTION

INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT- GOVERNMENT COULD REGULATE RAILROADS (SET PRICE LIMITS)SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT- ENABLED GOVERNMENT TO BREAK UP CERTAIN TRUSTS- PROVED VERY INEFFECTIVE- USED AT TIMES TO BREAK UP LABOR UNIONSFORMATION OF POPULISTS (PEOPLES PARTY)GROUP FORMED OUT OF THE CONSOLIDATION OF MANY FARMERS ALLIANCESGOALS: INCREASING CIRCULATION OF MONEY UNLIMITED MINTING OF SILVER PROGRESSIVE INCOME TAX GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP OF COMMUNICATIONS AND RAILROADS EIGHT HOUR WORK DAYWILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN STRONG SUPPORTER OF SILVER GAVE FAMOUS CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH NOMINATED FOR PRESIDENT BY THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY THREE TIMES

NATIONAL POLITICSPOLITICAL ATMOSPHERE OF GILDED AGE ERA OF LITTLE SUBSTANCE ERA OF FORGETTABLE PRESIDENTS TIME OF BOTH URBAN AND RURAL PROBLEMSCLOSE ELECTIONS BETWEEN 1876-1892 REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS UNWILLING TO TAKE STRONG STANCES ON MAJOR ISSUES CONGRESS VERY DIVIDED (FEW LEGISLATIONS PASSED)CORRUPTION IN THE GOVERNMENT * CREDIT MOBILIER SCANDAL - OUTSIDE CONTRACTOR CHARGED LARGE SUMS FOR WORK DONE - GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS TOOK BRIBESREPUBLICANS CIVIL WAR VETERANS/AFRICAN AMERICANS/BIG BUSINESS/ MIDDLE CLASS/PROTESTANTDEMOCRATSSOLID SOUTH/POLITICAL MACHINES/IMMIGRANTS/ URBAN WORKERS PRESIDENTS OF THE GILDED AGERUTHERFORD B. HAYES- ENDED RECONSTRUCTION (REMOVAL OF TROOPS)- SOME CALL HIS ELECTION A CORRUPT BARGAIN

JAMES GARFIELD SUPPORTED USE OF SPOILS SYSTEM REPUBLICAN PARTY DIVIDED INTO FACTIONS STALWARTS AND HALF-BREEDS

ASSASSINATED (JULY 2, 1881) BY CHARLES GUITEAU (STALWART)- GUITEAU UPSET OVER NOT RECEIVING GOVERNMENT JOB - SHOWED PROBLEM WITH PARTY PATRONAGE - ASSASSINATION LEADS TO PUBLIC CRITICISM OF SPOILS SYSTEMCHESTER A. ARTHUR VICE-PRESIDENT UNDER GARFIELD PASSAGE OF PENDLETON CIVIL SERVICE ACT TESTED ALL GOVERNMENT APPLICANTS SET STANDARDS FOR GOVERNMENT JOBS PRESIDENTS COULD NOT FIRE OFFICIALS FOR POLITICAL REASONS

GROVER CLEVELAND FIRST DEMOCRAT TO WIN ELECTION SINCE 1856 (JAMES BUCHANAN)

FIRST AND ONLY PRESIDENT TO BE ELECTED TO TWO NON-CONSECUTIVE TERMSSUPPORTED THE LOWERING OF TARIFFS AND GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF RAILROADS- PASSAGE OF INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT 1887 (LIMITED SUCCESS) PASSAGE OF DAWES SERVILITY ACT SERVED SECOND TERM DURING PANIC OF 1893- FAILED TO WIN SUPPORT OF WORKING CLASS AND FARMERS- UNEMPLOYED MARCHED ON WASHINGTON TO PROTEST (COXEYS ARMY)- REPEALED SHERMAN SILVER PURCHASE ACT- SENT TROOPS TO CHICAGO TO END PULLMAN STRIKEBENJAMIN HARRISONWINS ELECTION OF 1888 WITH HELP FROM BIG BUSINESSFIRST BILLION DOLLAR CONGRESSACTS PASSED:MCKINLEY TARIFF OF 1890CIVIL WAR VETERANS PENSIONS ACTSHERMAN ANTI-TRUST ACTSHERMAN SILVER PURCHASE ACT

WILLIAM MCKINLEYDEMOCRATS DIVIDED IN WHO TO NOMINATE FOR ELECTION OF 1896PRO-GOLD GROVER CLEVELANDPRO-SILVER WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYANBRYAN NOMINATED AND RUNS AGAINST MCKINLEYMCKINLEY TAKES ADVANTAGE OF BIG BUSINESS MONEY TO CAMPAIGN