Gilded Age/ Politics & Reform

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Hey everyone! As promised, here's our powerpoint. Please look through this thoroughly, and make sure you took notes from our lecture as well.** THERE WILL BE A HIGH CHANCE WE WILL CHECK NOTEBOOKS **

Transcript of Gilded Age/ Politics & Reform

  • 1. Early Reforms in the Gilded Age Angie Ng and Rachel Miller

2. Gilded Age (1870-1900)

  • Mark Twain and Charles Warners novel The Gilded Age(1873)
  • Novel talked about American politics and society.
  • Gilded = something covered with gold on the outside but made of cheaper metal on the inside
  • Gilded Age= Beneath benefits of Industrialization and Urbanization (increased life expectancy) was poverty, corruption, crime, and great disparities in wealth between the rich and poor.

3. Individualism

  • Idea that no matter how humble a persons origins, they could rise in society (based on talent and commitment) Horatio Alger wrote over 100 rags to riches novels that inspired Americans to believe that success was not impossible

4. Social Darwinism

  • Herbert Spencer proposed idea.
  • Inspired by Charles Darwin who believed that life evolved over the years through natural selection.
  • Believed that human society evolved and improved over the years because only the fittest survived.
  • catchphrase was Survival of the fittest

5. Social Darwinism

  • Reinforced idea of individualism
  • Supported the idea of laissez-faire
  • William Graham Sumner (political scientist) = if govt interfere with business, competition would not root out those that couldnt adapt.
  • John D .Rockefeller supported SD a lot (industrial giant of oil)

6. Opposition to SD

  • Some people believed in Bibles account of Creation
  • Henry Ward of Plymouth Church accepted Spencers ideas of SD
  • Andrew Carnegie combine SD with Gospel of Wealth.
  • Believed rich should engage in philanthropy donate fortunes to help the poor and further social progress

7. Realism

  • Movement in art and literature that portrayed people realistically instead of idealizing them like in romanticism
  • Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn view of pre-Civil War era

8. Popular Culture/Entertainment

  • Industrialization improved standard of living for people, had more leisure time
  • Saloons, playing or watching basketball, baseball, football because job less strenuous physically.
  • Ragtime music (African American)
  • Vaudeville=animal acts, dancers, acrobats

9. Criticism

  • Henry George Progress and Poverty raised questions about great gap between rich/poor.
  • Lester Frank Dynamic Sociology = Reform Darwinism. People survive because of ability to cooperate, therefore govt should be involved (poverty, education, economy)
  • Edward Bellamy Looking Backward want socialism
  • Naturalism=style of writing that criticized indust. Society.

10. Helping the Urban Poor

  • Social Gospel Movement (1870-1920)
  • Improve city conditions based on biblical ideas (day care, helping the poor)
  • Washington Gladden (minister from Columbus,Ohio) try apply Christian Law to social problems.
  • Coal strike (1884) Gladden= right and necessity of labor organizations
  • Billy Sunday =protect trad. society denounce alcohol, womens rights, labor unions

11. Helping the Urban Poor

  • Christian Mission aka Salvation Army(1878)
  • Dwight L. Moody. President of Chicago YMCA, Bible studies, prayers, wanted to redeem souls and reform character of people. reject SD and SG

12. Public Education

  • Idust. and urbanization=need more educated workers.
  • 1870= 6,500,000 children in school,
  • 1900= 17,300,000
  • At schools knowledge about American culture (Americanization). Helped immigrants assimilate but immigrants might forget own cultural traditions

13. Settlement Houses

  • middleclass residents in poor neighborhoods lived with and helped poor residents (mostly immigrants)
  • Hot lunches, English lessons, medical care
  • Jane Addams Hull House in Chicago

14. Education

  • Morrill Land Grand Act: federal land given to state for purpose of making agricultural and mechanical colleges.
  • Private colleges gave women edu.
  • Booker T. Washington founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama (1881) because Africans did not have equal edu opportunities

15. Education

  • Public libraries made edu. available but like schools hard for rural people to have access
  • Andrew Carnegie donated millions to construct libraries
  • LAST SLIDE!!! Whoot Whoot!!

16. Homework

  • Read the Profiles in History section on Page 269 and explain which man ( Booker T. Washington or George Washington Carver) made a bigger impact in society.
  • Minimum 3 sentences.

17. Politics and Reform Rachel Miller & Angie Ng 18. Spoils System (Patronage)

  • Gov. jobs were given to supporters of the winning party
  • Americans thought it corrupted the gov. & stopped lawmakers from addressing nations issues
  • Repub. Pres. Hayes fights patronage
    • Appoints Halfbreeds to replace Stalwarts
        • Halfbreeds = Republican reformers
        • Stalwarts = local bosses of republican political machines
  • Despite arguments, Republicans nominate James A. Garfield (Halfbreed) for president & Chester A. Arthur (Stalwart) for vice-president.

19. Assassination of Pres.J.A.G.

  • Killed by Charles Guiteau, a Stalwart
    • Believed that w/ Garfield dead, he would unite the Republican Party
  • Congress responds withPendleton Act
    • Civil service system where candidates are appointed based on examinations
    • 14,000 jobs (1/10 of total) resulted
    • Started to end the spoils system.

20. Political Deadlock

  • Republican advantages
    • New England, Midwest, big businesses
    • Senate
  • Democrat advantages
    • South w/ large Catholic & immigration populations
    • House of Reps
  • Twice during 1877-1896, a candidate lost popular vote, but won election b/c still received all electoral votes in states
  • Republicans & Democrats cant agree on issues= cant pass laws that helped economy

21. Election of 1884

  • (Dem) NY Gov. Grover Cleveland vs. (Rep) James G. Blaine, former House of Reps. Speaker
    • Blaine = Credit Mobilizer Scandal
    • Cleveland = Bachelor, but fathered a child 10 yrs. earlier
  • Because Cleveland admitted the rumor was true, he earned RESPECT.
  • Blaine lost several votes due to:
    • Muguwumps that liked Clevelands honesty
    • Not defending the Irish Catholics
    • The Prohibition Party Candidate promised to ban alcohol sales

22. Commerce, Trusts, and Tariffs

  • Greater industrialization + growth labor movement = strikes + worried Americans
  • Standard Oil negotiatesrebates(partial refund) and lower rates b/c of volume of goods they shipped
  • Gov. believed they shouldnt meddle with the problem
  • Public pressure= Interstate Commerce Act
  • 1 stfederal law designed regulate interstate commerce
  • House of reps (democrats) want pass more tariffs but Senate (republicans) reject proposal

23. Republicans Regain Power

  • Election of 1888: Cleveland vs. Benjamin Harrison(repub)
  • Harrison lost popular vote but got electoral votes
    • Republican control + both houses Congress + White House
  • McKinley Tariff passed (covered fed. Revenue & transformed nations budget supplies into budget deficit)

24. Unrest in Rural America

  • Farmers produced more crops, but prices lowered
  • High tariffs increased cost of manufactured goods that farmers needed
    • Farmers struggle to sell crops overseas
    • Had no hope in both parties to help
  • Embracepopulism:increasing farmers political power

25. Currency

  • To help Union War, US Treasury issued millions of dollars ingreenbacks(cant exchange for gold and silver)
  • More currency + no rise in goods for sale= inflation
  • Post-civil war currency: greenbacks, gold, silver, national bank notes
    • Fed. Gov. stopped printing greenbacks to pay off bonds
    • 1885: stopped making silver coins
  • Deflation: increase in value and decrease of prices
    • Farmers didnt like this