Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Objectives Identify the problems in...

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Transcript of Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Objectives Identify the problems in...

  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Objectives Identify the problems in American politics during the Gilded Age. Describe the political reforms the Progressives supported. Explain how journalists contributed to reform efforts.
  • Slide 2
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Terms and People civil service system that includes most government jobs, except elected positions, the judiciary, and the military primary election in which voters, rather than party leaders, choose their partys candidate recall process by which people may vote to remove an elected official from office initiative process that allows voters to put a bill before a state legislature
  • Slide 3
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Terms and People (continued) referendum way for people to vote directly on a proposed new law graduated income tax method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income muckraker term for a crusading journalist
  • Slide 4
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Americans were worried, and becoming angry. How did reformers try to end government corruption and limit the influence of big business? For many Americans, the growing cities with electricity and skyscrapers began to seem hollow. Slums, diseases, and poverty also were growing.
  • Slide 5
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform The years following the Civil War were marked by excitement and change as amazing new inventions transformed daily life. Beneath the glittering surface of American society, however, were serious problems. The Gilded Age 18701890
  • Slide 6
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Americans were outraged and demanded changes to limit the power of monopolies and corruption in the government. Some of the business leaders who built giant corporations abused their power. Politicians accepted bribes and did not appoint the most capable people to positions.
  • Slide 7
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform The press played a key role in exposing corruption. What the reporters revealed shocked Americans and stirred public opinion. Muckrakers launched investigations into dishonest business dealings and corrupt government officials.
  • Slide 8
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Jacob Riis revealed shocking images of dangerous conditions in slums and tenements.
  • Slide 9
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair, described, in grisly detail, the workings of the meatpacking industry. Public outcry over the book led to passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.
  • Slide 10
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Ida Tarbell targeted the unfair practices of big business, focusing on the oil industry and John D. Rockefeller. Tarbells writing led to new demands to limit the power of the trusts.
  • Slide 11
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform In 1890, Congress passed a law to regulate the ruthless business tactics of the trusts. Sherman Antitrust Act Prohibited businesses from trying to limit or destroy competition While the act was meant to limit the power of big businesses, it was actually used against labor unions.
  • Slide 12
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Interstate Commerce Act In 1887, another law was aimed at ending the unfair practices of the railroads. Prohibited practices such as rebates Set up the Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee railroads
  • Slide 13
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Government corruption was especially hard to control in the nations cities. Powerful city bosses like New Yorks William Tweed grew rich accepting bribes and other payoffs. Americans also demanded action be taken against dishonest government officials. Cartoon of Boss Tweed as greedy giant
  • Slide 14
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Despite bosses corruption, they were loved by the poor. Bosses would hand out turkeys for Thanksgiving and coal during the winter. In exchange, the poor would vote for the boss or the bosss candidate.
  • Slide 15
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Corruption was also a problem at the national level. Much of the government corruption of the time stemmed from the spoils system. Presidents gave jobs to people as a reward for political support. Some were qualified; many were not. Spoils system
  • Slide 16
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform The spoils system was out of control. Vice President Chester A. Arthur had benefitted from the spoils system. But when he became president, he worked to reform the system. President James Garfield was killed by a disappointed office seeker.
  • Slide 17
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform In 1883, President Arthur signed a law requiring that government jobs be filled on the basis of merit. Pendleton Act Created the Civil Service Commission Jobs would go to those scoring the highest on civil service exams
  • Slide 18
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Widespread corruption led to a surge in support for the Progressive movement. Many other states followed Wisconsins lead, passing new laws to protect the public interest. Supported primary elections of candidates Commissioned experts to solve problems Governor Robert La Follette introduced a series of Progressive reforms known as the Wisconsin Idea.
  • Slide 19
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Progressive reforms also resulted in two new amendments to the Constitution, both ratified in 1913. Sixteenth Amendment Gave Congress the power to pass an income tax Resulted in the graduated income tax
  • Slide 20
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Seventeenth Amendment Required that senators be elected directly by the people, rather than by state legislatures Progressives wanted to end the bribery of state legislatures.
  • Slide 21
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Many Progressive reforms put more power in the hands of voters.
  • Slide 22
  • Chapter 19 Section 1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform Section Review Know It, Show It QuizQuickTake Quiz