16.2 Gilded Age Politics

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Transcript of 16.2 Gilded Age Politics

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    Gilded

    AgePolitics

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    1. A Two-Party

    Stalemate

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    Two-Party Balance

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    2. Intense

    VoterLoyalty

    to theTwo Major

    Political

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    3. Well-Defined Voting

    BlocsDemocraticBloc

    Republican

    Bloc

    Whitesoutherners(preservationofwhitesupremacy)

    Catholics

    Recentimmigrants(esp. Jews)

    Urban workingpoor (pro-

    Northern whites(pro-business)

    AfricanAmericans

    Northern

    Protestants Old WASPs

    (supportfor anti-immigrant

    laws) Most of the

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    4. Very Laissez Faire

    Federal Govt. From 1870-1900 Govt. did

    verylittle domestically.

    Main duties of the federal govt.:

    Deliver the mail.

    Maintain a national military.

    Collect taxes & tariffs.

    Conduct a foreign policy.

    Exception administer theannual

    Civil War veterans pension.

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    5. The Presidency as a

    Symbolic Office Party bosses ruled. Presidents should

    avoid offending any

    factions within theirown party.

    The President justdoled out federal jobs.

    1865 53,000 people worked for the federalgovt.

    1890 166,000

    Senator Roscoe

    Conkling

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    1880 Presidential Election:

    RepublicansHalfBreeds StalwartsSen. James G. Blaine Sen. RoscoeConkling

    (Maine) (New York)

    James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur(VP)

    compromise

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    1880 Presidential Election:

    Democrats

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    Inspecting the Democratic

    Curiosity Shop

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    1880 Presidential

    Election

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    1881: Garfield

    Assassinated!

    Charles Guiteau:I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur isPresident now!

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    Chester A. Arthur:

    The Fox in the Chicken Coop?

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    Pendleton Act (1883)

    Civil Service Act.

    The Magna Carta of

    civil service reform.

    1883 14,000 out of117,000 federal govt.jobs became civilservice exam

    positions. 1900 100,000 out

    of200,000 civil servicefederal govt. jobs.

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    Republican Mugwumps Reformers who wouldnt re-

    nominateChester A. Arthur.

    Reform to them create adisinterested, impartial govt. run byan educated elite like themselves.

    Social Darwinists.

    Laissez faire government to them:

    Favoritism & the spoils systemseen asgovt. intervention in society.

    Their target was political

    corruption,

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    The

    MugwumpsMen may

    come and menmay go, butthe work ofreform shall

    go on forever. Will support

    Cleveland inthe

    1884 election.

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    1884 Presidential

    Election

    Grover Cleveland James

    Blaine * DEM REP

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    1884 Presidential

    Election

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    Clevelands First Term

    The Veto Governor from NewYork.

    First Democratic elected since1856.

    A public office is a public trust! His laissez-faire presidency:

    Opposed bills to assist the poor

    aswell as the rich.

    Vetoed over 200 special pensionbills

    for Civil War veterans!

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    Bravo, Seor Clevelando!

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    The Tariff Issue

    After the Civil War, Congress raisedtariffs to protect new US industries.

    Big business wanted to continuethis;

    consumers did not. 1885 tariffs earned the US $100

    mil.in surplus!

    Mugwumps opposed it WHY??? President Clevelands view on

    tariffs????

    Tariffs became a major issue in the1888

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    Filing the Rough

    Edges

    Tariff of 1888

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    1888 Presidential Election

    Grover Cleveland Benjamin

    Harrison*

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    Coming Out for Harrison

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    The Smallest Specimen

    Yet

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    Corruption on a National Level

    Political cartoonists likeThomas Nast, broughtthe corruption of the

    National Government tothe fore through theirhumorous portrayals ofimportant politicalfigures.

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    The Cartoons of Thomas Nast

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    The Cartoons of Thomas Nast

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    The Cartoons of Thomas Nast

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    The Cartoons of

    Thomas Nast

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    The Cartoons of Thomas Nast

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    1888 Presidential

    Election

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    Disposing the

    Surplus

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    Changing Public

    Opinion Americans wanted the federal govt. to

    dealwith growing soc. & eco. problems & tocurbthe power of the trusts:

    Interstate Commerce Act 1887 Sherman Antitrust Act 1890

    McKinley Tariff 1890

    Based on the theory that prosperityflowed directly from protectionism.

    Increased already high rates another4%!

    Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890(even

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    1892 Presidential Election

    Grover Cleveland Benjamin

    Harrison*

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    1892 Presidential

    Election

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    Cleveland Loses Support

    Fast! The only President to serve two

    non-consecutive terms.

    Blamed for the 1893 Panic.

    Defended the gold standard. Used federal troops in the 1894

    Pullman strike.

    Refused to sign the Wilson-GormanTariff of 1894.

    Repealed the Sherman Silver

    P h A t