National Politics in the Gilded Age 1877-1900. Characteristics of Gilded Age Politics GA Politics:...

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Transcript of National Politics in the Gilded Age 1877-1900. Characteristics of Gilded Age Politics GA Politics:...

  • Slide 1
  • National Politics in the Gilded Age 1877-1900
  • Slide 2
  • Characteristics of Gilded Age Politics GA Politics: Political Stalemate Complacency Conservatism Causes: Political ideology of the time = limited government Campaign tactics = dont alienate voters Party patronage: get and stay in office Laissez-faire economics Social Darwinism Republicans: wave the bloody shirt Democrats: states rights, limited government Give jobs to those who are faithful
  • Slide 3
  • The Four First Gilded Age Presidents President Hayes (1876) Ended Reconstruction Was a temporary reformer (wife, Lemonade Lucy, cut off liquor in the White House) Vetoed Chinese immigration restriction President Hayes (1876) Ended Reconstruction Was a temporary reformer (wife, Lemonade Lucy, cut off liquor in the White House) Vetoed Chinese immigration restriction President Cleveland (1884) Created a new Civil Service System Signed the Interstate Commerce Act Regulated railroad fees Passed the Dawes Act Distributed land to individual American Indians President Cleveland (1884) Created a new Civil Service System Signed the Interstate Commerce Act Regulated railroad fees Passed the Dawes Act Distributed land to individual American Indians President Arthur (1881) Reformed civil service Approved the development of the Navy Questioned high protective tariffs President Arthur (1881) Reformed civil service Approved the development of the Navy Questioned high protective tariffs President Garfield (1880) Halfbreeds v. Stalwarts sought political jobs Was shot by a deranged stalwart office-seeker. President Garfield (1880) Halfbreeds v. Stalwarts sought political jobs Was shot by a deranged stalwart office-seeker.
  • Slide 4
  • Three Political Issues of the Gilded Age Civil Service Reform The public was outraged at Garfields assassination. The Pendleton Act created the Civil Service commission and awarded jobs based on performance on an examination. Politicians adapted by depending on the wealthy instead of supporters. Civil Service Reform The public was outraged at Garfields assassination. The Pendleton Act created the Civil Service commission and awarded jobs based on performance on an examination. Politicians adapted by depending on the wealthy instead of supporters. The Tariff Issue During the war, high tariffs protected industry. Some Americans disliked the high tariffs: They raised consumer prices. Other nations taxed American farm products. Farmers lost a share in the market & didnt sell all their corn and wheat. Surpluses meant lower farm profits. The Tariff Issue During the war, high tariffs protected industry. Some Americans disliked the high tariffs: They raised consumer prices. Other nations taxed American farm products. Farmers lost a share in the market & didnt sell all their corn and wheat. Surpluses meant lower farm profits. Protective tariffs are taxes on foreign-made goods; they keep people buying American-made products. Protective tariffs are taxes on foreign-made goods; they keep people buying American-made products. The Money Question: Should the government make more money available?? Debtors and farmers wanted to borrow at low interest and pay off loans easily. Many thought the gold standard (restricted money) had caused the Panic of 1873; they wanted greenbacks (paper money) and unlimited silver coins. Opponents felt dollars backed by gold would hold their value against inflation. The Specie Resumption Act (1875) withdrew greenbacks that had been issued during the Civil War. Farmers associated them with prosperity. Others felt greenbacks violated natural law. The Greenback Party supported paper money; their goal was to increase the amount of money in circulation. They elected 14 members to Congress in 1878. The Crime of 1873: Congress also stopped coining silver; when silver was discovered in Nevada, many demanded it be used to increase the money supply The Bland-Allison Act allowed limited coinage of silver each month. Farmers pressed for unlimited coinage of silver. The Money Question: Should the government make more money available?? Debtors and farmers wanted to borrow at low interest and pay off loans easily. Many thought the gold standard (restricted money) had caused the Panic of 1873; they wanted greenbacks (paper money) and unlimited silver coins. Opponents felt dollars backed by gold would hold their value against inflation. The Specie Resumption Act (1875) withdrew greenbacks that had been issued during the Civil War. Farmers associated them with prosperity. Others felt greenbacks violated natural law. The Greenback Party supported paper money; their goal was to increase the amount of money in circulation. They elected 14 members to Congress in 1878. The Crime of 1873: Congress also stopped coining silver; when silver was discovered in Nevada, many demanded it be used to increase the money supply The Bland-Allison Act allowed limited coinage of silver each month. Farmers pressed for unlimited coinage of silver.
  • Slide 5
  • President Harrison (1888) Felt lower tariffs would ruin business prosperity. Republican Billion Dollar Congress passed: McKinley Tariff of 1890 (48% tax on foreign products) Sherman Antitrust Act Sherman Silver Purchase Act (increased silver coinage a little) Raised Civil War pensions X a bill protecting African American voting rights. President Harrison (1888) Felt lower tariffs would ruin business prosperity. Republican Billion Dollar Congress passed: McKinley Tariff of 1890 (48% tax on foreign products) Sherman Antitrust Act Sherman Silver Purchase Act (increased silver coinage a little) Raised Civil War pensions X a bill protecting African American voting rights. President Cleveland again (1892) The Panic of 1893 was the worst and longest depressions thus far. The stock market crashed because of over-speculation and overbuilding of railroads. 20% unemployment Cleveland, who supported the gold standard was unpopular because he: Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act to try to prevent the gold reserve to drop too low. Borrowed $65 million in gold from JP Morgan Crushed the Pullman strike. Arrested men at the Coxeys army march (unemployed men demanded a public works program) The Democrats more popular action was: The William-Gorman Tariff (1894) A moderate reduction in taxes; 2% income tax on the wealthy. President Cleveland again (1892) The Panic of 1893 was the worst and longest depressions thus far. The stock market crashed because of over-speculation and overbuilding of railroads. 20% unemployment Cleveland, who supported the gold standard was unpopular because he: Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act to try to prevent the gold reserve to drop too low. Borrowed $65 million in gold from JP Morgan Crushed the Pullman strike. Arrested men at the Coxeys army march (unemployed men demanded a public works program) The Democrats more popular action was: The William-Gorman Tariff (1894) A moderate reduction in taxes; 2% income tax on the wealthy. Coins Financial School by William H. Harvey Taught Americans that their problems were caused by rich bankers Taught that prosperity would return if the government coined unlimited silver. Coins Financial School by William H. Harvey Taught Americans that their problems were caused by rich bankers Taught that prosperity would return if the government coined unlimited silver. Growth of Discontent
  • Slide 6
  • The Omaha Platform Political Goals: Direct election of senators Voters should have the ability to create initiatives that will become state laws Economic Goals: Unlimited coinage of silver Graduated income tax Public ownership of railroads Government-owned telegraph and telephone systems Loans and federal warehouses for farmers to store their crops An 8-hour work day for industrial workers The Omaha Platform Political Goals: Direct election of senators Voters should have the ability to create initiatives that will become state laws Economic Goals: Unlimited coinage of silver Graduated income tax Public ownership of railroads Government-owned telegraph and telephone systems Loans and federal warehouses for farmers to store their crops An 8-hour work day for industrial workers The Populists were revolutionary because: They attacked laissez-faire economics. They formed an alliance between poor whites and blacks. In 1892, the Populist Candidate (Weaver) won 1 million votes, but ultimately, the Populists lost in the South and failed to attract urban industrial workers. The Populists were revolutionary because: They attacked laissez-faire economics. They formed an alliance between poor whites and blacks. In 1892, the Populist Candidate (Weaver) won 1 million votes, but ultimately, the Populists lost in the South and failed to attract urban industrial workers. Agrarian discontent was growing in the South and West. Farmers Alliances led to the formation of a political party. Delegates met in Omaha, Nebraska to establish their platform.
  • Slide 7
  • Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryant (D) Famous cross of gold speech: You shall not crucify man upon a cross of gold made him famous overnight. Platform: Favored unlimited coinage of silver; thus supported by Populists. Campaign: Nationwide crusade Energy, positive attitude, great speeches. Convinced farmers of the benefits of silver William McKinley (R) Platform: Favored high tariffs; seen as a friend of labor Promised a strong, industrial nation Promised to uphold the gold standard. Campaign: Raised money from business leaders Mark Hanna used the money to sell McKinley to the mass media. v. A rise in the price of wheat Employers threatening workers to vote for McKinley Led to McKinleys victory A rise in the price of wheat Employers threaten