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665 Abdera, 492, 500 Abini hoard, 102 Abruzzo, 637 Abul, 307, 491 Abydos royal tomb Uj, 116 Seti I temple, 345 acculturation, 11, 12, 232, 233, 235, 249, 256, 257, 300, 454, 516 acephalous cohesion, 96, 106 industry, 98 system, 76 Achaea, 170, 186, 187 Achaean colony, 235 Achaemenid period, 389 Achaemenid royal tombs, 390 Achaia. See Achaea Achakar, 563 Acinipo, 493 Acquarossa, 443, 444, 446 adornment, 339, 344, 625 body, 409, 578 personal, 558, 559 Adra River, 492 Adria, 646 Adriatic, 1, 157–72 coast, 60, 75, 165 exchange system, 75 Italy, 79, 82, 636, 644 Aegean, 1, 10, 13, 14, 18, 20, 26, 60, 61, 63, 66, 80, 145, 147, 157–72, 163, 178–92, 202, 340–44, 345, 417, 636, 650, 651, 656, 659, 660 Aegeans, 201, 356, 357, 571, 573 bronzes, 201 chronology, 420 craftsmen, 75 east, 209, 235 migration, 253 prehistory, 27, 178, 181, 184, 186 prospectors, 62, 65 south, 530 states, 162 traders, 166 tradition, 346 -type ship, 202, 204 Aegean import Aeolian islands, 88 Cyprus, 578, 630 Egypt, 356 Sardinia, 98–100 Sicily, 76 south Italy, 234 Thapsos, 104 Aegean pottery imitation Italy, 99 Levant, 254, 258 Sardinia, 99, 104 Sicily, 84, 86 south Italy, 235 Aegina, 27, 30, 163, 189 Saronic hegemony, 164 Temple of Aphaia, 295 Affula, 127 Afyon, 387 Agde, 510 agency, 17, 18, 65, 112, 140, 158, 160, 162, 286, 318, 326, 327, 328, 329, 353, 384, 399, 400, 434, 454, 598, 635 aer, 232, 233 Aghia Photia. See Agia Photia Aghios Kyrillos, 533, 534 Agia Kyriaki, 322 Agia Photia, 324, 530, 533, 534 Agia Triada, 329, 654, 655, 657, 658 Agios Charalambos, 331 agriculture, 1, 47, 49, 82, 146, 150, 151, 187, 331, 428, 471, 475, 477, 478, 480, 492, 493, 497, 502, 612, 630, 637, 638 agricultural produce, 491, 492, 495 cereal, 47, 115, 169, 542 innovation, 115, 116, 149, 150, 201, 205, 207, 462 intensification, 148, 406, 407, 427, 463, 500, 514 tools, 201, 207, 462, 467, 484 Agrigento, 63, 66, 85, 87 Agullana, 457, 461 Ahhijawa, 186 Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet tomb, 361 Aitolia, 186, 187 Aizonai, 389 Akarnania, 186, 187 Akko, 204, 254 Akrotiri, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 163 Akrotiri (Thera), 31 Al Mina, 184, 191, 493 alabastron Mycenaean, 98, 100 Alaca Höyük, 345, 346, 348 elites, 147 royal tombs, 147, 148, 149 Alagarrobo River, 492 Alagón River, 496 Alalakh, 345, 346 Alalia, 309 battle of, 268, 280 Alambra, Mouttes, 623 Alarcón, 311, 542 Alashiya, 356 Alassa Palaeotaverna, 626 Pano Mandilares, 412, 630 Alba, 644 Albania, 160, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170 tumulus, 169 Alboran Sea, 1 Alcácer do Sal, 491, 495 Alcalá del Río, 495, 500 Alcaria do Pocinho, 559 alcohol, 143, 242, 308, 461 Aldovesta, 308, 457 INDEX www.cambridge.org © in this web service Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-76688-3 - The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean Edited by A. Bernard Knapp and Peter Van Dommelen Index More information

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  • 665

    Abdera, 492 , 500 Abini hoard, 102 Abruzzo, 637 Abul, 307 , 491 Abydos

    royal tomb Uj, 116 Seti I temple, 345

    acculturation, 11 , 12 , 232 , 233 , 235 , 249 , 256 , 257 , 300 , 454 , 516 acephalous

    cohesion, 96 , 106 industry, 98 system, 76

    Achaea, 170 , 186 , 187 Achaean colony, 235

    Achaemenid period, 389 Achaemenid royal tombs, 390 Achaia. See Achaea Achakar, 563 Acinipo, 493 Acquarossa, 443 , 444 , 446 adornment, 339 , 344 , 625

    body, 409 , 578 personal, 558 , 559

    Adra River, 492 Adria, 646 Adriatic, 1 , 15772

    coast, 60 , 75 , 165 exchange system, 75 Italy, 79 , 82 , 636 , 644

    Aegean, 1 , 10 , 13 , 14 , 18 , 20 , 26 , 60 , 61 , 63 , 66 , 80 , 145 , 147 , 15772 , 163 , 17892 , 202 , 34044 , 345 , 417 , 636 , 650 , 651 , 656 , 659 , 660

    Aegeans, 201 , 356 , 357 , 571 , 573 bronzes, 201 chronology, 420 craftsmen, 75 east, 209 , 235 migration, 253 prehistory, 27 , 178 , 181 , 184 , 186 prospectors, 62 , 65 south, 530 states, 162 traders, 166 tradition, 346 -type ship, 202 , 204

    Aegean import Aeolian islands, 88 Cyprus, 578 , 630 Egypt, 356 Sardinia, 98100 Sicily, 76 south Italy, 234 Thapsos, 104

    Aegean pottery imitation Italy, 99 Levant, 254 , 258 Sardinia, 99 , 104 Sicily, 84 , 86 south Italy, 235

    Aegina, 27 , 30 , 163 , 189 Saronic hegemony, 164 Temple of Aphaia, 295

    Aff ula, 127 Afyon, 387 Agde, 510 agency, 17 , 18 , 65 , 112 , 140 , 158 , 160 , 162 , 286 , 318 , 326 , 327 , 328 , 329 ,

    353 , 384 , 399 , 400 , 434 , 454 , 598 , 635 agg er , 232 , 233 Aghia Photia. See Agia Photia Aghios Kyrillos, 533 , 534 Agia Kyriaki, 322 Agia Photia, 324 , 530 , 533 , 534 Agia Triada, 329 , 654 , 655 , 657 , 658 Agios Charalambos, 331 agriculture, 1 , 47 , 49 , 82 , 146 , 150 , 151 , 187 , 331 , 428 , 471 , 475 , 477 , 478 ,

    480 , 492 , 493 , 497 , 502 , 612 , 630 , 637 , 638 agricultural produce, 491 , 492 , 495 cereal, 47 , 115 , 169 , 542 innovation, 115 , 116 , 149 , 150 , 201 , 205 , 207 , 462 intensifi cation, 148 , 406 , 407 , 427 , 463 , 500 , 514 tools, 201 , 207 , 462 , 467 , 484

    Agrigento, 63 , 66 , 85 , 87 Agullana, 457 , 461 Ahhijawa , 186 Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet tomb, 361 Aitolia, 186 , 187 Aizonai, 389 Akarnania, 186 , 187 Akko, 204 , 254 Akrotiri, 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 163 Akrotiri (Thera), 31 Al Mina, 184 , 191 , 493 alabastron

    Mycenaean, 98 , 100 Alaca H y k, 345 , 346 , 348

    elites, 147 royal tombs, 147 , 148 , 149

    Alagarrobo River, 492 Alag n River, 496 Alalakh, 345 , 346 Alalia, 309

    battle of, 268 , 280 Alambra, Mouttes , 623 Alarc n, 311 , 542 Alashiya, 356 Alassa

    Palaeotaverna , 626 Pano Mandilares , 412 , 630

    Alba, 644 Albania, 160 , 164 , 165 , 166 , 167 , 168 , 169 , 170

    tumulus, 169 Alboran Sea, 1 Alc cer do Sal, 491 , 495 Alcal del R o, 495 , 500 Alcaria do Pocinho, 559 alcohol, 143 , 242 , 308 , 461 Aldovesta, 308 , 457

    INDEX

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  • Index

    666

    Alentejo, 488 , 491 , 495 , 500 , 502 Alto, 556 Baixo, 556

    Aleppo, 348 Alfarrobeira, 556 Algarve, 556 Algeria, 249 , 555 Alicante, 540 alloy, 146 , 148

    bronze, 46 copper-arsenic, 146 copper-tin, 146 lead-copper-tin, 102 silver-copper, 147 silver-copper-gold, 147 silver-tin, 145 tin, 44 zinc-silver, 147

    Almanzora River, 492 Almer a, 540 Almogrebe, 492 , 495 Almu car, 492 , 493 Alorda Park, 462 , 465 Alto Alentejo, 556 Amalek, 260 Amasya, 390 Amathus, 270 , 659 Ambarderesi valley, 379 , 381 amber, 63 , 84 , 86 , 98 , 99 , 104 , 169 , 201 , 205 , 270 , 597

    Allumiere, 99 , 103 Baltic, 63 , 96 , 166 , 207 , 460 bead, 102103 simetite, 76 , 80 , 82 Tiryns, 99 , 103

    Ambrakia, 186 , 188 Amelia, 446 Amenhotep I, 361 Ammianus Marcellinus, 187 Ammon, 252 , 260 Amnisos, 651 , 654 , 655 , 656 , 658 Amorgos, 17 , 28 Amun

    High Priest of, 352 , 353 , 362 Temple, 362

    Amuq, 115 , 12225 , 126 , 127 , 253 Amurru, 184 , 356 , 357

    territory, 361 anaktoron , 90 , 242 , 244 , 245 Anapo (River) valley, 76 , 90 Anatolia, 25 , 32 , 61 , 80 , 114 , 120 , 131 , 13952 , 208 , 341 , 345 , 346 , 37991

    Anatolian infl uence, 26 , 27 , 29 chronology, 112 , 140 , 161 coast, 660 east, 111 , 120 , 127 , 129 , 132 Euphrates valley, 111 , 112 , 114 , 115 , 12025 , 390 rock-cut tomb, 382 trade network, 29 , 114 urbanism, 133 west, 126

    Anatolianising, 2830 , 139 , 142 , 145 , 151 ancestor, 147 , 323 , 330 , 379 , 382 , 384 , 388 , 580 , 587 , 589 , 590 , 597 ,

    620 , 622 ancestral authority, 627 , 628 ancestral hero, 482 , 655 , 658 cult, 333 , 593 , 640 heroic, 207 , 475 landscape of, 562 living, 587 , 593 , 594 , 595 , 596 , 598 , 600 mythical, 277 veneration, 151 , 635

    Andalusia, 202 , 203 , 204 , 307 , 308 , 310 , 471 , 491 , 493 , 561 coast, 454 west, 556

    Andobales, 466 andron , 480 , 514

    Andros, 17 , 34 Anguilla cemetery, 91 aniconism, 61415 animal husbandry, 4750 , 407 , 623 , 630 , 637 Annales School, 1 , 157 , 158 , 252 Anseresa, 466 Anta das Casas do Canal, 556 Antequera, 492 Apennine culture

    proto-, 76 settlement, 88 sub-, 66 , 77 , 89

    Apennines, 230 , 231 , 239 , 443 , 448 , 585 Apesokari II, 534 Aphrates, 660 Aphrodisias, 28 , 149 apoikia , 160 , 231 , 235 , 237 , 301 Apollo, 285 , 294 , 646 Apollodoros, 287 Apollonia, 160 Apulia, 67 , 79 , 80 , 165 , 186 , 242

    coast, 76 tombs, 231

    Arad, 609 Aramaic alphabet, 181 Archanes, 321 , 323 , 326 , 534 archipelago, 25 , 77

    Aegean, 7 , 13 , 15 , 2535 , 191 , 658 Aeolian, 58 , 63 , 66 , 7493 , 165 Balearic, 4052 Cycladic, 17 , 18 , 163 Egadi, 58 , 76 Maltese, 13 , 58 , 59 , 61 , 66 , 75 Pelagic, 58 Sicilian, 58

    Ardea, 440 , 643 Colle della Noce, 644

    Ardila River, 502 Arediou, Vouppes , 630 Arenalet de Son Colom, 47 , 48 Arganthonios, 489 Argaric. See El Argar culture Argive pottery import

    Motya, 225 Pithekoussai, 225

    Argolid, 14 , 31 , 164 , 342 , 344 Argos, 578

    Argive pottery, 184 aristocracy, 106 , 171 , 235 , 244 , 274 , 277 , 279 , 461 , 463 , 465 , 495 , 496 ,

    497 , 501 aristocratic network, 659 aristocrats, 587 , 594 , 661 eastern Mediterranean, 166 Etruscan, 591 , 594 , 597 lifestyle, 651 princely, 491 rural, 501

    Aristotle, 187 , 205 , 650 Arles, 510 , 511 , 514 Arno, 585 Arquet, 510 Arslantepe, 112 , 114 , 120 , 123 , 125 , 126 , 132

    elite, 115 , 133 Royal Tomb, 120 , 122 , 123 , 125 , 132 , 133

    art, 18 , 285 , 286 , 28794 , 295 , 318 , 337 , 353 , 360 , 362 , 368 , 374 , 594 , 609 , 612 , 615 , 661

    artistic exchange, 340 fi gurative, 655 heroic scenes, 295 , 625 , 626 , 655 , 661 historical approach, 338 , 381 , 383 object, 338

    artifi cial cave sanctuary, 642 artifi cial caves. See rock-cut tomb Arzawa, 356 Ashdod, 256

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  • Index

    667

    Ashkelon, 254 , 256 ashlar, 87 , 90 , 327 , 331 , 337 , 339 , 344 , 403 , 501 , 514 , 516 , 627 , 628 , 656 ,

    657 , 658 Asia Minor, 29 , 205

    coast, 27 , 28 , 29 shekel , 201 , 205 , 206 standard, 208 western, 189 , 191

    askoid jug, 105 , 273 , 275 , 302 Aslanta s tomb, 388 assimilation, 131 , 133 , 242 , 256 Assiros Toumba, 184 Assyria, 196 , 346

    A ur, 388 Assyrian domination, 575 Assyrian elite burial ritual, 578 Assyrian Empire, 383 , 384 Assyrian infl uence, 578 Assyrian king, 385 Assyrian rock relief, 380 , 381 , 382 , 385 Assyrian state, 379

    Astarte, 493 , 575 Asterousia Mountains, 528 , 530 Atalaia, 556 Ategua, 495 Athens, 189 , 658

    Acropolis, 279 , 288 , 655 , 656 Agora, 181 , 182 , 185 Athena sanctuary, 656 Kerameikos, 182 warrior grave, 183

    Athienou, 285 , 292 , 628 , 629 Bamboulari tis Koukounninas , 626

    Atlantic, 104 , 205 , 302 , 305 , 488 coast, 46 , 67 , 205 , 216 , 308 , 488 , 489 , 495 -Mediterranean trade, 490 trade, 216

    Attic import Crete, 656 , 659 Iberia, 208 , 481 Sardinia, 278 Sicily, 219 , 223 south Italy, 244 , 245

    Attica, 28 , 31 , 186 , 208 , 587 Attic black-fi gure pottery, 245 , 288 Attic pottery, 293 Attic red-fi gure pottery, 288

    Aubet, Maria Eugenia, 196 , 225 , 492 , 493 Augusta, 63 Aulis, 186 Ausetani, 466 Ausonian, 66 , 77 , 8890

    bronze, 86 culture, 9293 invasion, 88 , 92 metal industry, 92 , 93 northern, 66

    Auza, Libia, 302 Avaris. See Tell ed-Daba Aveiro River, 207 awl, 548 , 549 , 558 , 559 Ayia Irini, Cyprus, 294 , 627 , 628 , 630 Ayia Irini, Kea, 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 ,

    33 , 34 Ayia Triada. See Agia Triada Ayios Andreas, 33 , 34 Ayios Photios sanctuary, 285 Aznalc llar, 197 , 302 , 490 Azoria, 427 , 431

    Bab ed-Dhra, 609 Bab ed-Drah, 523 Babylon, 256 , 344

    Neo-Babylonian rock relief, 381 Badajoz, 501

    Badia, 597 Ba h rija, 65 , 66 , 67

    pottery, 216 Ba h rija pottery import

    Sicily, 86 Bai es

    hoard, 207 Baixo Alentejo, 556 Bakla Tepe, 28 , 146 , 147 Bak s eyi s /Bah ss Monument, 388 Balearics, 8 , 15 , 18 , 20 , 4052 , 41 , 109 , 202 , 205 Balkan import

    Greece, 168 Balkans, 60 , 61 , 102 , 140 , 146 , 164 , 166 , 168 , 170 , 186

    balkanization, 106 , 185 chronology, 161

    Banditella spring, 641 banquet, 242 , 259 , 278 , 294 , 385 , 475 , 594 , 595

    funerary, 545 set, 201 , 242 , 245 , 275 , 596

    Baragiano, 240 , 245 Baria, 500 barley, 47 , 223 , 478 , 542 Barranc den Fabra, Amposta, 455 Barranc de G fols, 459 Basento River, 233 , 235 Bastida de les Alcusses, 474 , 475 , 476 , 479 , 484 Bay of Naples, 188 Beaker

    burial, 556 complexes, 42 objects, 556 pottery, 41 , 42 , 44 , 61 , 563 presence, 79

    beer, 116 , 117 , 129 , 308 , 461 Beiras, 206 , 491 Bel n, 502 Belmeque, 559 bench sanctuary, 653 Berzocana

    hoard, 206 Berzocana hoard, 206 Bes, 288 , 295 Beth Shean, 115 , 127 , 185 , 357 Beycesultan, 28 , 143 B ziers, 510 , 511 , 514 Big Man, 115 , 171 , 45760 , 462

    community, 454 type society, 467

    Biniai Nou 1 tomb, 42 biogeographic approach, 7 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 19 bird, 15 , 40 , 48 , 50 , 621 , 646

    decoration, 640 , 653 Birgi necropolis, 219 Bisenzio, Bisentium, 443 , 587 , 588 , 589 , 590 , 644

    Olmo Bello , 592 B s o t u n, 381 Biteli c , 167 Bithia, 278 , 279 , 280 Bo g azk y, 384

    Ni s anta s , 384 Boiotia, 186 Boljevi c a Gruda tumulus, 168 Bologna, 270 , 440 , 646 Bomarzo, 446 Bor g in-Nadur, 63 , 65 , 66

    Double Chapel, 65 pottery, 63 , 66 , 216 , 220 -style pottery, 67 temple, 65

    Bor g in-Nadur import Sicily, 84 , 86

    Borgo Panigale, 640 Botrys, 302 Bourdieu, Pierre, 299 , 317 , 400 , 445 , 585 , 587 , 599

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  • Index

    668

    bovines. See cattle boxer statue, 276 , 277 B z y k, 146 Braida di Vaglio, 244 , 245 Brand pferplatzen . See votive pyres Braudel, Fernand, 1 , 34 , 230 bread, 116 , 117 , 400 , 475 Breno, 645 Broglio de Trebisacce, 188 bronze, 44 , 64 , 157 , 180 , 182 , 183 , 188

    boat model, 279 fi gurine, 276 , 630 , 644 , 645 , 651 , 656 , 658 ingot, 201 production, 308 , 476 scrap, 181 , 207 , 308 , 457 statuette, 216 , 270 , 271 , 272 , 275 , 276 , 278 , 447 ,

    479 , 644 votive, 183 , 493 , 654 votive breastplate, 291 weapons, 87 , 90 , 91 , 209 , 563 , 637 , 639 , 659 workshop, 640

    Broodbank, Cyprian, 14 , 17 , 18 , 20 , 28 , 59 , 67 , 163 bucchero , 219 , 220 , 224 , 278 , 595 , 597 , 598 built environment, 96 , 221 , 318 , 399413 bundling, 339 , 342 , 343 , 344 , 346 , 347 burial practice. See mortuary practice burial rite. See rite, funerary Burriac, 462 , 464 , 465 Buscemi, 85 Buskett Gardens, 217 , 218 Butera, 222 Buto, 614 Byblos Temple, 202

    Ca na Costa, 42 , 51 Ca na Cotxera, 44 , 48 , 49 Cabecico Parra, 492 Cabezo de la Esperanza, 302 Cabezo de San Pedro, 302 Cabezo Redondo, 205 Cabrera, 42 Cagliari, 104 , 278 , 279 , 280 Caixa hoard, 201 Cala Blanca, 45 , 47 , 49 , 50 Cala Morell, 47 Calabria, 1 , 59 , 66 , 76 , 77 , 79 , 82 , 89 , 93 , 230 , 231 Cala as de Marmolejo, 495 Caldare, Monte S. Vincenzo, 87 Calle Puerto, 490 Caltagirone, 77 , 85 , 90 , 91 , 92 Caltanissetta, 62 , 79 Camarina, 222 Campania, 82 , 186 , 440

    coast, 62 Etruscanising centre, 594

    Campidano Plain, 100 , 104 , 277 , 278 , 279 Can Cany s, 461 Can Gallet, 46 Can Partit, 302 Can Piteu-Can Roqueta (Sabadell), 457 , 461 Canaan, 116 , 117 , 209 , 25261 , 614 , 615

    Canaanite bronze production, 258 Canaanite city-states, 253 Canaanite trading post, 202 Canaanites, 253 , 256 , 260

    Cancho Roano, 208 , 497 , 501 , 502 Cannatello, 63 , 66 , 87 , 104 Canyamel, 48 , 49 Cap de Forma, 46 , 47 Cape Gelidonya shipwreck, 202 , 204 Capo Colonna, 279 Capo Graziano, 62 , 82

    culture, 75 , 76 facies , 61 , 82 , 84 , 87 pottery, 62 , 79 , 80 , 82 settlements, 82

    Capote, 502 Cappiddazzu sanctuary, 220 Capreria, 87 Capua, 440 Caracupa, 644 Carambolo, 105 , 307 , 310 , 493 Caramoro, 544 Caramoro II, 306 Carchemish, 122 , 348 , 356 Caria, 390 Carmona, 307 , 491 , 493 , 496 , 500

    district, 500 Gandul, 495

    Carsac, Carcassonne, 507 , 508 ar s amba Fan, 140 Carteia, 500 Carthage, 67 , 105 , 106 , 216 , 220 , 221 , 224 , 225 , 267 , 273 , 278 , 280 , 302 ,

    303 , 308 , 499 , 500 Carthaginian domestic pottery, 221 Carthaginian domination, 221 Cartheginian hegemony, 489 Carthaginian infl uence, 268 Carthaginian traders, 280 Carthaginians, 109 , 467 , 488 , 500

    Carthagian import Gadir, 302

    Casa das Moinhola-3, 500 Case Pietra, 87 Casinalbo, 638 Cassibile, 66 , 77 , 92

    bronzes, 86 facies , 66

    Cassibile/Ausonian II facies , 66 Cassino, 637 Cassiterides, 491 cassiterite tin, 98 , 146 , 496 Castellet, 484 Castellet de Banyoles, 477 Castellet de Bernab , 474 , 475 , 480 , 484 Castellina del Marangone, 444 Castello, 63 Castell n Alto, 560 , 561 Castelluccio, 62 , 80 , 82

    culture, 62 , 76 , 79 facies , 61 phase, 61 , 76 pottery, 79 , 80 sites, 79

    Castels de Nages, 512 Castillejos-2, 502 Castillo de Do a Blanca, 302 , 306 , 311 , 490 , 500 castro , 501 , 502 Castro Marim, 491 C stulo, 491 , 493 Catalonia, 42 , 454 , 456 , 457 , 509 , 517 Catania, 63 , 66 , 76 , 79 , 80 , 92 Catania Barriera, 62 cattle, 40 , 42 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 81 , 82 , 148 , 149 , 169 , 428 , 431 , 460 , 476 , 478 ,

    492 , 501 , 542 , 546 , 560 , 564 , 565 , 620 , 621 , 623 , 624 , 630 , 637 sacrifi ce, 149 terracotta fi gurine, 623

    Caucasus, 111 , 114 , 120 , 121 , 122 , 126 , 129 , 131 , 132 , 139 Caucasian infl uence, 120 Caucasian people, 121 Caucasian-style metal, 123 , 132 southern, 120

    Cave of the Treasure, 611 , 613 Cazzago Brabbia, 637 central place, 438 , 440 , 442 , 495 , 500

    theory, 441 centre (core) and periphery, 111 , 112 , 116 , 120 , 157 , 158 , 159 , 162 , 201 ,

    249 , 307 , 437 , 438 , 439 , 440 , 489 cereals, 47 , 81 , 115 , 201 , 305 , 428 , 478 , 492 , 501 , 637 , 640 ceremonial drinking, 320 , 329 , 331 , 524 , 640 , 646 Cerro de la Encina, 547 , 557 , 560 , 561 , 562 Cerro del Prado, 492

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  • Index

    669

    Cerro del Villar, 208 , 305 , 306 , 308 , 310 , 492 , 493 Cerro do Malh o, 556 Cerro Macareno, 495 Cerro Naranja, 500 Cerro Salom n, 302 , 490 Cerveteri, 279 , 444 , 446 , 587 , 588 , 589 , 594 , 595 , 644

    Banditaccia , 593 Camera degli Alari , 598 Monte Abatone , 593 Regolini-Galassi tomb , 596 , 598 Sorbo , 593 , 598 Tomba delle Cinque Sedie , 595

    Cessetania, 465 Cetina culture, 167 , 168 , 169 , 171

    tumuli, 167 Cetina import

    Albania, 168 Greece, 168 Italy, 168 Malta, 168

    Ceuta, 307 Chalinomouri, 427 Chalkidike, 186 chamber and dromos tomb, 577 , 580 chamber tomb, 63 , 91 , 218 , 221 , 268 , 310 , 501 , 523 , 556 , 575 , 590 , 595 ,

    596 , 597 , 656 Chania, 169 , 655 Cherry, John, 14 , 15 , 50 , 171 , 187 , 441 Chichina, 560 chicken, 492 , 578 chief, 166 , 170 , 238 , 245 , 275 , 276 , 353 , 460 , 462 , 465 ,

    595 , 642 chiefdom, 63 , 86 , 92 , 171 , 320 , 327 , 441 , 495 , 635 , 638 foreign, 354 of Hatti, 354 , 356 house, 242 , 424 , 425 of Keftiu , 354 of Tunip, 354 warrior, 166

    Childe, Gordon, 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 159 , 611 Chios, 28 Chiusi, 443 , 587 , 591 , 595 Chorreras, 306 , 492 chronology

    absolute, 160 , 178 , 18486 , 191 , 196 , 489 , 636 Aegean, 420 Anatolia, 112 , 140 , 161 Balkans, 161 Crete, 26 , 161 , 321 , 420 , 526 Cycladic, 26 Egypt, 13 , 161 French Iron Age, 506 Graeco-Phoenician, 215 Greece, 26 , 161 historical, 196 Levant, 112 Montoro, 203 relative, 184 Sardinian Iron Age, 26669 south Iberian, 55658 Trebisacce, 238

    Chrysokamino, 427 , 42831 territory, 429

    Ciavolaro di Ribera (Agrigento), 79 , 80 Cierro de San Crist bal, 496 Cierro Manzanillo, 497 Cilicia, 126 , 143 , 144 , 145 , 149 , 184 , 202 , 390 , 624 Circuit of the Straits. See C rculo del estrecho C rculo del estrecho , 488 , 491 , 500 cist, 120 , 122 , 123 , 125 , 126 , 149 , 185 , 221 , 528 , 541 , 556 , 558 , 559 , 562 ,

    563 , 564 , 565 , 597 citadel, 144 , 147 , 150 , 151 , 152 , 166 , 465 Cittadella, 66 city-state, 190

    Archaic, 178 Canaanite, 253

    Etruscan, 443 , 444 , 445 Greek, 181 , 186 , 189 , 591 Levant, 360 North Syrian, 348 Syria, 126

    civilization, 3 , 7 , 11 , 12 , 111 , 112 , 116 , 118 , 157 , 187 , 231 , 320 , 373 , 399 , 650

    Classical archaeology, 3 , 109 , 178 , 181 , 184 , 186 , 215 , 249 climate, 1 , 20 , 554 , 611 , 637 Cogotas I pottery, 203 , 205 coin, 371 , 484

    Aeginetan, 655 Punic, 483

    coinage, 178 , 180 Etruscan, 201 silver, 18890

    Coldstream, Nicholas, 178 , 186 , 266 , 651 , 656 Colfi orito, 446 , 447 Coll del Moro de Gandesa, 461 Colle Madore, 222 Colle S.Mauro, 85 colonialism, 160 , 250 , 554 , 555 colonization, 32 , 90 , 10910 , 11718 , 166 , 185 , 187 , 21525 , 23045 ,

    253 , 257 , 266 , 272 , 278 , 299 , 300 , 311 , 454 , 492 , 495 , 497 , 529 , 555 , 575

    colony Achaean, 235 Corinthian, 188 Egyptian, 614 Greek, 202 , 218 , 219 , 249 Mycenaean, 64 Phoenician, 196 , 208 , 249 , 307 , 310 Rhodian, 188 Spartan, 231

    commensality, 320 , 322 , 329 , 331 , 524 , 535 , 560 embodied, 330 practices, 535 , 540 , 549 rituals, 331 , 541 , 54546 , 549

    communication, 7 , 45 , 46 , 57 , 63 , 82 , 84 , 127 , 131 , 132 , 133 , 145 , 152 , 216 , 219 , 225 , 230 , 332 , 388 , 400 , 442 , 447 , 488 , 587 , 622

    (exchange) route, 446 , 482 , 626 , 654 device, 621 network, 133 , 152 nodes, 157 symbolic, 299 , 606

    community, 18 , 129 , 131 , 232 , 240 , 245 , 322 , 344 , 39596 , 399413 , 41734 , 462 , 465 , 527 , 52830 , 532 , 562 , 572 , 573 , 576 , 577 , 578 , 580 , 581 , 585 , 591 , 593 , 595 , 612 , 654

    Big Man, 454 colonial, 274 , 493 gateway, 62 , 164 identity, 222 , 275 , 348 , 396 , 425 , 446 , 580 , 622 , 653 ideology, 588 imagined, 7 , 396 , 402 kinship-based, 465 living, 523 , 535 migrant, 133 mixed, 278 status, 219 structure, 622 urban, 43748 , 524

    competition, 82 , 237 , 238 , 242 , 255 , 258 , 261 , 301 , 311 , 328 , 330 , 331 , 332 , 348 , 399 , 408 , 413 , 459 , 460 , 499 , 573 , 575 , 577 , 594 , 600 , 622

    competitive display, 625 elite, 328 , 575 , 576 , 579 , 580 , 594 , 598 , 659 entrepreneurial, 577

    complex society, 97 , 407 , 526 , 650 complexity, 59 , 74 , 230 , 237 , 249 , 250 , 287 , 299 , 389 , 406 , 440 , 444 ,

    448 , 466 , 468 , 471 , 483 , 488 , 495 , 523 , 525 , 526 , 527 , 542 , 593 , 627 , 643

    iconographic, 621 Conimbriga, 491 connectivity, 3 , 78 , 1021 , 2535 , 40 , 5768 , 75 , 84 , 96106 , 224 , 230 ,

    240 , 249 , 250 , 43748 , 650 consumption, 240 , 317 , 367 , 375 , 631

    alcohol, 143 , 242 , 461

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  • Index

    670

    beer, 129 ceremonial, 654 communal, 408 , 534 , 535 communal wine, 274 , 275 , 277 conspicious, 328 , 329 , 332 , 419 funerary, 594 , 621 large-scale, 461 , 536 patterns, 310 , 311 , 421 , 459 practices, 124 , 307 public, 310 , 328 ritual, 630 studies, 317 wine, 129 , 242 , 308 , 461 , 594

    contact zone, 116 , 250 , 260 Contestani, 471 Contrada Diana, 82 Coppa Nevigata, 76 copper, 8 , 40 , 44 , 45 , 61 , 76 , 98 , 100 , 101 , 113 , 115 , 132 , 145 , 146 , 157 ,

    181 , 182 , 189 , 301 , 399 , 475 , 490 , 491 , 496 , 572 , 659 arsenical, 114 , 115 , 120 , 132 Cypriot, 132 Cypriot industry, 626 , 628 , 631 ingot, 273 , 542 mining, 44 , 563 , 629 ore, 1 , 44 , 45 , 145 , 146 , 166 , 554 oxhide ingot, 99 , 10102 technology, 132 trade, 624 workshop, 623 , 630

    Corbones River, 493 C rdoba, 496 Coria del R o, 493 Corinth, 186 , 189 , 219

    Corinthian aryballos , 596 Corinthian colony, 188 Gulf of, 169 , 170 Museum, 374

    Corinthian import Motya, 225 Pithekopussai, 225 Sicily, 219 , 220 , 222

    Cornia Nou, 46 , 47 Corsica, 1 , 16 , 50 , 105 , 268 , 280 , 309 Corte Auda, 275 Cortona, 447 cosmology, 238 , 587 , 592 , 609 , 621 , 661 Costa de can Martorell, 456 Coudoun u, 511 Cova de lAvellaner, 456 Cova de Muleta, 41 Cova des Moro, 41 , 48 , 49 Cova des Riuets, 40 , 42 , 50 covacha , 541 , 558 , 560 Coval den Pep Rave, 48 Coval Sim , 47 , 49 Cozzo del Pantano, 65 , 93 , 188 Cozzo della Tignusa, 218 Cozzo Pantano, 85 craft, 64 , 65 , 151 , 235 , 236 , 301 , 303 , 307 , 514 , 612

    activities, 484 craftsmen, 75 , 81 , 148 , 201 , 202 , 204 , 207 , 223 , 235 , 464 , 476 , 480 , 493 ,

    594 , 606 , 612 , 660 , 661 domestic, 623 exchange, 236 itinerant craftsmen, 63 , 652 product, 594 production, 407 , 421 , 428 , 429 , 477 , 611 specialised, 112 , 113 , 115 , 208 , 232 , 327 , 328 , 428 , 542 , 575 , 631 technology, 606 workshop, 612

    cremation, 61 , 62 , 82 , 218 , 219 , 221 , 267 , 278 , 309 , 456 , 495 , 578 , 580 , 587 , 588 , 590 , 591 , 597 , 598 , 639 , 642 , 646 , 651 , 656 , 659 , 660

    cemetery, 89 , 91 , 92 , 457 creolisation, 232 , 233 , 235 , 250 , 256 , 305

    Cretan import Akrotiri, 30

    Cretan pottery imitation Akrotiri, 30

    Crete, 1 , 12 , 14 , 20 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 29 , 3031 , 32 , 33 , 74 , 75 , 99 , 105 , 109 , 160 , 162 , 163 , 165 , 167 , 169 , 171 , 184 , 191 , 208 , 273 , 322 , 354 , 42534 , 426 , 52536 , 65061

    Assyrianising style, 660 , 661 chronology, 26 , 161 , 321 , 420 , 526 Cretans, 356 elite, 30 , 661 infl uence, 650 thalassocracy, 12

    crucible, 45 , 145 , 146 , 496 , 626 Cruz de Negro, 495 Cuesta del Negro, 557 ukuri i H y k, 146 cult, 96 , 105 , 115 , 237 , 238 , 285 , 287 , 310 , 387 , 428 , 471 , 589 , 626 , 654 , 655

    activities, 380 , 388 , 479 , 482 , 607 , 63546 , 655 , 657 , 658 agrarian and fertility, 481 ancestor, 595 , 640 building, 82 , 626 , 627 , 628 , 657 , 658 civic, 64346 Cypriot, 62831 Demeter, 642 domestic, 123 , 269 , 481 , 630 , 638 , 642 , 654 elite, 593 equipment, 653 instrument, 589 mountain, 640 object, 613 practice, 285 , 294 , 384 , 388 , 627 rituals, 383 rural, 630 site, 79 , 97 , 101 , 102 , 288 , 445 , 613 , 615 , 619 , 624 , 628 , 637 , 651 , 654 , 657 sun, 640

    cult places. See cult site cultural encounters, 2 , 24950 , 295 cultural osmosis, 12 , 104 cultural practice, 35 , 125 , 129 , 170 , 171 , 347 , 380 , 382 , 445

    hybrid, 160 cultural transmission theory, 16062 cultural-historical approach, 142 , 150 , 252 , 255 , 455 , 593 culture change, 11 , 13 , 14 , 17 , 57 , 74 , 159 , 162 , 166 , 249 , 254 , 256 , 258 ,

    454 , 494 culture contact, 157 , 16062 , 163 , 164 , 170 , 171 , 230 , 231 , 249 , 250 ,

    285 , 454 Cumae, 188 , 591 , 594

    Fondo Artiaco , 594 Custoza, 640 Cyclades, 8 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 17 , 20 , 25 , 2735 , 163 , 169 , 171 , 235 , 321 , 323 , 326 ,

    528 , 591 chronology, 26 cultural practices, 35 Cycladic presence on Crete, 326 fi gurine, 20 , 28 , 368 , 370 , 374 , 375 Mycenaean, 35 network, 17

    cylinder seal, 85 , 87 , 112 , 337 , 339 , 34044 , 408 imagery, 625 Mesopotamian, 615

    Cypriot import Crete, 659 Egypt, 356 Iberia, 203 , 208 , 301 Italy, 99 Portugal, 207 Samos, 291 Sardinia, 96 , 99 , 104 Sicily, 84 , 86 , 87 , 223 Thapsos, 104

    Cypriot pottery imitation Sicily, 84 , 91

    Cyprus, 1 , 4 , 8 , 15 , 18 , 20 , 64 , 74 , 75 , 77 , 102 , 103 , 109 , 126 , 13952 , 159 , 167 , 169 , 181 , 184 , 191 , 202 , 205 , 206 , 208 , 209 , 216 , 220 , 270 ,

    consumption (cont.)

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  • Index

    671

    28596 , 341 , 345 , 347 , 371 , 395 , 399413 , 57181 , 572 , 61931 , 620 , 652 , 654 , 659 , 660

    bronzes, 148 copper industry, 626 , 628 , 631 Cypriot art, 285 , 287 Cypriot cult, 62831 Cypriot iconography, 285 Cypriot infl uence, 102 , 104 Cypriot shekel , 201 Cypriot traders, 85 Cypriot trading posts, 202 Cypriots, 64 , 99 , 102 , 104 , 201 , 204 , 206 , 207 elite, 102 , 104 , 143 , 659

    Dakhleh, 204 Dalmatia(n), 160 , 16668

    coast, 60 , 166 Dar-es-Soltan, 563 Darius I relief, 381 Dark Age, 34 , 93 , 169 , 170 , 172 , 181 , 186 , 197 , 242 , 424 , 434 ,

    651 Daunia, 67 Dead Sea, 115 , 523 Decima, 594 Decimoputzu, 100 deer, 42 , 46 , 476 , 546 , 621 , 623

    engravings, 204 deforestation, 150 , 447 , 492 Deir el-Balah, 372 Delikli Ta s , 388 Delos, 28 , 518 Delphi, 183 , 295

    sanctuary, 288 Sanctuary of Apollo, 294

    Demeter, 481 , 642 Demircih y k, 28 , 146 , 149

    Sariket cemetery, 146 , 149 , 150 dendrochronology, 184 , 636 Deneia cemetery, 371 , 622 Denyen, 357 depas cup, 28 , 144 Desborough, Vincent R. dA., 178 , 651 Desmont , 640 Dessueri, 90 , 91 , 92 Dhaskalio Kavos, 28 diachronic perspective, 14 , 25 , 27 , 42 , 77 , 86 , 92 , 185 , 348 , 379 , 380 , 381 ,

    389 , 526 diaspora, 117 , 131 , 187 , 231 , 236 , 302 , 311 diet, 41 , 48 , 51 , 115 , 256 , 258 , 456 , 478 , 560 , 564 diff usionism, 11 , 12 , 13 , 17 , 132 , 140 , 171 , 360 , 440 , 441 , 555 , 593 Dimini, 164 , 187 Diodorus Siculus, 67 , 88 Diogenes Laertius, 655 Dionysius Periegetes, 205 Dionysos shrine, 34 Dipylon oinochoe , 190 Dirillo valley, 85 Djahi, 355 , 362 Dodecanese, 27 , 28 , 29 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 184 dog, 48 , 81 , 428

    consumption, 51 Doganella, 443 Do g ubeyaz t tomb, 390 dolia , 82 , 84 , 85 , 87 , 443 , 596 dolmen, 61 , 456 domus de janas , 523 donkey, 51 , 492

    fi gurine, 609 Donousa, 34 Dorians, 185 Doric-Greek language, 651 , 654 Double Goddess, 628

    Sanctuary, 627 , 628 , 630 Dragomelj hoard, 201 Drakones Z, 533

    drinking set, 206 , 623 Attic, 656 , 659

    D mrek, 388

    early state, 115 , 116 , 118 , 44142 , 495 , 541 , 635 , 643 Early State Module (ESM), 441 formation, 114 polity, 114

    east Greek import Sardinia, 278 Sicily, 219 south Italy, 234

    eastern Mediterranean, 77 , 126 , 139 , 147 , 157 , 166 , 168 , 169 , 170 , 171 , 181 , 185 , 201 , 202 , 204 , 207 , 224 , 252 , 271 , 33749

    craftsmen, 201 naval technology, 88 presence in Sicily, 88 sailors, 160 states, 164 traders, 85 , 90 , 204

    eastern Mediterranean import Sicily, 87 west Mediterranean, 203

    eastern Mediterranean-type pottery Sicily, 86

    Ebla, 126 , 345 , 610 Ebro River, 457

    estuary, 202 , 311 valley, 308 , 456 , 466

    cija, 495 Edecon, 465 , 477 Edeta, 475 , 476 , 477 , 484

    Edetani, 471 territory, 396 , 465 , 478 , 480 , 482

    Edom, 252 , 260 egalitarian

    group, 44 ideal, 588 social-ethos, 460 society, 96 , 97 , 146 , 399 , 510 , 517 , 526 , 529 , 622

    egg(shell), 50 , 51 , 578 ostrich, 201 , 208 , 221 , 563 swan, 646

    Egypt, 4 , 30 , 32 , 11133 , 160 , 162 , 169 , 171 , 184 , 190 , 192 , 209 , 252 , 260 , 323 , 341 , 344 , 345 , 346 , 35262 , 610 , 614 , 624 , 658

    art, 360 chronology, 13 , 161 (colonial) settlement, 116 , 117 , 118 Egyptian hegemony, 255 Egyptian iconography, 207 Egyptians, 254 , 614 , 615 (high) elite, 352 , 356 , 362 infl uence, 12 , 361 , 578 New Kingdom, 253 , 343 , 345 , 346 , 352

    Egyptian import Aegean, 184 Iberia, 310 Levant, 116 Sicily, 223

    Ekron, 254 , 256 , 257 El Argar, 544 , 556 , 561

    culture, 54049 , 541 , 554 , 556 , 559 , 561 , 562 , 564 mortuary rituals, 560

    El Calvari, 308 El Castellvell, 466 El Puntarr n Chico de Beniaj n, 559 El Torell del Boverot, 457 Elba, 8 Eleutherna, 659

    Orthi Petra cemetery, 660 Elis, 186 , 187 Elkab, Ahmose son of Ibana tomb, 361 Els Estinclells, 466 Els Villars dArbeca, 456 , 457 Emborio, 28

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  • Index

    672

    Emilia Romagna, 440 , 642 emporion, 75 , 85 , 235 , 301 , 306 , 309 , 444 , 447 Emporion, Ampurias, 308 , 309 , 311 , 456 , 461 , 500 , 509 En Besor, 117 enchytrismos . See pithos burial En-Gedi temple, 613 Enkomi, 86 , 102 , 104 , 402 , 407 , 410 , 571 , 573 , 574 , 575 , 579 , 62426 , 627 ,

    628 , 629 , 630 , 631 Ayios Iakovos , 574 , 575 , 577 Dikaioss Area, 575 elite, 575

    Enna, 79 Ens rune, 514 , 515 entanglement, 250 , 299 , 305 , 310 , 573

    culinary, 307 cultural, 249 , 286 , 296

    Entremont, 514 , 515 Entrerr os, 497 , 502 Ephesos, 183

    Temple of Artemis, 189 epicampaniform(e) (pottery), 44 , 556 Epirus, 160 , 164 , 171 , 187 , 192 Episkopi Bamboula , 402 , 403 , 409 , 410 , 412 Erani C pottery, 116 Erbe Bianche, 87 Erechtheus, king, 656 Eretria, 191 Erytheia, 490

    mythical, 287 Es Figueral de Son Real, 48 , 49 Es Pou s, 42 Es Velar, 44 Esino valley, 447 Eski s ehir, 144 , 387 , 389 Eskiyapar, 147 Espinha o de C o, 500 Estapa, 495 Este, 645 , 646 Estela de Assento, 559 Estremoz, 556 ethnicity, 21 , 112 , 132 , 143 , 252 , 260 , 369 , 571 , 575 , 586 ethnogenesis, 252 , 259 , 261 , 585 , 587 ethnos , 178 , 186 , 439 , 442 , 611 Etna, 1 , 59 , 67 , 76 , 80 Etruria, 104 , 105 , 202 , 266 , 270 , 276 , 278 , 296 , 439 , 440 , 441 , 442 , 443 ,

    445 , 448 , 454 , 523 , 585 , 586 , 587 , 589 , 590 , 593 , 594 , 595 , 598 , 642 , 643

    coast, 280 metallurgy, 91 north, 104 , 270 , 279 south, 279

    Etruscan, 187 , 266 , 279 , 460 , 509 , 585 , 591 chronology, 586 city, 587 coinage, 201 colonization, 440 elites, 595 Etruscanising centre, 594 inscription, 279 religion, 644 territory, 441 trade, 446 , 509

    Etruscan import Carthage, 224 Catalonia, 456 , 509 Iberia, 308 Sardinia, 278 , 280 Sicily, 220 south Italy, 243 , 245 southern France, 224 , 509 Tiber valley, 446

    Etrusco-Corinthian import Carthage, 224 Sardinia, 278

    Euboea, 28 , 74 , 170 , 186 , 191 , 591

    Entrio-Euboean wares, 238 Euboean standard, 202 Euboeans, 188 , 205 , 223 , 235 , 236 , 238

    Euboean import Sardinia, 273

    Euboean-Cycladic import Iberia, 208

    Euphrates, 144 , 361 , 390 valley, 11215 , 12025 , 126 , 390

    Euripides, 294 Eurystheus of Tiryns, 287 Evans, John D., 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 , 17 , 74 Evans, Sir Arthur, 12 , 13 , 655 , 657 exchange, 32 , 44 , 109 , 159 , 658 , 659

    cultural, 160 , 340 ideological, 221 long-distance, 113 , 118 , 140 , 151 , 183 , 306 , 323 metal, 139 , 14448 , 150 , 490 network, 29 , 46 , 51 , 75 , 149 , 151 , 162 , 187 , 224 , 291 , 306 , 307 , 309 , 311 ,

    317 , 328 , 437 , 44347 , 651 , 659 node, 163 , 187 obsidian, 164 system, 82 , 88 , 157 , 178 , 180 , 182 textile, 150 unequal, 300 , 491

    exotica, 75 , 86 , 97 , 98 , 104 , 106 , 157 , 160 , 170 , 183 , 205 , 242 , 270 , 275 , 277 , 278 , 322 , 327 , 331 , 353 , 580 , 594 , 628 , 629 , 630 , 654 , 658 , 661

    bronzes, 80 extramural cemetery, 145 , 146 , 149 , 151 , 231 , 413 , 575 , 577 , 579 , 580 Extremadura, 302 , 307 , 489 , 491 , 493 , 498 , 501

    faience, 86 , 207 , 208 , 216 , 331 , 629 , 652 amulet, 117 beads, 84 , 660 cylinder seal, 341 fi gurines, 658 vessel, 223

    Falerii , 446 farm, 96 , 420 , 425 , 427 , 428 , 430 , 443 , 466 , 471 , 480 , 484 ,

    500 , 501 , 511 farmer, 1 , 96 , 278 , 428 , 464 , 480 farming, 98 , 140 , 148 , 187 , 267 , 427 farming community, 151 , 152 farming village, 151 , 152 fortifi ed, 484 land, 425 , 501

    Fastucheria cemetery, 91 faunal assemblage. See faunal remains faunal remains, 47 , 49 , 50 , 148 , 149 , 428 , 510 , 545 , 615 , 630 feasting, 29 , 63 , 115 , 144 , 149 , 151 , 209 , 242 , 245 , 259 , 308 , 328 , 332 , 408 ,

    409 , 419 , 424 , 459 , 461 , 462 , 560 , 577 , 578 , 606 , 619 , 620 , 623 , 631 , 646 , 659

    competitive feast, 621 mortuary, 560

    Fern o Vaz, 495 , 501 Ferradeira, 556 , 558

    Horizonte de Ferradeira , 556 fertility, 201 , 296 , 555 , 590 , 592 , 597 , 621 , 657 , 658

    cult, 481 festivals, 276 , 658 fi bula , 91 , 183 , 224 , 270 , 275 , 457 , 461 , 480 , 589 ,

    590 , 596 , 651 , 659 fi gurine, 59 , 224 , 310 , 322 , 580 , 609 , 614 ,

    638 , 642 , 644 anthropomorphic, 623 , 642 , 658 bronze, 651 , 656 , 658 bull, 630 bulls head, 609 Cycladic, 20 , 28 , 368 , 370 , 374 , 375 faience, 658 female, 626 horse, 630 , 642 human-shaped, 609 Ingot God, 102

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  • Index

    673

    Nuragic, 278 Pyrga, 292 Reshep, 659 steer, 149 Syrian, 615 terracotta, 63 , 292 , 651 , 655 , 658 terracotta bull, 630 warrior, 658 warrior head, 100

    Filicudi, 62 , 67 , 82 , 84 , 87 F nd k, 388 F nd k Asar Kaya, 388 Finocchito, 218 F rakt n rock relief, 384 fi sh, 1 , 40 , 48 , 50 , 82 , 308 , 578

    fi shing, 50 , 51 , 267 , 491 , 492 salted, 457 , 500

    fl int, 40 , 44 , 45 , 82 artefacts, 81 , 116 blades, 80 disk, 609 mining, 80

    Floridia, 85 Flumenelongu, 273 Folha das Palmeiras, 559 Fonbouisse, 42 Fonte Velha, 492 , 495 Fonteta R quia, 482 Formazza, 640 Formentera, 18 , 40 , 42 , 46 , 47 , 50 , 51 , 205 fortifi cation, 29 , 33 , 66 , 80 , 97 , 150 , 166 , 232 , 390 , 410 , 419 , 456 , 462 , 464 ,

    465 , 466 , 471 , 479 , 490 , 544 , 624 fossa grave, 219 , 556 Francavilla Marittima, 188 , 230 , 237 , 238 , 239 France, 201

    Iron Age chronology, 506 Mediterranean, 301 southern, 44 , 105 , 169 , 224 , 278 , 280 , 395 , 445 , 457 , 459 , 50618

    Frattesina, 201 fresco, 337 , 339 , 346

    Aegean, 615 Minoan Bull, 655

    Fuente Alamo, 557 , 558 , 559 , 560 Fuente Amarga, 561 funerary landscape. See landscape, mortuary funerary practice. See mortuary practice funerary ritual, 44 , 67 , 85 , 90 , 120 , 131 , 240 , 266 , 274 , 280 , 309 , 310 ,

    413 , 447 , 471 , 523 , 524 , 533 , 534 , 548 , 549 , 555 , 576 , 580 , 585 , 587 , 588 , 598

    Funtana, 98

    Gabii, 440 Gadir, C diz, 196 , 205 , 302 , 488 , 489 , 491 , 492 , 495 , 496 , 499 , 500 , 502

    Bay of, 500 elite, 500 Melqart temple, 302 , 310 , 489 , 493

    Gaio, 492 , 495 galena, 308 Gandul, 495 , 500 Gar Kahal, 563 , 564 Gargaliani Ordines, 419 , 420 , 424 Gatas, 557 , 558 Gato, 500 Gaul, southern, 50618 Gavurkalesi, 384 Gaza, 116 , 256 Gela, 76 , 79 , 188 , 224

    Gulf of, 85 valley, 91

    Gelinciktepe, 121 gender, 149 , 395 , 407 , 413 , 471 , 483 , 542 , 543 , 546 , 561 , 585 , 586 , 587 ,

    588 , 589 , 591 , 594 , 59798 archaeology, 471 , 484 , 547 gendered labor division, 407 identity, 407 , 548

    Gerdek Kaya monument, 389 Germanos (So g uk am), 387 Geryon, 28596 Gezer, 256 , 345 , 609 G h ajn Qajjet, 218 , 220 , 223 Ghar Dalam, 17 Ghassulian culture, 115 , 132 , 610 Ghor es-Safi , 371 Giants tomb, 266 , 277 gift exchange, 116 , 183 , 190 , 276 , 308 , 493 , 656 , 659 Gil o River, 491 Gilat, 610 Glanum, 514 , 516 globalisation, 230

    theory, 215 , 219 , 438 Glykys Limin, 164 glyptic production, 114 , 625 goat, 48 , 50 Godelier, Maurice, 454 , 459 , 460 , 585 , 587 , 599 , 635 Gola del Sentino, 638 Golan, 611 , 613 gold, 63 , 146 , 182 , 189 , 197 , 354 , 490 , 491 , 496 , 579

    mining, 488 ore, 145 , 554 plate technique, 206

    Golgoi, 285 , 288 , 291 , 292 , 294 , 295 G ltepe, 14546 G nd rle H y k, 147 Gordion, 388 , 578 Gorgon, 245 , 295 , 596 Gournes cemetery, 324 , 530 Gournia, 326 , 425 , 428 , 431 , 534 G yn s valley, 387 , 388 Gozo, 59 , 62 , 63 , 65 , 67 , 76 , 217 Granada, 540 granary, 130 , 149 , 150 , 474 , 480 , 506 grape, 478

    seeds, 242 vine, 143

    Gravina, 240 Gravisca, 279 grazing, 170 , 267 , 429 , 501 Greece, 3 , 28 , 34 , 103 , 160 , 164 , 166 , 169 , 171 , 17892 , 178 , 209 , 224 , 225 ,

    367 , 374 , 454 Archaic pottery, 188 chronology, 26 , 161 Classical, 418 , 650 , 651 , 652 (colonial) settlement, 184 , 218 , 230 , 231 , 280 , 299 , 439 ,

    510 , 516 , 594 east, 205 , 658 east Greeks, 189 elites, 216 Greek art, 287 , 289 , 291 , 293 , 374 Greek colonization, 90 , 187 , 197 , 215 Greek community, 233 , 234 Greek craftsmen, 235 , 243 , 244 Greek diaspora, 231 Greek infl uence, 31 , 309 , 464 , 511 , 514 ,

    516 , 573 , 594 Greek mythology, 289 , 291 , 390 Greek network, 67 Greek presence, central Mediterranean, 21525 Greek rituals, 238 Greek traders, 309 , 646 Greek world, 185 , 186 , 201 , 222 , 230 , 238 , 245 , 266 , 274 , 291 , 439 ,

    442 , 484 Greeks, 2 , 109 , 160 , 170 , 187 , 188 , 189 , 191 , 244 , 271 , 299 , 425 , 488 ,

    509 , 585 , 591 mainland, 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 30 , 31 , 144 , 162 , 163 , 164 , 169 , 181 , 339 , 528 ,

    655 , 656 , 658 tumulus, 168 western Greeks, 183 , 188

    Greek import Carthage, 273 Etruscan sites, 591

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  • Index

    674

    Iberia, 301 , 308 , 459 , 464 Levant, 185 Malta, 218 , 223 Motya, 225 Pithekoussai, 225 Sardinia, 273 , 278 , 280 Sicily, 219 south Italy, 234 , 235 , 243 , 245

    Greek pottery imitation south Italy, 231

    Greek-Euboean settlement, 591 griffi n, 243 , 342 , 625 Griff zungenschwert . See Naue II sword Grotta (phase), Naxos, 34 Grotta Calafarina, 85 Grotta Chiusazza, 85 Grotta del Colle, 637 , 639 , 644 , 646 Grotta del Mezzogiorno, 638 Grotta del Prete, 639 Grotta delle Mosche, 638 , 645 Grotta dello Sventatoio, 637 Grotta Misa, 637 Grotta Morritana, 637 Grotta SantAngelo, 637 grotticella , 79 , 80 , 82 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 90 , 91 , 92 Guadalhorce River, 305 , 492 Guadalimar River, 493 Guadalquivir River, 471 , 489 , 493 , 495 , 500

    estuary, 490 valley, 307 , 311 , 488 , 495 , 499 , 500 , 502

    Guadiana River, 202 , 491 , 495 , 496 , 497 valley, 488 , 495 , 499 , 501

    Gubbio, 446 Guerrero de Medina de las Torres, 498 Gymnesic Islands, 40

    habitus , 7 , 299 , 303 , 304 , 306 , 307 , 317 , 321 , 326 , 587 , 600 Habuba Kabira, 112 Hacinebi, Birecik, 112 , 122 Hala Sultan Tekke Vyzakia , 410 halberd, 543 , 544 , 549 , 559 , 561 , 563 Halif terrace, 117 Hamilcal Barca, 500 Hassek H y k, 112 , 122 Hatip rock relief, 383 Hatti, 346 , 354 , 356 , 362 Hattu a, 346 , 348 , 383 , 384 Hazor, 127 , 131 , 345 Hebron, 259 , 371 Hecateus, 67 hegemony, 35 , 164 , 255 , 258 , 310 , 489 , 575 , 594 , 600 heirloom, 217 , 323 , 326 , 580 Heliopolis, 362 Hellenisation, 215 , 241 , 242 , 571

    hellenicity, 243 Helms, Mary W., 157 , 162 , 166 , 170 , 630 , 659 , 661 Hera Lacinia sanctuary, Capo Colonna, 279 Hera sanctuary

    Capo Colonna, 279 Gravisca, 279 Samos, 291 , 292

    Herakles, 287 , 289 , 291 , 293 , 295 Seleukid, 381 Weary, 373

    Hercules. See Herakles Herdade do Montinho, 559 herding, 115 , 149 , 169 , 170 , 480 Herodotus, 187 , 189 , 191 , 204 , 292 , 296 , 308 , 650 heroisation, 587 , 593 Hesiod, 181 , 287 , 289 , 655 High Friuli, 201 Himera, 222 Hittite, 345 , 348 , 379

    Empire, 383

    Hittites, 346 , 354 , 356 king Hattu ili III, 384 king Muwatalli, 358 rock-cut monument, 391 rock-cut tomb, 389 rock relief, 380 , 383 state, 348 , 383

    hoard, 87 , 101 , 102 , 637 , 641 , 660 Abini, 102 Bai es, 207 Berzocana, 205 , 206 Caixa, 201 Cave of the Treasure, 611 , 613 Dragomelj, 201 founders, 88 gold, 205 Gualdo Tadino, 640 Jatt, 206 , 209 Kadmeion, 340 , 343 Larnaud, 201 Lipari, 105 Llavors , 459 Madriolo, 201 Mahmatlar, 147 metal, 46 , 133 , 308 Monte Sa Idda, 270 Piediluco-Contigliano, 270 Pila del Brancon, 641 S. Francesco, 270 Schiers, 201 silver, 371 Villena, 205 , 206 votive, 102 , 459 , 637

    Homer, 164 , 182 , 187 , 190 , 243 , 273 , 571 , 594 , 655 Homeric epics, 655 , 660 Homeric literature, 223 Homeric rite, 596 Odyssey , 656

    homogeneity, 44 , 74 , 75 , 85 , 88 , 331 , 402 , 526 , 626 homogenization, 75 , 114 , 125 , 143 homogenizing, 32 , 151 Horden and Purcell, 3 , 7 , 8 , 25 , 34 , 187 , 230 , 437 , 438 , 440 , 659 Horizonte de Montelavar , 556 Horned God, 628 , 630

    Sanctuary, 627 , 628 , 630 horse, 51 , 81 , 159 , 242 , 478 , 481 , 546 , 660

    bits, 457 , 459 , 591 burial, 170 -drawn chariot, 285 fi gure, 658 fi gurine, 630 , 642 sacrifi ce, 578

    horticulture, 48 olive, 115

    hospitality, 143 , 308 , 330 household, 129 , 131 , 149 , 39596 , 399413 , 41734 , 47185 , 50618 ,

    562 , 623 archaeology, 395 , 401 aristocratic, 597 empowered, 306 head, 590 identity, 126 -idol, 613 organization, 125 practices, 129 production, 133 ritual, 630 social dynamics, 126 , 406 , 407

    house-tomb, 326 , 330 , 530 , 531 , 533 , 535 Huelva, 207 , 216 , 273 , 301 , 302 , 306 , 311 , 489 , 490 , 495 , 499 hunting, 1 , 48 , 51 , 267 , 592 , 623

    gear, 484 ground, 501

    Hurrian, 122 , 385 Hvar, 160

    Greek import (cont.)

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  • Index

    675

    hybridisation, 2 , 4 , 77 , 84 , 88 , 92 , 127 , 131 , 152 , 160 , 163 , 166 , 170 , 171 , 215 , 220 , 231 , 232 , 24950 , 25261 , 26680 , 28596 , 299311 , 326 , 380 , 454 , 572 , 579 , 591 , 594

    hybrid, 29 , 66 , 157 , 160 , 169 , 219 , 220 , 222 , 225 , 232 , 337 , 353 , 354 , 356 , 384 , 390 , 594

    hybrid pottery, 116 hybrid practice, 162 hybrid society, 233 , 235 visual hybridization, 286

    hydria , 238 , 245 , 288 Hyksos

    king, 361 post-Hyksos, 356

    hypogeum. See rock-cut tomb

    I Faraglioni, 63 , 84 , 87 Ialysos, 32 , 347 Iberia, 99 , 101 , 105 , 169 , 270 , 273 , 274 , 276 , 396

    coast, 517 east, 301 , 308 , 310 , 311 Iberian inscription, 478 Iberian revolt, 467 Iberians, 47173 Mediterranean coast, 307 northeast, 308 , 311 northwest, 308 south Iberian chronology, 55658 southeast, 306 , 545 , 559 , 561 , 562 , 564 southwest, 499500 , 558 , 560 , 562 , 564

    Iberian import Pithekoussai, 224 Sardinia, 96 , 99

    Ibero-Phoenician import Motya, 225 Pithekoussai, 225

    Ibiza, 18 , 40 , 42 , 44 , 109 , 205 , 302 , 307 , 308 Icklingham Bronzes, 373 iconoclasm, 61214 iconography, 276 , 285 , 286 , 288 , 291 , 294 , 295 , 337 , 338 , 339 , 340 , 345 ,

    346 , 358 , 362 , 390 , 598 , 612 , 613 , 619 , 629 , 630 , 631 , 636 , 653 , 654 , 658 , 661

    Egyptian, 207 , 615 Mycenaean, 207 Near Eastern, 575 Philistine, 257 of power, 209 ritual, 621

    Ida, cave sanctuary, 651 , 661 Idalion, 293 , 627 , 628 , 630 identity, 21 , 152 , 215 , 219 , 221 , 242 , 250 , 253 , 257 , 259 , 300 , 305 , 311 , 331 ,

    339 , 347 , 348 , 35262 , 381 , 395 , 396 , 402 , 408 , 417 , 488 , 525 , 528 , 542 , 57181 , 612 , 625 , 631 , 653

    Aegean, 257 Archaic, 186 collective, 240 , 546 , 549 , 580 , 585 construction, 590 , 594 cultural, 57 , 89 , 105 , 125 , 126 , 255 , 256 , 323 , 434 elite, 422 , 626 ethnic, 445 formation, 45 , 132 , 260 , 400 , 409 , 413 , 554 , 565 gender, 548 Greek, 390 group, 255 , 418 , 524 household, 409 Israelite, 259 Kura-Araks, 132 marker, 126 , 127 Mediterranean Phoenician, 220 Persian, 390 self-, 236 , 254 , 400 , 405 , 547 , 548 Sicilian, 225 Sicilian Greek, 219 social, 400 , 402 , 406 , 438 , 540 , 546 , 547 , 560 , 573 , 578 , 607 , 621 , 631 ,

    650 , 651 , 654 , 658 socio-cultural, 125 , 132

    state-based, 133 western Phoenician, 310

    ideology, 27477 , 328 , 354 , 460 , 461 , 484 , 489 , 495 , 502 , 523 , 57779 , 60507 , 60915 , 61931 , 63546 , 65061

    collective, 585 community, 526 elite, 585 , 593 funerary, 302 , 594 , 595 , 596 hybridised, 575 ideological change, 159 , 500 , 607 ideological exchange, 221 ideological innovation, 595 kingship, 362 Orientalising, 497 power, 546 princely, 593 warrior, 311

    le, 510 Ilercavones, 471 Ilergetes, 466 , 467 Ilici, Elche, 309 Illa den Colom, 45 Illa den Reixac, 309 , 464 Illeta dels Banyets, 310 , 475 , 477 , 558 Illot des Porros, 48 Illyria, 171 , 186 , 192

    chief, 166 proto-Illyrians, 166

    immigration, 254 , 554 , 555 impasto pottery, 75 , 76 , 82 , 84 , 86 , 242 , 278 , 587 , 595 , 596 , 597 Incoronata, 230 , 233 , 235 , 236 , 240 , 243 Indibilis, 466 Indiketes, 464

    territory, 309 , 464 Indo-European invasion, 140 , 142 inequality, 63 , 310 , 441 , 461 , 476 , 483 , 579 , 605

    institutionalised, 619 social, 171 , 399 , 474 , 500 , 546 , 611 , 625 , 637 , 638

    ingot, 46 , 103 , 104 , 146 , 205 , 626 bar, 201 bronze, 201 bun, 98 copper, 273 , 542 iron, 481 , 484 lead, 145 , 146 mould, 148 oxhide, 63 , 85 , 87 , 88 , 98 , 99 , 101102 , 104 , 105 plano-convex, 98

    Ingot God, 628 , 630 fi gurine, 102 Sanctuary, 574 , 627 , 628 , 630

    inhumation, 80 , 87 , 120 , 220 , 267 , 278 , 280 , 309 , 541 , 589 , 590 , 591 , 659

    individual, 81 , 85 , 185 , 219 , 221 , 266 , 531 , 556 , 558 multiple, 82 , 91 , 221

    In-Nuff ara, 65 , 66 insularity, 78 , 1021 , 61 , 76 , 82 , 92 , 650 , 651 intramural burial, 171 , 558 , 559 , 562 , 563 , 564 , 565 , 574 , 575 , 576 invasion, 13 , 88 , 93 , 142 , 145 , 171 , 185 , 359 Iolkos, 164 , 187 Ionian

    bowls, 245 coast, 75 , 79 , 230 , 23139 islands, 164 , 168 , 169 , 171 Italy, 82 Revolt, 292 , 296 Sea, 1 , 165 , 188

    Ippari valley, 80 , 85 Iran, 120 , 343 , 381 , 390 iron, 99 , 180 , 181 , 182 , 183 , 188 , 205 , 206 , 301 , 457 , 491

    ingot, 481 , 484 slag, 480 technology, 651 tools, 207 , 208 , 457 , 464 , 467 votive, 183

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  • Index

    676

    weapon, 181 , 208 , 311 , 457 , 461 , 462 , 465 , 467 , 576 working, 359 , 497 , 502

    irrigation, 219 , 564 island

    archaeology, 7 , 10 , 11 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 25 colonization, 8 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 41 , 42 , 44 community, 7 , 10 , 11 , 17 , 21 , 27 , 31 , 44 , 573 , 579 , 591 as laboratory, 7 , 11 , 14 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 74 , 525

    islandscape, 11 , 18 , 26 , 27 , 66 isolation, 7 , 8 , 13 , 15 , 17 , 18 , 40 , 44 , 57 , 96 , 105 , 113 , 151 , 185 , 311 isotope analysis, 48 , 51 , 101 , 308 , 542 Israel, 116 , 206 , 252 , 355 , 367 , 371

    ancient, 252 , 260 Israelites, 252 , 260 Museum, 372 State of, 372 , 373

    Issa, 160 Istria, 166 Italian import

    Crete, 659 Iberia, 301 , 481 Motya, 225 Pithekoussai, 225 Sicily, 219

    Italy, 66 , 76 , 164 , 165 , 169 , 171 , 184 , 188 , 201 , 202 , 204 , 205 , 514 , 517 central, 75 , 88 , 103 , 273 , 43748 , 444 , 523 , 585600 , 646 Italic infl uence, 516 mainland, 74 , 75 , 82 , 88 , 91 , 92 , 99 north, 75 , 76 , 88 , 103 , 646 peninsular, 1 , 59 , 66 , 104 , 188 , 192 , 270 , 274 , 277 , 439 Raetic area, 636 , 645 south, 25 , 75 , 84 , 92 , 99 , 171 , 184 , 188 , 216 , 23045 , 279

    Ithaka, 164 ivory, 63 , 207 , 307 , 491 , 563 , 578 , 594 , 597 , 629 , 659 , 660

    buttons, 44 carving, 609 fi gurine, 100 objects, 306 , 493 , 609 , 652 , 660 ornaments, 341 relief, 291 seals, 322 tessera hospitalis , 279 working, 208 , 301

    I vriz, 37982

    J. Paul Getty Museum, 373 , 374 Ja n, 540 Jebel Aruda, 112 Jordan, 127 , 129 , 130 , 379 Judah, 252 Judean Desert, 613 Justinus, 216 , 474 , 484

    Kalavasos, 623 Ayios Dhimitrios , 403 , 405 , 408 , 409 , 410 , 626

    Kalopsidha, 620 , 626 , 628 , 629 Tsaoudhi iftlik , 402

    Kaman Kaleh y k, 143 Kamares ware, 329 Kaminospelio, 323 Kamose, 361 Kanl ge it, 150 kantharos , 224 , 242 , 245 , 278 Kap kaya, 389 Karabur, 385 Karanl kdere. See Ambarderesi Karata s cemetery, 146 Karata s Semay k, 28 Karkemish, 660 Karmi, 620

    Palealona , 620 , 624 Karphi, 653 , 659 Kastamonu, 390 Kastri (Syros), 28

    Kastri Group, 28 , 29 Kastro, 427 Kavos, 20 , 370 , 374 Kavousi, 427 , 431 Kazaphani, 293 Kazarma tholos tomb, 342 , 343 , 344 Kea, 28 , 30 , 32 , 33 Kef el Baroud, 563 Keftiu , 354 , 356 , 362 Kehf Taht el Ghar, 563 Kelin, 475 , 476 , 478 , 484

    territory, 483 Kenamun tomb, 202 , 353 Kerma, 361 Keros, 20 , 28 , 374

    hoard, 374 Keros-Syros Group, 28

    art, 18 Kestel mine, 145 , 146 Keswani, Priscilla S., 145 , 523 , 574 , 575 , 579 Khaniale Tekke, 105 Khirbet en-Nahas, 185 Khirbet ez-Zeraqon, 615 Kilise Mevkii tomb, 389 kiln, 235 , 480 , 484 , 500 Kimolos, 33 kin. See kinship kinship, 151 , 178 , 187 , 277 , 408 , 424 , 425 , 454 , 455 , 461 , 462 , 482 , 484 ,

    506 , 508 , 510 , 523 , 563 , 575 , 576 , 577 , 589 -based community, 75 , 465 -based events, 622 -based feasting, 623 -based system of control, 627 group, 82 , 240 , 434 , 457 , 467 , 577 , 580 , 587 , 595 system, 460

    Kissonerga Mosphilia , 143 , 148 Kition, 191 , 204 , 302 , 410 , 572 , 575 , 624 , 627 , 628 , 629

    sanctuary area II, 406 K z lda g , 384 Knossos, 12 , 13 , 20 , 27 , 30 , 31 , 164 , 182 , 320 , 328 , 329 , 330 , 331 , 333 , 344 ,

    425 , 534 , 535 , 536 , 651 , 654 , 655 , 656 , 658 , 659 North Cemetery, 656 , 659 palace, 654 , 655 , 656 Shrine of the Double Axes, 654 Spring Chamber, 654 Teke Tomb 2, 660 territory, 656

    knowledge, 14 , 15 , 44 , 57 , 61 , 64 , 67 , 102 , 157 , 162 , 171 , 235 , 331 , 332 , 339 , 359 , 382 , 396 , 408 , 533 , 547 , 580 , 587 , 612 , 630 , 659 , 661

    exchange, 233 ritual, 606 , 622 , 624 , 631 ritualized, 61 system, 605 tradition, 57 , 59 , 60 , 65 , 528 transfer. See knowledge transmission transmission, 129 , 201 , 203 , 303305 , 311

    koine , 29 , 32 , 33 , 145 , 151 , 186 , 224 , 591 , 593 Kolonna, 27 , 163 , 166 , 167 , 168

    infl uence, 169 komai , 187 , 192 Kommos, 104 , 169 , 203 , 208 , 301 , 529 , 654 , 655 , 657 , 658 , 660

    Temple A, 658 Temple B, 658

    Konya, 383 Korakou, 168 Kor , 166 Korphos, 164 Korucutepe, 112 , 126 Koryfasio Beylerbey, 419 , 420 Kotinoussa, 205 , 490 kotyle , 218 , 222 , 224 Kouklia Palaipaphos , 572 , 573 , 57980 , 624 , 627 , 628

    Eliomylia , 574 , 580 Kato Alonia , 574 , 580 Lakkos tou Skarnou , 579

    iron (cont.)

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  • Index

    677

    Plakes , 574 , 579 , 580 Skales , 209 , 301 , 574 , 579 , 659 tombs, 579 Xerolimni , 579

    Koukounaries, 33 , 34 Koumasa, 322 , 326 , 534 Kouphota, 534 Kouretes , 661 Kourion Kaloriziki , 659 krater , 129 , 222 , 223 , 236 , 245 , 347 , 408 , 576 , 655 , 656 , 659

    Euphronious, 373 Kroisos, 183 , 189 K ll oba, 28 , 146 , 149 , 150 K ltepe, 144 , 150 , 151 Kura-Araks, 111 , 115 , 118 , 12033

    infl uence, 126 pottery, 114

    kurgan culture, 131 Early Kurgans, 126

    Kuru ay, 143 Kush, 359 , 361

    Kings Son of Kush, 361 K tahya, 387 , 388 kylix , 245 , 278 , 424

    Mycenaean, 65 Kyme. See Cumae Kypia, 653 Kythera, 27 , 34 , 163 Kythnos, 29

    lAlt de Benimaquia, 308 LAmastuola, 230 , 231 , 232 , 233 , 235 , 236 , 237 , 239 lOriola, 461 La Almoloya de Pliego, 559 La Bastida de la Totana, 558 La Calcara, 82 La Colomina, 461 La Femosa, 461 La Fonollera, 456 La Fonteta, 305 , 306 , 308 , 309 , 310 , 311 La Joya cemetery, 307 , 490 La Muculufa, 79 la Muralla Nordeste, 461 La Palma, 461 La Pedrera de Vallfogona, 461 La Picola, 309 , 310 La Savina, 46 La Solivella, 461 La Traviesa, 556 , 559 , 560 , 562 Lacetani, 466 Lachish, 256 , 345 Laconia, 418

    dialect, 243 Laeetani, 465 Lago delle Colonnelle, 637 Lagole, 645 Lagos, 493 Laja Alta rock shelter, 204 Lake del Monsignore, 641 Lake Van Basin, 389 Lampedusa, 42 landscape, 139 , 150 , 160 , 232 , 238 , 318 , 333 , 434 , 441

    agrarian, 431 , 434 , 488 ancestors, 562 archaeological, 367 , 371 , 417 , 443 archaeology, 17 , 380 , 438 , 471 of contact, 235 cultural, 438 , 564 of fear, 612 , 613 mortuary, 417 , 558 , 571 , 590 political, 186 , 253 , 433 , 434 , 441 , 442 , 572 , 576 , 591 of power, 462 , 595 , 598 ritual, 417 , 445 , 637 rural, 417 , 433 sacred, 238 , 388

    social, 255 , 528 , 563 , 579 symbolic, 384 , 385 trans-corporal, 322 urban, 396 , 410 , 413 , 417

    Languedoc, 42 , 202 , 308 , 311 , 454 , 459 , 507 , 511 coastal, 509 eastern, 506

    Languedoc-Roussillon, 506 Lanuvium, 643 Laouret, 507 lapis lazuli, 148 , 341 , 343 , 354

    beads, 340 seals, 344

    Lapithos, 620 , 622 Kastros , 659

    larnakes , 323 , 326 , 330 , 526 , 531 Larnaud hoard, 201 Las Cumbres, 500 Las Minitas, 556 , 560 Las Palomas, 560 Lasithi mountains, 331 , 651 , 653 Latium, 266 , 279 , 440 , 590 , 594 , 637 , 642 , 643 , 644 Lattes, 506 , 50918 Laurentina, 594 Laurita cemetery, 310 Lavinium, Pratica di Mare, 642 Lavrion, 29 , 30

    mines, 163 Laxe Auga dos Cervos Petroglyph, 204 lead, 44 , 46 , 98 , 102 , 197 , 301 , 307 , 308 , 475 , 480 , 481 , 490 , 491

    ingot, 145 , 146 inscription, 465 , 474 , 484 isotope analysis, 101 mining, 488 oxide, 490 sheets, 596 slag, 480 weights, 208 , 306

    Lebanon, 381 coast, 254

    Lebena, Yerokambis II tomb, 323 Lebrija, 495 Lef kandi, 28 , 182 , 191 , 209 , 223 , 301 , 659

    Toumba, 170 , 659 Warrior Trader Tomb, 208

    Lef koniko, 293 legumes, 201 , 305 , 422 , 428 , 542 , 637 Lemnos, 28 , 29 Lentini, 92 , 188 Leontinoi. See Lentini Lerna, 80 , 168 Levant, 11133 , 139 , 145 , 189 , 196 , 202 , 208 , 209 , 341 , 345 , 346 , 360 ,

    372 chronology, 112 , 127 Levantine bronzes, 201 Levantine coast, 169 , 183 , 347 Levantine pottery, 220 Levantines, 201 , 207 , 266 , 267 , 270 , 271 southern, 185 , 252 , 524 , 60915 , 624 , 654

    Levantine import Egypt, 117 , 356 Iberia, 301 Malta, 218 Portugal, 207

    Liatovouni, 187 Libu, 358 Libyans, 352 , 358 , 359 Licata, 79 Lidar H y k, 122 Liman Tepe, 28 , 146 Linear A, 35 , 328 Linear B, 35 , 181 , 327 , 419 , 420 , 421 , 422 , 656 lion, 243 , 245 , 279 , 296 , 342 , 388 , 578 , 625 , 661

    bronze, 278 skin, 291 , 293 , 295

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  • Index

    678

    Lipari, 59 , 63 , 66 , 67 , 74 , 76 , 77 , 82 , 84 , 87 , 92 , 104 , 188 , 222 , 270 Acropolis, 82 , 88 , 89 , 92 , 105 Bay of, 62 hoard, 105 Piazza Monfalcone, 92

    Liqui re, 507 Lisbon, 491 , 495 literacy, 178 , 181 , 186 , 19092 , 606 , 631 Livari, 323 livestock, 48 , 49 , 50 , 98 , 102 , 106 , 170 , 482 , 488 , 492 , 542 , 615 , 657 , 658 Livy, 308 , 466 , 477 Lixus, 303 , 305 , 306 , 310 , 491

    Herakles Temple, 303 Temple A, 310

    Llago de la Virgen, 556 longboats, 13 , 59 long-distance trade, 8 , 45 , 115 , 133 , 150 , 189 , 190 , 301 , 624 , 630 longue dur e , 2 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 65 , 164 , 170 , 252 loom, 149 , 473 , 475 , 478 , 479 , 480 , 481

    goddess of the, 237 , 238 vertical, 243 warp-weighted, 148 , 149

    loomweight, 148 , 237 , 254 , 256 , 257 , 457 , 475 , 478 , 481 , 483 , 640 Lorca, 558 Los Millares, 558 lost-wax technique, 147 , 201 , 205 , 206 , 207 Lucania, 186 , 230 , 231 , 239 Luni sul Mignone, 82 Lusitani, 502 Luwian

    inscription, 380 , 383 , 384 -Phoenician inscription, 381 rock relief, 380

    Luxor Temple, 358 Lycia, 146 , 390 Lydia, 181 , 189 , 390

    Lydians, 189

    Maa, 410 Palaeokastro , 412

    maat , 353 , 362 Macchiabate necropolis, 238 Macedonia, 27 , 164 , 186 , 187 , 192 Madonie mountains, 76 Madonna del Piano cemetery, 92 Madre Chiesa, 87 Madriolo hoard, 201 Magacela, 497 Mahmatlar hoard, 147 maintenance activities, 546 , 548 Majorca, 4052 Mala Gruda tumulus, 168 M laga, 216 , 302 , 310 , 500 Malaka. See M laga Malatya (plain), 114 , 121 , 348 Malhada das Taliscas-4, 500 Malia, 27 , 30 , 320 , 327 , 328 , 329 , 330 , 331 , 534 , 536

    Chrysolakkos cemetery, 331 , 534 Mallorca, 105 , 205 , 307 Malpensa, 640 Malta, 7 , 8 , 13 , 14 , 17 , 18 , 20 , 42 , 5768 , 76 , 79 , 80 , 82 , 21525

    (-type) pottery, 65 Temple-period, 58 , 60 , 61

    Malta s , 388 Manfria, 62 , 79 , 80 , 81 Manika, 28 Marathon, 578 Marche, 638 , 641 Marcita, 87 Marianopoli, 222 maritime trade, 33 , 59 , 74 , 90 , 93 , 167 , 168 , 206 , 630 maritory, 57 , 59 , 61 , 65 , 67 Marki, 620

    Alonia , 143 , 144 , 148 , 403 , 413 , 623 Maroni Vournes , 626

    Mars, 447 , 644 Marsaxlokk Bay, 63 , 65 Marseille, 509 , 514 , 516 Marsiliana dAlbegna, 443 , 444

    elite, 443 Martela, 502 Mas Castelllar de Pont s, 462 Massalia, 280 , 308 Massalian import

    Sicily, 220 Mata de Campanario, 501 , 502 Matachel River, 502 Matapeces River, 497 Matar cult, 389 Matelica, 447 Matera, 240 materiality, 4 , 7 , 25 , 35 , 104 , 299 , 306 , 310 , 318 , 32033 , 33749 , 379 , 384 ,

    395 , 400 , 401 , 407 , 523 , 547 , 588 , 605 , 612 material practice, 1 , 2 , 132 , 257 , 327 , 390 , 396 , 441 , 442 , 447

    Mati, 166 Matrensa, 65 , 85 , 188 matrilocality, 562 , 565 Mazarr n shipwrecks, 307 Mdina-Rabat, 217 , 224 , 225 Medell n, 497 , 501

    elite, 497 Medinet Habu, 184 , 202 , 204 , 253 , 352 , 35659 , 359 , 362 megalithic tomb, 42 , 43 , 45 , 51 , 80 , 556 , 558 , 559 , 562

    SAigua Dol a, 44 megaliths. See megalithic tomb Megara Hyblaea, 188 , 218 , 219 , 221 , 222 , 233 megaron , 32 , 145 , 150 , 151 , 164 , 421 Megiddo, 115 , 116 , 118 , 185 , 206 , 209 , 345 , 609 , 615

    Picture Pavement, 614 Mellaart, James, 139 , 140 , 142 , 150 Mellie h a, 220 Melos, 14 , 28 , 30 , 32 , 33 , 164 Melqart, 575

    temple, 310 , 489 , 493 memory, 152 , 205 , 240 , 270 , 32033 , 348 , 37991 , 395 , 400 , 409 , 523 , 524 ,

    525 , 527 , 528 , 529 , 536 , 585 , 593 , 615 , 622 , 655 Memphis, 362 M ndez N ez, Las Monjas, 490 Menkheperreseneb, 353

    tomb, 354 , 362 Menorca, 4052 , 105 , 205 , 307 mentalit , 158 , 160 , 605 , 606 , 612 , 613 Merneptah, 253 , 359 , 360 , 362 Merthies, 323 Mesara, 321 , 323 , 324 , 326 , 327 , 529 , 530 , 535 , 657 Meseta, 501 , 502

    southern, 489 , 495 Meshwesh, 358 Mesopotamia, 111 , 118 , 131 , 132 , 341 , 343 , 360 , 610

    cylinder seal, 615 mina , 188 shekel , 188

    Mesopotamian import Greece, 341

    Messenia, 164 , 165 , 41734 Messina, 79 , 218 , 222

    -Torrente Boccetta, 81 metal

    consumption, 139 , 14448 exchange, 14448 ores, 267 production, 14448 tools, 120 , 122 , 542 , 543 , 548 trade, 29 , 101 , 114 , 125 , 132 , 157 , 159 , 205 , 459 , 499 , 630 weapon, 102 , 120 , 166 , 171 , 543 , 559

    metallurgy, 29 , 44 , 65 , 96 , 98 , 99 , 102 , 120 , 123 , 129 , 133 , 150 , 151 , 186 , 188 , 207 , 223 , 270 , 273 , 406 , 407 , 457 , 462 , 479 , 480 , 484 , 488 , 490 , 514 , 542 , 543 , 606 , 623 , 628 , 629 , 630 , 651 , 652 , 654

    activity, 301 , 306 , 308 , 457 , 475 , 479 facilities, 406 , 484 , 490