E Mobility Lohse Busch6 April2011

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  • 1. Testing and Evaluation Challengesof Electrified VehiclesHenning Lohse-Busch, Ph.D. APRF (Advanced Powertrain Research Facility)eMobility in the USAHannover, GermanyApril 6th, 2011

2. Disclaimer This a research engineers perspective on the challenges with eMobility in the US No solutions will be provided, but hopefully some points will be clarified This presentation is based on work from the Argonnes APRF team 2 3. US National Laboratories for DOE Research Pacific NorthwestIdaho Natl Lab. Brookhaven Lawrence Berkeley Argonne LawrenceNatl Renewable Livermore Energy Lab.Los Alamos Oak RidgeSandia 3 4. Argonne Is One of Department of EnergysLargest Research Facilities A national laboratory, chartered in 1946 Operated by the University of Chicago and others for the U.S. Department of Energy Major research missions include basic science, transportation, and advanced energy technologies About 2,901 employees, including about 1,001 scientists and engineers, of whom 751 hold doctorate degrees Annual operating budget of about $470 million (~80% from DOE)4 5. Unique Facilities Coupled with a Depth of Expertise inBasic Science and Applied Engineering pushes theFrontiers of Transportation Research at Argonne Transportation Hutch Materials Research Battery electrodes Fuel cell catalystsBasic and Applied APS x-rays TribologyCombustion ResearchAdvanced PowertrainResearch Facility Autonomie High Performance Fuel Cell andGREETBattery TestingComputing End of Life Vehicle RecyclingTesting and ValidationModeling and Simulation 5 6. Outline US goals for electrified vehicles Fundamental differences between the US and the World Advanced technology vehicles Chassis dynamometer testing of vehicles Hybrid Electric Vehicles research Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle research Electric Vehicles research Factors impacting of fuel andenergy consumption Well to Wheel analyses 6 7. Revolution in Transportation SectorConcerns are Coalescing: But, Headwinds remain: Energy Security Fragile but recovering U.S. auto Foreign Oil Dependenceindustry Economic Security Investment and ER&D requirements Trade Deficit Volatility in Fuel Prices U.S. Jobs Consumer Acceptance GHG Affordability Infrastructure readiness Performance expectations CAFE/CO2 regulations for light duty and heavy duty vehicles 7 8. Electrified Vehicle Goal:1,000,000 Plug-In Vehicles by 2015 This goal includes BEVs and PHEVs. Technologies enabledby Lithium Ion battery technology advances. Announced OEM production plans total 1.2 M Evs by 2s015cumulatively (further OEMs are expected to market EVs) DOEs actions: Investments (R&D and productions),Demonstrations and Incentives 3 and 2.4 billion dollars investment loans in BatteryFacilities and support for EV componentWith more research and incentives, we can break our dependence on oilwith biofuels, and become the first country to have a million electricvehicles on the road by 2015- President Barack Obama, 2011 Stateof the Union8 9. U.S.DOE Advanced Vehicle Technology R&D Has a Diverse PortfolioHybrid Electric Systems Technology Integration Advanced Batteries EPAct/EISA Power Electronics Rulemaking & Machines SuperTruck HEV & PHEV Clean Cities Systems Analysis EcoCAR and Testing GATE Electrification/Smart Metering Aerodynamics, Rolling Resistance & Accessory Materials TechnologyLoads Materials Technology Lightweight StructuresAdvanced Combustion Engine R&D Fuels Technology Lightweight StructuresLightweight Materials Low Temperature Combustion R&D Fuels Technology Bio-Based Fuels Lightweight MaterialsProcessing/Recycling/Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Emission Controls Processing/Recycling/Manufacturing Clean/Efficient Combustion Bio-Based Fuels Low Temperature Combustion R&DLight- & Heavy-Duty EnginesFuel Characteristics Manufacturing MethodsDesign Data Test Emission ControlsWaste Heat Recovery Clean/Efficient Combustion Design Data Test MethodsHTML Light- & Heavy-Duty Engines Intermediate Blends Fuel CharacteristicsHealth Impacts HTMLPropulsion Materials Waste Heat Recovery Advanced Lubricants Intermediate Blends Propulsion Materials Health Impacts Advanced Lubricants9 10. Government-Industry Partnership: Advanced PropulsionPortfolio Vision EnergyHydrogen Fuelsecurity Improve Displace Cell VehiclesVehicle Petroleum Environmental FuelBattery Electric EconomyVehicles stewardship and (incl. range extension) Emissions EconomicHybrid Electric Vehicles growth (incl. PHEV)IC Engine andTransmissionAdvancesPetroleum (Conventional & Alternative Sources) Transportation Bio Fuels (E10, E85, Cellulosic Ethanol, Bio-diesel) EnergyElectricity (Conventional & Renewable Sources) Infrastructure Hydrogen (Conventional & Non-Carbon)DOE and FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership 10 11. IEA Roadmap Targets for EV/PHEV* Roadmap Vision industry and governments should attain a combined EV/PHEVsales share of at least 50% of LDV sales worldwide by 2050. These EV and PHEV production and sales targets will be very challenging to achieve and will require strong policies in countries around the world to move rapidly toward this transition to new vehicles and fuels.*Technology Roadmap, Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV), International Energy Agency 2009 11 12. Cost Remain High Research and Invention Still Needed 2012 Payback Still Too Long (1) System Cost from DOE PHEV Battery Cost per APEEM Cost perkWhkW$1,000 - $1,2002008 $22 $700 - $950 2010 $19 Goal = $500 2012 Goal = $17 Goal = $300 2014 2015Goal = $12 (1) Source: Rousseau, A, Argonne, Cost of Fuel $4/gal, Electricity $0.10/kWh with 2012 DOE Cost Goals of 27$/kw power battery and $500/kwh for energy battery 12 13. Differences between US and Europe13 14. Difference between Europe and USA:Distances and Transportation Infrastructures In the US The average distances driven are longer The public transportation system is not as elaborate *Satellite photos: www.sciencephoto.com 14 15. Difference between Europe and USAFuel Economy, Fuel consumption and MGP illusion EPA began the label revision thinking it wasFuel Economy = Distance / Fuel about time to change to consumption, focus groups steered them back to MPG. Too bad!FE 25%TruckFC 20%~84 gal saved over 10,000 mi125 gal saved FE 50% over 10,000 mi Plug-in HybridFC 33%Electric VehicleCompact HEV15 16. Advanced Technology Vehicles 16 17. What are Advanced Technology Vehicles? Hybrid vehicles Plug-in hybrid vehiclesBEV Tesla Battery Electric vehicles Alternative fuel vehicles Hydrogen Internal combustion engine Fuel cell ANL PHEV prototype Diesel Hydrogen OEM proprietary prototypes Fuel cell Plug-in hybrid conversion vehicles Conventional vehicles:Hydrogen internal down sized boosted engine combustion engine 7 speed dual clutch transmissionsSupplier BEV prototype Ford TADA PHEVJetta TDI (bio-fuels) 18. Categorizing Electrified Vehicles ANL proposedvehicle terminologymap for SAE J1715 Road Vehicle Electrified VehicleIncreased electric power and energy Charge Sustaining Plug-in Vehicle (CS) Hybrid ConventionalPHEV Electric Vehicle Vehicle (CV)(HEV)EREVIdle-Stop Fuel Cell VehicleBattery ElectricVehicleVehicle (BEV)Increased electric power and energy18 19. How to test and evaluate vehicles, toobtain efficiency gains for affordabletransportation 19 20. ARGONNES OBJECTIVE: Provide to DOE and Partners the Best Advanced Vehicle Test Data and Analysis Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) Purpose built for DOE benchmarking State-of-the-art 4WD chassis dynamometer Custom multi-input data acquisition specific to hybrid vehicle instrumentation Staff at cutting edge of test procedures for new advanced vehicles Inventing new and novel instrumentation techniquesBe the eyes and ears of automotive technology development APRF since 200220 21. What is a Chassis Dynamometer? Laymans version: Treadmill for cars Engineering version: ChassisVehicle dynamometer clamp down Metal rollers connected to aroll device which emulates the vehicle inertia and the vehicle road load that the vehicle experiences on a real road21 22. Why Bother with Dynamometer Testing?Dyno featuresDyno Benefits: Controlled test cell Repeatable emissions and(temperature, humidity, solarenergy consumption (fuelload, ) and/or electric energy Standard drive cyclesconsumption) Repeatability of results Enables comparisons between Laboratory emission equipmentdifferent vehiclesand instrumentation stationary Vehicle development andin test cell calibration Component calibration Control strategy System behavior 22 23. 4 Wheel Drive Chassis DynamometerControl Why 4WD dynos? room For through the road parallel hybrids DataHeated tailpipe acquisitionemissions pipesystemRear chassis dyno roll Air flow simulator fan Fuel flowmeterFront chassis Vehicle frontdyno rollrestraining chains 23 24. Battery temp:Basic Instrumentation Vent inVent out Hioki power analyzerTested in 2WD (with dyno mode) Select CANEngine speed 1.Accel pedal position 2.Engine speed 3.Motor torqueEngine oil 4.Battery V & Atemperature 5.Battery SOC24 25. Dynamometer Vehicle Benchmark Testing Approach Depth of Study Varies Level 1: Power sensorsOther Sensors Level 2:Power sensorsOther Sensors Battery TankBattery TankChargingElectricChargingElectricFuelHybridHybridEmissionsEngine EmissionsEnginesystemsystemPower Power Basics instrumentation:Complete and invasive instrumentation: Engine speed, fuel flow (bench), oil temp Incremental to level 1 Battery, Charger V I (Hioki) Engine, shaft torque & speed sensors CAN (if possible) All major power flows (mechanical, electric,) Further if required (but still non invasive) Component specific instrumentation Purpose:Purpose: Vehicle operating parameter study Energy analysis, efficiency analysis on vehicle Vehicle characterization (energyand components consumption, emissions level, performance) Compone