E Mobility Lohse Busch6 April2011

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  • 1. Testing and Evaluation Challengesof Electrified VehiclesHenning Lohse-Busch, Ph.D. APRF (Advanced Powertrain Research Facility)eMobility in the USAHannover, GermanyApril 6th, 2011

2. Disclaimer This a research engineers perspective on the challenges with eMobility in the US No solutions will be provided, but hopefully some points will be clarified This presentation is based on work from the Argonnes APRF team 2 3. US National Laboratories for DOE Research Pacific NorthwestIdaho Natl Lab. Brookhaven Lawrence Berkeley Argonne LawrenceNatl Renewable Livermore Energy Lab.Los Alamos Oak RidgeSandia 3 4. Argonne Is One of Department of EnergysLargest Research Facilities A national laboratory, chartered in 1946 Operated by the University of Chicago and others for the U.S. Department of Energy Major research missions include basic science, transportation, and advanced energy technologies About 2,901 employees, including about 1,001 scientists and engineers, of whom 751 hold doctorate degrees Annual operating budget of about $470 million (~80% from DOE)4 5. Unique Facilities Coupled with a Depth of Expertise inBasic Science and Applied Engineering pushes theFrontiers of Transportation Research at Argonne Transportation Hutch Materials Research Battery electrodes Fuel cell catalystsBasic and Applied APS x-rays TribologyCombustion ResearchAdvanced PowertrainResearch Facility Autonomie High Performance Fuel Cell andGREETBattery TestingComputing End of Life Vehicle RecyclingTesting and ValidationModeling and Simulation 5 6. Outline US goals for electrified vehicles Fundamental differences between the US and the World Advanced technology vehicles Chassis dynamometer testing of vehicles Hybrid Electric Vehicles research Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle research Electric Vehicles research Factors impacting of fuel andenergy consumption Well to Wheel analyses 6 7. Revolution in Transportation SectorConcerns are Coalescing: But, Headwinds remain: Energy Security Fragile but recovering U.S. auto Foreign Oil Dependenceindustry Economic Security Investment and ER&D requirements Trade Deficit Volatility in Fuel Prices U.S. Jobs Consumer Acceptance GHG Affordability Infrastructure readiness Performance expectations CAFE/CO2 regulations for light duty and heavy duty vehicles 7 8. Electrified Vehicle Goal:1,000,000 Plug-In Vehicles by 2015 This goal includes BEVs and PHEVs. Technologies enabledby Lithium Ion battery technology advances. Announced OEM production plans total 1.2 M Evs by 2s015cumulatively (further OEMs are expected to market EVs) DOEs actions: Investments (R&D and productions),Demonstrations and Incentives 3 and 2.4 billion dollars investment loans in BatteryFacilities and support for EV componentWith more research and incentives, we can break our dependence on oilwith biofuels, and become the first country to have a million electricvehicles on the road by 2015- President Barack Obama, 2011 Stateof the Union8 9. U.S.DOE Advanced Vehicle Technology R&D Has a Diverse PortfolioHybrid Electric Systems Technology Integration Advanced Batteries EPAct/EISA Power Electronics Rulemaking & Machines SuperTruck HEV & PHEV Clean Cities Systems Analysis EcoCAR and Testing GATE Electrification/Smart Metering Aerodynamics, Rolling Resistance & Accessory Materials TechnologyLoads Materials Technology Lightweight StructuresAdvanced Combustion Engine R&D Fuels Technology Lightweight StructuresLightweight Materials Low Temperature Combustion R&D Fuels Technology Bio-Based Fuels Lightweight MaterialsProcessing/Recycling/Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Emission Controls Processing/Recycling/Manufacturing Clean/Efficient Combustion Bio-Based Fuels Low Temperature Combustion R&DLight- & Heavy-Duty EnginesFuel Characteristics Manufacturing MethodsDesign Data Test Emission ControlsWaste Heat Recovery Clean/Efficient Combustion Design Data Test MethodsHTML Light- & Heavy-Duty Engines Intermediate Blends Fuel CharacteristicsHealth Impacts HTMLPropulsion Materials Waste Heat Recovery Advanced Lubricants Intermediate Blends Propulsion Materials Health Impacts Advanced Lubricants9 10. Government-Industry Partnership: Advanced PropulsionPortfolio Vision EnergyHydrogen Fuelsecurity Improve Displace Cell VehiclesVehicle Petroleum Environmental FuelBattery Electric EconomyVehicles stewardship and (incl. range extension) Emissions EconomicHybrid Electric Vehicles growth (incl. PHEV)IC Engine andTransmissionAdvancesPetroleum (Conventional & Alternative Sources) Transportation Bio Fuels (E10, E85, Cellulosic Ethanol, Bio-diesel) EnergyElectricity (Conventional & Renewable Sources) Infrastructure Hydrogen (Conventional & Non-Carbon)DOE and FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership 10 11. IEA Roadmap Targets for EV/PHEV* Roadmap Vision industry and governments should attain a combined EV/PHEVsales share of at least 50% of LDV sales worldwide by 2050. These EV and PHEV production and sales targets will be very challenging to achieve and will require strong policies in countries around the world to move rapidly toward this transition to new vehicles and fuels.*Technology Roadmap, Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV), International Energy Agency 2009 11 12. Cost Remain High Research and Invention Still Needed 2012 Payback Still Too Long (1) System Cost from DOE PHEV Battery Cost per APEEM Cost perkWhkW$1,000 - $1,2002008 $22 $700 - $950 2010 $19 Goal = $500 2012 Goal = $17 Goal = $300 2014 2015Goal = $12 (1) Source: Rousseau, A, Argonne, Cost of Fuel $4/gal, Electricity $0.10/kWh with 2012 DOE Cost Goals of 27$/kw power battery and $500/kwh for energy battery 12 13. Differences between US and Europe13 14. Difference between Europe and USA:Distances and Transportation Infrastructures In the US The average distances driven are longer The public transportation system is not as elaborate *Satellite photos: www.sciencephoto.com 14 15. Difference between Europe and USAFuel Economy, Fuel consumption and MGP illusion EPA began the label revision thinking it wasFuel Economy = Distance / Fuel about time to change to consumption, focus groups steered them back to MPG. Too bad!FE 25%TruckFC 20%~84 gal saved over 10,000 mi125 gal saved FE 50% over 10,000 mi Plug-in HybridFC 33%Electric VehicleCompact HEV15 16. Advanced Technology Vehicles 16 17. What are Advanced Technology Vehicles? Hybrid vehicles Plug-in hybrid vehiclesBEV Tesla Battery Electric vehicles Alternative fuel vehicles Hydrogen Internal combustion engine Fuel cell ANL PHEV prototype Diesel Hydrogen OEM proprietary prototypes Fuel cell Plug-in hybrid conversion vehicles Conventional vehicles:Hydrogen internal down sized boosted engine combustion engine 7 speed dual clutch transmissionsSupplier BEV prototype Ford TADA PHEVJetta TDI (bio-fuels) 18. Categorizing Electrified Vehicles ANL proposedvehicle terminologymap for SAE J1715 Road Vehicle Electrified VehicleIncreased electric power and energy Charge Sustaining Plug-in Vehicle (CS) Hybrid ConventionalPHEV Electric Vehicle Vehicle (CV)(HEV)EREVIdle-Stop Fuel Cell VehicleBattery ElectricVehicleVehicle (BEV)Increased electric power and energy18 19. How to test and evaluate vehicles, toobtain efficiency gains for affordabletransportation 19 20. ARGONNES OBJECTIVE: Provide to DOE and Partners the Best Advanced Vehicle Test Data and Analysis Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) Purpose built for DOE benchmarking State-of-the-art 4WD chassis dynamometer Custom multi-input data acquisition specific to hybrid vehicle instrumentation Staff at cutting edge of test procedures for new advanced vehicles Inventing new and novel instrumentation techniquesBe the eyes and ears of automotive technology development APRF since 200220 21. What is a Chassis Dynamometer? Laymans version: Treadmill for cars Engineering version: ChassisVehicle dynamometer clamp down Metal rollers connected to aroll device which emulates the vehicle inertia and the vehicle road load that the vehicle experiences on a real road21 22. Why Bother with Dynamometer Testing?Dyno featuresDyno Benefits: Controlled test cell Repeatable emissions and(temperature, humidity, solarenergy consumption (fuelload, ) and/or electric energy Standard drive cyclesconsumption) Repeatability of results Enables comparisons between Laboratory emission equipmentdifferent vehiclesand instrumentation stationary Vehicle development andin test cell calibration Component calibration Control strategy System behavior 22 23. 4 Wheel Drive Chassis DynamometerControl Why 4WD dynos? room For through the road parallel hybrids DataHeated tailpipe acquisitionemissions pipesystemRear chassis dyno roll Air flow simulator fan Fuel flowmeterFront chassis Vehicle frontdyno rollrestraining chains 23 24. Battery temp:Basic Instrumentation Vent inVent out Hioki power analyzerTested in 2WD (with dyno mode) Select CANEngine speed 1.Accel pedal position 2.Engine speed 3.Motor torqueEngine oil 4.Battery V & Atemperature 5.Battery SOC24 25. Dynamometer Vehicle Benchmark Testing Approach Depth of Study Varies Level 1: Power sensorsOther Sensors Level 2:Power sensorsOther Sensors Battery TankBattery TankChargingElectricChargingElectricFuelHybridHybridEmissionsEngine EmissionsEnginesystemsystemPower Power Basics instrumentation:Complete and invasive instrumentation: Engine speed, fuel flow (bench), oil temp Incremental to level 1 Battery, Charger V I (Hioki) Engine, shaft torque & speed sensors CAN (if possible) All major power flows (mechanical, electric,) Further if required (but still non invasive) Component specific instrumentation Purpose:Purpose: Vehicle operating parameter study Energy analysis, efficiency analysis on vehicle Vehicle characterization (energyand components consumption, emissions level, performance) Component characterization in vehicle system 25 26. Drive Cycles A drive cycle is a vehicle speed profile as a function of time The driver follows the trace display on a screen A drive cycle can be characterized by different factors avg speed, maxacceleration, linear cycles, driven cycles, stop time 26 27. EPA Certification City Test: UDDS UDDS: Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule80 Phase x1070 Trace6050Speed [mph]403020100 0200400600800 100012001400Time [s]Phase 1 Phase 2 Known as: Known as: -Bag 1-Bag 227 28. EPA Certification Highway Test: HWFET 80Phase 70 Trace 60 50 Speed [mph] 40 30 20 10 00 200 400 600 80010001200 1400 1600Preparation Time [s]Phase 1 cycle Real cycle28 29. EPA Certification Aggressive Driving Test:Emissions only until now 80 Phase 70Trace 60 50 Speed [mph] 40 30 20 10 00 100 200 300400 500 600Time [s] 29 30. New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) 80Phase 70 Trace 60 50 Speed [mph] 40 30 20 10 00 200 400 600800 1000 1200Time [s] 30 31. Hybrid Electric Vehicles 31 32. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Fuel efficiency gains depend on degree of hybridization2010 Honda Insight2010 Toyota PriusFord Fusion Hybrid Mercedes S400H Mini-E (BEV)EPA City Label Fuel Economy [mpg]NEDC [mpg]Energy consumption [Wh/mi]FusionMiniCivicCorolla2.5 liter S350 CopperReason to test:Reason to test:Reason to test:Reason to test: Reason to test: Value hybrid State of the artHigh fuel economy inFirst major OEMModern Electric Technology evolution hybrid mid-size sedan Lithium Ion battery Vehicle benchmark Thermal recoveryHigh speed EV pack hybrid SAE J1634 system operationdevelopmentPoint of interest: Point of interest :Point of interest :Point of interest : Point of interest :Compromise of costPHEV ready HEVLarger EV operation Uses Air conditioningEven aggressiveto hybrid systemincrease driver impact system to actively cool driving yields a rangeeffectiveness on fuel economythe battery packover 100 miles32 33. Idle stop vehicles: Fuel Consumption Gains Vary by Certification Cycles UDDSNEDC (City) 17.8% vehicle stop30.6% vehicle stop1212 UDDS NEDC (Bag 1)54.4%1010 40.3% 34.4% Fuel comsumption [l/100km] Fuel comsumption [l/100km] 827.8%813.8% 5.7%Notes: 6 6- All tests hereare hot starttests Start stop is- UDDS withHonda shift 4 4 moreschedule popular in-NEDC ANLrepeatable shift 2 2 Europe, sinceschedule the gain is-AC eco modeenables engine 0 higheridle stop0 Standard SS disabled AC normal AC ecomodeStandard SS disabled AC normalAC ecomode 33 34. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles 34 35. Plug-in hybrids: Consuming fuel as well as electrons Full charge test Start 100% SOC and repeat drive cycle test until a charge sustaining test is achieved 35 36. Plug-in hybrids: a 2 dimensional challenge PHEV energy consumption Plug-in hybrids use energy from Fuel (tank) Electricity (battery pack) First the vehicle will deplete the battery energy and thus displace fuel Blended EV capable Once the battery is depleted the vehicle operates in a charge sustaining mode Fuel economy will change based on how far you drive36 37. How to deduce a meaningful fuel economy forPHEVs? SAE J1711 Recommended Practice for Measuring the Exhaust Emissionsand Fuel Economy of Hybrid-Electric Vehicles, Including Plug-in HybridVehicles The utility factor weighted fuel economy attempts to represent the fueleconomy that the average US driver would obtain based on US drivingstatistics2001 NHTS Survey Data This process requires 31,844 vehicles 1,277,016 miles Information from a full charge test Charge depleting fuel economy Charge depleting range Charge sustaining fuel economyArea under line is Utility factor equationsUF fraction 40 miles 38. Standards Development: SAE J1711 HEV and PHEVTest Procedures38 39. Other Codes and Standards work around PHEVsSAE J2841 Multi-Day Individual ISO 23274-2 SupportUtility Factor Harmonization of PHEV Procedures The MDIUF alternative may be ISO Standards require many years tohelpful in conveying average developconsumer experience with a ISO committee looking to a veryparticular PHEVprecise method, but perhaps not Long distance drivers reduce thealways practical for routine testing apparent utility of depleting Settled on a method that is not in operation in the Fleet Utility Factor (FUF) conflict with J171139 40. Battery Electric Vehicles40 41. Good EV TestingExperience BEV testing and charging experience Safe, accurate and smooth event Experience with unusual cars41 42. Charger efficiency is very importantin the operating cost of EV!Level 1: 58% grid to battery charging efficiency Level 2: 88% grid to battery charging efficiency ~1 kW charge rate~5-6 kW charge rate42 43. 10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min10 min10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min10 min10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min10 min10 min 10 min 10 minTodays Problem with Testing EVs: 10 min10 min10 min 10 min 10 min 10 minDeath by Urban 250mi = 17+ hours of testing, no interruptions allowed10 min10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min 44. Proposed Shortcut Method for EV Testing Test Product: Find Efficiency (AC Wh/mi) and Range (mi) for any given cycle Constraint: Short-cut must provide repeatable results consistent with the long J1634 method Short-Cut Method in General:1. Find battery capacity (on-dyno)2. Run test cycles (UDDS, HWY, US06) to find EfficiencyStart with a fully3. Use consumption and capacity data to find Rangecharged batteryBattery capacity Electric energy consumption for test cycle (DC kWh)determination( )( )Steady state 9080 80 Phase x10 + + Phase x10 Phase+ 8070 Trace 70Trace Trace 7060 60 X4X2 60 Speed [mph]50 speed untilSpeed [mph] 50 Speed [mph] 5040 40 4030 303020 2020 empty10 10100 0 200 400 600800 1000 120014000 00 100 200 300400 500 600 Time [s] 0 200 400 600 8001000 1200 1400 1600 UDDS HWFET US06Time [s]Time [s] Fully recharge the battery and measure the AC kWh consumption from the grid44 45. Connecting to the Grid 45 46. Smart Vehicle-Grid InterfaceRequires standard connectivity/communication protocols to minimize impact onautomotive industry and utilities/grid operators (cost, complexity, reliability) 46 47. Codes and Standards Drive for Harmonization(Test Procedures, Hardware, Communication Protocol )Global Differences in ConnectivityUSEU CHINAJAPAN AC Charging Single- Phase(1) SAE J1772TM IEC 62196-2 Type 1Type 2 SAE J1772TM * SAE and IECAC standards China chargehave commoncouplers (not JapanSingle- control signals standard yet) CHADEMO orIEC 62196-2 Type 2 have uniquestandard Three-Phase control signalshas unique(1 or 3) and overall control signalsphysicaland overall shape physical IEC 62196-2 Type 3shapeDC ChargingSAE and IECworking toward harmonization of DC Hybridcharge couplers SAE J1772TM IEC 62196-2 Type 2Mode 3 JEVS G105-1993 HybridHybrid (CHADEMO)* SAE J1772TM AC connector has also been adopted by Korea and Australia47 48. Factors with major impact on fuel andenergy consumption48 49. Air Conditioning Impact on Fuel and Energy Consumption+29%Energy consumption [Wh/mi]The drive cycles are completed at95 deg F (35 deg C)The AC impact can increase energyconsumption by over 70% +14% Impact of air conditioning usage is+71%largest in city driving since extraenergy is consumed during stops +41%Electric vehicle energyconsumption is most sensitive to airconditioning usage which has a+82%direct impact on range +38%NO AC WITH ACNO AC WITH AC UDDSHWY49 50. Driver Intensity Impact on Fuel and Energy ConsumptionIncreased Driving IntensityElectric vehicle energyEnergy consumption [Wh/mi]+14%+18%consumption is most sensitive todriver aggressiveness which has-12%a direct impact on rangeImpact of driver intensity onenergy consumption varies withvehicle type and powertrain+41%+20% 8080-23%0.8 x UDDS 1.0 x UDDS Speed [mph] 6060 4040 2020 +16% +54% 0 0+56%0500100015000 50010001500 8080 Speed [mph]1.2 x UDDS 1.4 x UDDS 6060 40400.8 1.0 1.21.4 US062020 Scaled UDDS (equivalent distance) 0 00500100015000 50010001500 Time [s] Time [s] 50 51. EPAs new 5 Cycles Test for New Fuel Economy Label EPA is changing the tests Fuel Economy test to addressesthe mentioned effects All 5 cycles existed before for emissions testing purposesbut they were not all used to calculated Fuel EconomyClassic cycles!Aggressive cycle!Extreme Temperatures!FTP UDDS @ 75 90US06 @ 75 FSC03 @ 95 F #1 Cold start 60F80Phase x10Phase x10 80Phase x10Trace70Trace Trace 5070 #2 Hot start6060 40Speed [mph] Speed [mph]50Speed [mph]5040 30403030 202020 101010 0000200 400 6008001000 1200 14000 100 200 300400 500 600 0 100 200300 400500600 Time [s]Time [s]Time [s]80 HWFET @ 75 FUDDS @ 20 F Phase 8070 Trace Phase x10Piece of these cycles 70Trace60 6050 compute into aSpeed [mph] 50 Speed [mph]40 40 City and a Highway30 3020 20Fuel Economy10 100 0 0200400 600 8001000 1200140016000 200400 600800 100012001400 Time [s] Time [s]51 52. Final Question: Where does your Fueland/or Electricity Come From? 52 53. ANLs GREET Model Is Considered the GoldStandard for Total Lifecycle Analysis inTransportationVehicle CycleFuel CyclePump to WheelsWell to PumpResults of Argonnes assessments of new fuels and advanced vehicles have been used by federal andstate governments, auto industry, and energy industry in their decisions. 54. US Electricity Mostly Comes From Burning FossilFuel(Impacts of margin electricity and time-of-day charging not included)Mostly extracting work from burning fuelsin a thermodynamic cycle (like an engine) Source: EIA (www.eia.doe.gov)54 55. And in the Future for the USA? The Same! Source: GREET from EIA (www.eia.doe.gov)55 56. Almost there 56 57. Conclusions:www.transportation.anl.gov The US goals in eMobility is to put 1 Million EV on the roads by 2016 The transportation needs are different in the US (longer distances) Dynamometer testing offers repeatable fuel and energy consumption resultswhich enables direct comparisons between different vehicle and powertrains HEVs, PHEVs, BEVs all have different testing challenges PHEVs results are particularly hard to explain to the consumer has the fuel andelectric consumption vary based on the distance driven Air conditioning and driver intensity have very large impaction and fuel and energyconsumption which is now included in EPAs new 5 cycle Fuel Economy testing Upstream energy and emissions of fuel and/or electric are essential to determinethe impact of an advanced technology vehicles in terms of energy efficiency andenvironmental impact The more advanced, diverse and efficient the automotive technologies get the more the benefits depends on the consumer usage (driving distance and driving intensity)57