Diplomski Rad ZigBee

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Transcript of Diplomski Rad ZigBee

IEEE 802.15.4 -

, 2011

: : :

: IEEE 802.15.4 : 1. 2. 3. ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee

: 0%

: 0%

: 100%

: , 2011 ____________________

ZigBee . e protocol stack .

IEEE 802.15.4, IEEE 802.15.4 , .

ABSTRACTStandard IEEE 802.15.4 is analyzed in this graduation thesis. Standard ZigBee which is an extension of IEEE 802.15.4 is also analyzed. Wide range of applications these two standards is shown. The thesis is based on analysis of architecture and components of these two mentioned standards, ie. the analysis of protocol stack and the devices.

1. 2.

........................................................................................................1 IEEE 802.15.4..1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 .1 ?.....................................................................2 IEEE 802.15.4 2 MAC.5 ZIGBEE 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 ..............................7 ZIGBEE?.........................................................................7 .7 ZIGBEE ...8 NWK.9 APP.9 ZIGBEE-a..9 ZIGBEE-A..............................................................10 ZIGBEE-a.12 ZIGBEE 4.1 4.2 ZIGBEE ZIGBEE ....................................................12 12 .....15 ..............................................18 ............................................19 ...22 ...22 PHY.4

3.

4.

5. 5.1 5.2 6. 6.

...........................................................................................18

: IEEE802.15.4

1.e , . . , . ( , . , ) ad hoc, e, , , ,

2.2.1 IEEE 802.15.4 layer ) Networks).

IEEE 802.15.4

PHY (Physical MAC (Medium Access Control) LR-WPANs (Low Rate Wireless Personal Area IEEE 802.15 .

2.2 ZigBee, WirelessHART i MiWi IEEE 802.15.4. . : 1. 2. 3. .1

,

6LoWPAN

ca

,

: IEEE802.15.4

2.3 . OSI . 802.2 LLC (Logical Link Control) . , IEEE MAC, .

2.1

IEEE 802.15.4

2.3.1 o

- PHY , , . , PHY

. ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) :2

: IEEE802.15.4

1. 868.0-868.6 Hz: (2003, 2006) 2. 902-928 MHz: (2003), 30 3. 2400-2483.5 MHz:

10 (2006) , 802.15.4 -2003 16 , DSSS (Direct-sequence (2003, 2006)

spread spectrum). 868/915 MHz 20 kbit/s. 2450 MHz 250 kbit/s. 40

PHY MHz 868/915 2450

MHz 868-868.6 902-928 2400-2483.5

kchip/s 300 600 2000

BPSK BPSK O-QPSK

kb/s 20 40 250

ksymbol/s 20 40 62.5

1.

802.15.4 -2003

868/915 MHz

802.15.4 -2006 100 250 kbit/s. .

4

PHY MHz 868/915 868/915 868/915 2450

MHz 868-868.6 902-928 868-868.6 902-928 868-868.6 902-928 2400-2483.5

kchip/s 300 600 400 1600 400 1000 2000

BPSK BPSK ASK ASK O-QPSK O-QPSK O-QPSK

kb/s 20 40 250 250 100 250 250

ksymbol/s 20 40 12.5 50 25 62.5 62.5

2.

802.15.4 -20063

: IEEE802.15.4

, 434 MHz MHz 779-787 MHz IEEE 802.15 2009.

314-316 MHz, 430IEEE 802.15.4c. 950-956 4 .

PHY MHz 780 780 868/915

MHz 779-787 779-787 868-868.6 902-928

kchip/s 1000 1000 300 600

O-QPSK MPSK BPSK BPSK

kb/s 250 250 20 40

ksymbol/s 62.5 62.5 20 40

3.PHY MHz 950 950 2400

802.15.4c

MHz 950-956 950-956 2400-2483.5

kchip/s 300 2000

GFSK BPSK O-QPSK

kb/s 100 20 250

ksymbol/s 100 20 62.5

4. 2007 6, 3 GHz 2.4 GHz. 6 10 GHz. IEEE 802.15.4 .

802.15.4d 4

UWB (Ultra-WideBand), CSS (Chirp Spread Spectrum). UWB : 1 GHz, 3 5 CSS ISM

2.24

: IEEE802.15.4

2.3.2 MAC : , beacon , ,

- MAC

PAN (Personal Area Network)

Avoidance)

slot), 1. Beacon frame: FFD .MAC Header Frame Control Sequence Number

, CSMA-CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access - Collision e , (time MAC . : beacon beacon , . (id PAN beacon ) ,

MAC Payload Superframe Specification GTS fields Pending address field Beacon Payload

MAC Footer FCS

Addressing Fields

2.3 2. Data frame: MAC , .

beacon .

MAC Header Frame Control Sequence Number Addressing Fields

MAC Payload

MAC Footer FCS

Data Payload

2.4

data

3. Acknowledgment frame: .

MAC5

: IEEE802.15.4

. .MAC Header Frame Control Sequence Number

FCS (Frame Check Sequence) cknowledgment frame

MAC Payload

MAC Footer FCS

2.5

acknowledgment

4. MAC command Frame: MAC5.MAC Header Frame Control Sequence Number Addressing Fields Command type MAC Payload MAC Command Payload

MAC

MAC Footer FCS

2.5Command identifier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-255

MAC command frameCommand type Association Request Association Response Disassociation Notification Data Request PAN ID Conflict Notification Orphan Notification Beacon Request Coordinator Realigment GTS Request Reserved

Tabela 5.

MAC Command

6

: IEEE802.15.4

3.3.1 ZigBee . IEEE 802.15.4 OSI IEEE 802.15 MAC ZigBee Alliance ZigBee . zag) (Mesh). ZigBee ZIGBEE?

ZIGBEE

, . PHY MAC

,

. 4 LR-WPAN . IEEE 802.15.4 (Zig-

.

3.2 ZigBee , ZigBee FFD (Full Function Device) RFD (Reduced Function Device). ZigBee . ( routing). (sleep mode) . FFD . ZigBee : 1. PAN (Personal Area Network)7

, : RFD FFD-

RFD-

: IEEE802.15.4

2. 3.

(Router) ED (End Device).

ZigBee , FFD . FFD . RFD , . , , ED ,

3.3 IEEE 802.15.4 , ZigBee Alliance ZigBee 3.1: . ,

3.1 ZigBee

8

: IEEE802.15.4

3.3.1

- NWK NWK (Network layer) MAC , , , ao

, .

,

3.3.2

- APP

APP (Application layer) APS (Application Support Sub-Layer), ZDO (ZigBee Device Objects) . APS . ZDO . ,

3.4

ZIGBEE-A :

1. 2. 3. ZigBee

(Star) (Tree) (Mesh) : ZigBee (Star) (Mesh) ZigBee3.2: ZigBee PRO. (Tree), .

ZigBee PRO

9

: IEEE802.15.4

3.2

ZigBee-a

PAN ED. ED .

, . , .

3.5

ZIGBEE-A . ZigBee, AODV (Ad hoc On deman Distance Vector). ZigBee10

,

: IEEE802.15.4

, , . . ZigBee : .

1. ,

(Flooding): . , IEEE 802.15.4. , , . .

2.

( .) . ,

(Bellman-Ford

algorithm):

-

. . . ,

. 3. The GRAd (Gradient Routing for Ad hoc networks): ( , . , . . .11

).

,

,

: IEEE802.15.4

3.6 ZigBee Alliance ZigBee

ZIGBEE-A . :

1. The ZigBee Compilant Platform (ZCP) ZigBee , . 2. The ZigBee Network Capable (ZNC) ZCP . ZigBee , 3. The ZigBee Certified Product ZigBee Alliance ZCP. ZigBee Alliance.

4.4.1

ZIGBEE

ZIGBEE , , . 4 :

1. Stick-On Sensor: . . 2. Virtual Wire: , ( ...).12

. ,

: IEEE802.15.4

3. Wireless Hub: . . , PDA. 4. Cable Replacement: . Bluetooh). . (gateway)

(bridge)

(IEEE 802.15.1 IEEE 802.15.4

. , , . FieldBus, INCOM). . (DeviceNet,

ZigBee . . : , , HomeRF). , , ,

... . (the Consumer Electronics Associoacion - CEA,

, ... , - , .

,

,

...13

: IEEE802.15.4

, ...

,

, , .

, , ( , , , ) . . . . , . , ... , , ,

, , ...

,

,

.

(

. ), ...

.

ZigBee, , , . ( ) , . , . , ,14

, .

: IEEE802.15.4

, .

ZigBee : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ) 6. 7. 8. (ad-hoc ZigBee-a ) 4.1: , ( 250 kb/s)

(

4.1

ZigBee-a

4.2 ZIGBEE APPLICATIONS ZIGBEE15

: IEEE802.15.4

: ZigBee (Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Ultra-wideband, cell phones...) . IEEE , . ZigBee , , . . ZigBee and stick" . . ZigBee, ZigBee . , 200 ZigBee ZigBee Alliance . (Automatic (Building Monitoring) Meter Reading). / ZigBee . (applications are limitless). 12 1. Conditioning), 2. . . , . , . , , 5 , . . ZigBee "peel , , 802.11, 802.15.1 802.15.3

,

o , :

e

AMR

ZigBee

:

, HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air

16

: IEEE802.15.4

3. AMR . 4. Acquisition) 5. . 6. . 7. 8. . 9. ... 10. , 11. IDentification) . 12. M2M (Machine to machine) . 4.2: , ... RFID : TV- , DVD- , . , ,

,

SCADA (Supervisoty Control And Data , HVAC,

:

,

(Radio-Frequency

17

: IEEE802.15.4

4.2

12 ZigBee

5.: 1. 2. 5.1 IEEE 802.15.4 (security service) MAC . 1. ccess Control ( C 2. Data Encryption ( . . ): ): . : MAC (IEEE 802.15.4 security) (ZigBee security)

18

: IEEE802.15.4

3. Frame Integrity (

-

):

( ) MIC (message integrity code). MAC . 4. Sequential Freshness ( MAC ( ) . MAC 802.15.4 1. Unsecured Mode ( , , . 2. Access Control List (ACL) Mode ( , MAC . 3. Secured Mode ( , ) ) . MAC ):

MIC

MAC

replay attack ( : ).

, )

. 802.15.4 AES (Advanced Encryption Standrad). 802.15.4-2003:

, IEEE 5

AES-CTR AES-CCM-128 AES-CCM-64 AES-CCM-32 AES-CBC-MAC-128 AES-CBC-MAC-64 AES-CBC-MAC-32

0 128 64 32 128 64 32

5. 5.219

: IEEE802.15.4

ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4

MAC .

. ZigBee , ZigBee

. ZigBee ZigBee , , . MAC . , , MAC (spoofing attacks) MAC 128, . (Master), (Link) (Network) . ZigBee . (Alternate Network Key) . , ZigBee , ZigBee ZigBee AES : . , . , . MAC MAC . , MAC . ZigBee : MAC, NTW, APP. , :

ZigBee ,

. , ZigBee , , ZigBee . . .

ZigBee ZigBee ZTC (ZigBee Trust Center). ZigBee ZigBee . ZTC

20

: IEEE802.15.4

ZigBee ZigBee ). ,

. ( , . ZigBee

(op