Chapter 3 Culture. Outline 3 Ways to Measure Culture Cultural Differences in 4 Components of Emotion...

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Transcript of Chapter 3 Culture. Outline 3 Ways to Measure Culture Cultural Differences in 4 Components of Emotion...

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Chapter 3 Culture Slide 2 Outline 3 Ways to Measure Culture Cultural Differences in 4 Components of Emotion Subjective Feelings Behavior (facial expressions, vocalizations) Eliciting Events Cognitive Appraisals (morality, causality, novelty) Physiology Gender and Cultural Differences Video: Culture and Emotion 2 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 3 In-Class Exercise #2 Name, username, date Number paper from 1 to 2 3 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 4 (Masuda et al., 2005) 1 Low Sadness 5 High Sadness 1 Low Happiness 5 High Happiness Central Figure: How Positive? How Negative? 4 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 5 (Masuda et al., 2005) #1 5 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 6 #2 (Masuda et al., 2005) 6 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 7 Culture A group-specific practice that emerged from the interaction between a group and its environment. Social Constructivist cultural differences exist! Basic Emotions no cultural differences! Snow Monkey (Japanese Macaque) (Schirmer, 2015, p.357) 7 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 8 3 Ways to Measure Culture Individualism/Collectivism ( Markus & Kitayama, 1991) Power Distance (Matsumoto, 1996) Linear vs. Dialectical Epistemology 8 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 9 9 I often do "my own thing" The well-being of my coworkers is important to me. One should live one's life independently of others. If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud. I like my privacy. If a relative were in financial difficulty, I would help within my means. I prefer to be direct and forthright when discussing with people. Red = Individualistic; Black = Collectivist 1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree Slide 10 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood10 I often do "my own thing" The well-being of my coworkers is important to me. One should live one's life independently of others. If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud. I like my privacy. If a relative were in financial difficulty, I would help within my means. I prefer to be direct and forthright when discussing with people. Red = Individualistic; Black = Collectivist Slide 11 Individualism/Collectivism (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) CollectivismIndividualism Individual Uniqueness Equality Interdependence Hierarchy; Status 11 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 12 Individualism/Collectivism (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) CollectivismIndividualism Individual Uniqueness Interdependence China, Japan America, Western Europe Japanese American, Chinese American 12 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 13 SELF MOTHER FATHER BROTHER FRIEND SISTER ROMANTIC PARTNER 13 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 14 SELF MOTHER FATHER BROTHER FRIEND SISTER ROMANTIC PARTNER 14 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 15 Power Distance (Matsumoto, 1996) Vertical Society Horizontal Society High social hierarchy Low social hierarchy 15 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 16 Power Distance (Matsumoto, 1996) Vertical Society Horizontal Society High social hierarchy Low social hierarchy AmericaJapan Philippines Guatemala Malaysia Austria Israel Denmark 16 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood United Kingdom High PD Low PD Slide 17 Linear vs. Dialectical Epistemology Linear Epistemology: Aristotle Goal = Happiness; optimize positive feelings Dialectical Epistemology: Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism Goal = Moderation; balance b/w positive and negative feelings 17 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 18 Religious Basis for Dialecticism Daoism = happiness is unhappiness Buddhism = pursuing happiness/rewards interferes with individuals ability to resist desire Confucianism = pursuit of happiness disrupts group harmony because it makes other in-group members jealous 18 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 19 Happiness for winning an award Quickly turns to Shame for making other group members feel bad 19 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 20 Emotions and Language 20 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 21 Think about a time when you felt joyful because of someone elses misery. What would you label this emotion? 21 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 22 Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Looking to language for cultural differences in emotion We only have experiences and thoughts that are represented by our words. We experience only the emotions for which we have words in a language Implications (Sapir, 1921; Whorf, 1956) 22 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 23 Evidence Against Sapir-Whorf Does the underlying structure (i.e., valence, activation) of emotions differ across culture? Sample 1: Estonia, Greek, Polish Ps rated similarity of pairs of emotions Sample 2: Chinese living in Canada and Hong Kong; Greek Emotions mapped onto circumplex model Cross-cultural similarity of emotional experience 23 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 24 Cultural Differences in Emotion Components 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood24 Slide 25 Cultural Differences in Emotion Components Subjective Feelings Behavior Facial Expressions, Vocalizations Eliciting Events Cognitive Appraisals Physiological Responses 25 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 26 Subjective Feelings Socially Disengaged Emotions: Ego-Focused Emotions Anger, Pride Socially Engaged Emotions: Other-Focused Emotions Guilt, Friendliness, Shame Diary Study: Japanese vs. American university students Engaging = Guilt, Friendliness; Disengaging = Anger, Pride (Kitayama et al., 2004) 26 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 27 (Kitayama et al., 2004) 27 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 28 (Kitayama et al., 2004) 28 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 29 (Kitayama et al., 2004) 29 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 30 (Kitayama et al., 2004) 30 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 31 Subjective Feelings Dialectical cultures more likely to experience mixed emotions Evidence: East Asia > Asian-Americans > Americans (Scollon et al., 2004; Perunovic et al., 2007; Shiota et al., 2010) 31 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 32 Facial Expressions IV = Japanese vs. American Participants IV = 1) Central figure expression matches crowd or 2) Central figure expression does not match crowd DV = Participants perceived intensity of emotion felt by central figure (Masuda et al., 2005) 32 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 33 Cultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional Expressions (Masuda et al., 2005) 33 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 34 Cultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional Expressions (Masuda et al., 2005) 34 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 35 35 I often do "my own thing" The well-being of my coworkers is important to me. One should live one's life independently of others. If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud. I like my privacy. If a relative were in financial difficulty, I would help within my means. I prefer to be direct and forthright when discussing with people. Red = Individualistic; Black = Collectivist Slide 36 36 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Cultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional Expressions Slide 37 37 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Cultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional Expressions Slide 38 (Masuda et al., 2005) 38 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 39 Cultural Differences: Interpreting Emotional Expressions Eye Gaze Patterns: Caucasian vs. Asians Surprise, Fear, Disgust, Anger Face Areas: Left eye, right eye, bridge of nose, center of face, mouth (Jack et al., 2009) 39 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 40 (SR = Same Race; OR = Other Race; Jack et al., 2009) WC = Western Cultures EA = East Asian Cultures 40 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Left eye, right eye, bridge of nose, center of face, mouth Slide 41 (Jack et al., 2009) 41 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Greatest Focus, Smallest Focus Slide 42 Cultural Differences in Display Rules (expressions) Japanese (vs. Americans) More likely to mask negative feelings in front of other people. More appropriate to express anger to out-groups Americans (vs. Japanese): More appropriate to express disgust and sadness to in- group and happiness to public : (Ekman, 1972; Friesen, 1972; Matsumoto, 1990) 42 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 43 Vocalizations European English and Himba tribe in Namibia Listened to emotional story, then selected 1 of 2 vocalizations that matched the emotion in story Basic Emotions: English and Himba selected correct vocalizations Did not vary with voice whether English or Himba More difficulty with positive emotions 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood 43 [Sauter, D.A., Eisner, F., Ekman, P., & Scott, S.K. (2010). Cross-cultural recognition of basic emotions through nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 107, 2408-2412. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0908239106]. Slide 44 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood44 Slide 45 Physiology 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood45 Slide 46 Eliciting Event Same Event Different Emotions Navajo Indians vs. Americans Different Events Same Emotion Utko Eskimos vs. Americans 46 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 47 Antecedents and Cognitive Appraisals Individualist Appraisal of the self Collectivist Appraisal of the group OR the self Example: Shame, guilt, pride 47 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 48 Cultural Differences in Appraisals: Three Examples Appraisals determine type and strength of emotion elicited Novelty: Is the event familiar or unfamiliar (novel)? Causality: Did I cause this emotion? Someone else? Situation? Morality: Is the event moral or immoral? 48 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 49 Novelty Are we more likely to show fear to in-group (familiar) or out-group (novel) members? Is our fear toward in-group (familiar) or out- group (novel) members more likely to persist? 49 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 50 BLACK PARTICIPANTS FEAR ACQUISITION OUT-GROUP CONDITIONING IN-GROUP CONDITIONING Slide 51 CS BLACK PARTICIPANTS FEAR ACQUISITION OUT-GROUP CONDITIONING IN-GROUP CONDITIONING SCR UCSCR Slide 52 CS BLACK PARTICIPANTS FEAR ACQUISITION CS OUT-GROUP CONDITIONING IN-GROUP CONDITIONING SCR UCS SCR CR Slide 53 WHITE PARTICIPANTS FEAR ACQUISITION IN-GROUP CONDITIONING OUT-GROUP CONDITIONING Slide 54 CS WHITE PARTICIPANTS FEAR ACQUISITION IN-GROUP CONDITIONING OUT-GROUP CONDITIONING SCR UCS CR Slide 55 CS WHITE PARTICIPANTS FEAR ACQUISITION CS I