Emotion A Multidimensional Response System. Nature of emotions Multidimensional, adaptive response...

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Transcript of Emotion A Multidimensional Response System. Nature of emotions Multidimensional, adaptive response...

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Emotion A Multidimensional Response System Slide 2 Nature of emotions Multidimensional, adaptive response system Physiological Conscious (subjective feelings) Behavioral Cognitive (appraisals) Synchronized emotional system responds to event Anger/sadness Slide 3 Physiological Response Brain structure activity (RAS, thalamus, amygdala) Right prefrontal cortex: NA Left prefrontal cortext: PA ANS, facial expression Heart rate, blood pressure, countenance Blood flow to hands greater w/ anger than sadness Endocrine system/hormonal activity Adrenaline, cortisol Slide 4 Conscious Response 2 components Valence Arousal Positive valence Negative valence High arousal Low arousal pleasant relaxation joy sadness fear anger Slide 5 Cognitive Response Evaluate potential consequences of event & your ability to cope Appraisal Do I care about what is happening here? Might this prevent (help) me from reaching my goals? Interpret physiological changes How upset/excited am I? Slide 6 Behavioral Response Adaptive behaviors Reduce negative & increase positive valence Express emotion Facial features/body language/tone of voice Informs others about current emotional state Can we determine emotions via faces? Grab a partner & make a face! Slide 7 Make A Face Happy Slide 8 Make A Face Angry Slide 9 Make A Face zHappy zAngry Can we R adaptively to faces? Females > Males Evolution? No difference at 4 yrs old Socialization? Slide 10 Emotions Emotions unites all these diverse responses into a coherent response system Adaptive response to some event Slide 11 Expressing Emotion Gender and expressiveness Participants watched emotional videos No difference in self-reported emotion Difference in facial expressions Slide 12 Expressing Emotion Men Women Sad Happy Scary Film Type 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Number of facial expressions Slide 13 Expressing Emotion Culturally universal expressions Slide 14 Suppressing Emotion Polygraph Lie detector Physiological response Perspiration Heart rate Blood pressure Breathing Slide 15 Suppressing Emotion Control Question Up to age 18, did you ever physically harm anyone? Relevant Question Did the deceased threaten to harm you in any way? Relevant > Control = Lie Slide 16 Suppressing Emotion Control question Relevant question Control question Relevant question (a) (b) Respiration Perspiration Heart rate Slide 17 Reaction Paper VIII: Emotion What do you think causes emotions? Provide a novel example of this cause for one specific emotion (e.g., anger, happiness, fear). PLEASE TURN THIS IN AFTER CLASS! Slide 18 Causes of Emotions MANY perspectives Commonly debated paradigms: Biological vs Cognitive Emphasize body vs mind Chicken & egg (what comes first cog or bio?) Paradigm Slide 19 Biological Paradigm - Zajonc Emphasize evolution/adaptive nature of emotion Changes in physiology, facial expressions, cortical activity produce emotions Genetically inherited neural circuits Biology primary No cognition needed Slide 20 Biological Paradigm - Zajonc Stimulate amygdala Emotional R Manipulate facial muscles Emotional R Emotions are often fast/automatic Someone jumps out and scares you --> fear No time for thought Emotions precede cognition in development Infants emotional?, cognitive? Slide 21 Biological Paradigm - Theories James-Lange Theory Emotion = awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli We are sad because we cry, afraid because we tremble. Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Slide 22 Criticisms of James/Lange Body changes unneeded for emotion Spinal cord injury Christopher Reeve Same arousal w/ many emotions Biological Paradigm - Theories Slide 23 Cannon-Bard Theory Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: Physiological responses Subjective experience of emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion) Biological Paradigm - Theories Slide 24 Biological Paradigm - Data New data is supporting differential arousal for different emotions Brain Anger & blood to hands Supports James/Lange Slide 25 Facial Feedback Theory Facial muscles influence emotion Strong - CAUSE emotions Weak - enhances reduces emotions Making faces impacts emotional R Biological Paradigm - Theories Slide 26 Facial Feedback Theory How? Vascular Theory Changes brain temperature Slide 27 U sound EE/Ah Hot Brain Neg Affect Cool Brain Pos Affect Biological Paradigm - Theories Slide 28 Cognitive Paradigm - Lazarus Emotion = person-event relationship Cognitive interpretations establishes nature of that relationship Depends on whether event potentially impacts ones goals Appraisals key W/o cognitions, no emotions Fail a geometry test & major is music? Fail a geometry test & major is math? Slide 29 Cognitive Paradigm - Theories Schachters Two Factor Theory Emotion requires: 1) Physical arousal 2 ) Cognitively label arousal Must not have prior explanation of arousal Slide 30 Cognitive Paradigm - Theories Cognitive label Im afraid Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Slide 31 Cognitive Paradigm - Data Schachter - injected participants with adrenaline Informed/misinformed Emotional confederate Slide 32 Cognitive Paradigm - Data Misinformed experienced the emotion acted out by confederate Happy condition Slide 33 Biological or Cognitive paradigm? Who is right? Is cognition primary or is biology primary in emotions? BOTH! Evolutionarily devised quick response system Slower cognitive processing system These probably interact in complex ways Slide 34 Two-Systems view System 1 Innate automatic system reacts w/o higher processing to emotional S Thalamus-> Amygdala System 2 Experience based system dependent on new learning & cognitive processing Cortex Culture/life experience plays a role in emotions Display rules Feel like crying OK to do at Sears?/funeral? Slide 35 Two-Systems view Slide 36 Function of Emotions Direct Adaptive Behs Evolutionary Theory Maxd survival how? Motivated fundamental life tasks Fight/flight, infant caretaking, protection, reproduce, obtain food Primary emotions - universal emotion systems Fear, anger, disgust, surprise, joy, anticipation Due to shared adaptational challenges during evolution Facial expressions similar across cultures Slide 37 Function of Emotions Primary emotions evolved for life tasks Protection Fear motivates escape Anger motivates attack Exploration Anticipation/interest motivates investigation Indirect Adaptive Behs Communicate internal states via facial expressions & body Key for primates/early humans w/o language abilities Infants cry/scream/facial expressions Fear face adaptive? Slide 38 Experiencing Emotion Subjective Well-Being Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life Used along with measures of objective well-being Physical and economic indicators to evaluate peoples quality of life Love (need to belong) more important than $ Slide 39 Experiencing Emotion Money Love 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 Life satisfaction 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 Importance scores Slide 40 Happiness is... Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness Slide 41 Summary: Emotion Multidimensional response system Expression Causes Biological & Cognitive paradigms Two-Sytems View Function SWB