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    Q

    R O U P

    FFECTIVENESS

    E S E R C H

    O R T O R Y

    E P R T M E N T FSYCHD IDGY

    ^*NIVERS ITY FLL INO I S

    ^

    RBANA ,

    I LL INOI S

    A

    Ctmparfative

    Analyis

    of

    SubjectiveCulture

    HarryC.Triandis

    nd

    asso

    V.ssiliou

    University

    of

    Illinois

    thenian

    Instituteof

    Anthropos

    Technical

    ReportNo.

    5(67-11)

    -pj

    October,1967

    JAN22 9W

    Communication,Cooperation

    andNegotiation\\

    inCulturallyHeterogeneous

    Groups

    Project

    Supported

    by

    the

    Advanced

    Research

    Projects

    Agency,

    ARPA

    OrderNo.

    454

    Under

    Office

    ofNavalResearchContract

    HR

    177-472,Nonr1834(36)

    Fred

    E.

    FiedlerandHarry

    C.

    Triandis

    Prlncip?'.

    Investigatois

    DISTRIBUTIONOFTHIS

    DOCUMENTIS

    UNLIMITED

    f i

    ftepfcducedbyhe

    LE RINGHOUSE

    fo rFderalcienfific

    t chn ica i

    k i io rmal tonSpringfie ld

    V a

    21tt

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    Table

    f

    Contents

    Page

    Introduction

    Stereotypes

    f

    Americansnd

    Greeks

    Geography

    ndHistory

    Groe National

    Character

    The

    mportance

    f

    he

    Ir.group

    TheGreek

    Self-Concept 4

    Relaons

    WithOthers

    9

    KinrMp 9

    Authority

    Figures 0

    Prejudices

    .....

    4

    Differences

    of

    the

    Perception

    of

    Social

    Behavior

    5

    GreekWorkHabits 8

    Attitudo..Toward

    SignificantAspectsof

    the

    Environment

    9

    HumanBody

    0

    LifeandHealth 0

    Emotions 1

    Religion

    4

    EthicalConcepts

    4

    Supernaturals

    ......

    7

    InstitutionsandSocialProcesses

    .

    7

    Social

    Attitudes 0

    Valuesand Disvalues .....7

    Freedom 7

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    Peace

    Truth

    Courage

    andDefeat

    Achlevesoent

    Concepts

    Death

    Relations

    With

    Others

    Summary

    Discussion

    References

    Page

    48

    49

    49

    50

    53

    54

    57

    58

    62

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    A

    Comparative

    Analysis

    of

    Subjective

    Culture

    HarryC.Triandls

    nd

    assoVaasillou

    University

    of

    Illinois

    thenian

    Instituteof

    Anthx-opos

    ABSTRACT

    Areview

    of

    the

    resultsobtainedwhenavarietyofne wtechniquesfor

    v h eanalysis

    of

    the

    wayaperson

    perceives

    hi ssocialenvironmentisapplied

    to

    the

    comparison

    of

    two

    cultural

    groups,

    reveals

    sone

    basic

    similarities

    inthe

    obtained

    results.hevarious

    methods

    give

    complementary

    information.

    Thedatawere

    obtained

    from

    studiesof"thesubjectiveculture"of

    AmericansandGreeks.omparableinstruments

    were

    administeredtothetwo

    culturalgroupsandthe

    results

    are

    presented

    in

    termsof

    the

    differences

    betweenAmericanand

    Greek perceptions

    of

    social

    reality.

    he

    analysis

    of

    subjective

    culture

    islikely

    to

    help

    in

    theunderstandingo ftranscultural

    conflict,aswellasinthedevelopment

    of

    theory

    concerninginterpersonal

    attitudes,interpersonalbehavior,

    andconflictresolution.

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    A

    ComparatlvAnalysis

    of

    Subjective

    Culture

    Harry C.Triandis

    nd

    assoVasslliou

    University

    of

    Illinois

    Athenian

    Institute

    ofAnthropos

    There

    is

    ample

    evidencethat

    a

    person's

    knowledgeofhisenvironment

    isstronglyinfluencedby the

    culture

    in

    which

    he

    hasbeenbrought

    up.

    y

    culture*emeantheman-madepartof

    the

    human

    environment.hicincludes

    the

    artifacts(e.g.,

    themachines),

    the

    means

    of

    communication,

    the

    buildings,

    thelaws,the myths,

    theattitudes,

    the

    values,andtherules

    ofsocial

    behavior

    as

    wellasmany other

    elements.

    InthepastseveralyearsTriandisan dVasslliouhavebeen

    analyzing

    subjectiveculture, i.e.,the way

    subjects

    in

    differentculturesperceive

    and

    conceive

    significant

    aspects

    oftheir

    environment,subject's

    subjective

    culture lu

    conceived

    to

    be

    his theory ofhowhisenvironmentisstructured.

    It

    includes

    his

    perception

    ofothers,hi s

    prejudices,

    attitudes,values,and

    dlsvalues.number

    of

    newtechniqueshavebeen

    developedtoanalyze

    subjective

    culture.hese

    Includetheantecedent-consequentmeaning

    method

    2

    (Triandis,Davis,

    Kilty,

    Shatmugam,Tanaka,and

    Vasslliou),hebehavioral

    differential

    (Triandis,

    1964b),

    the

    role

    differential

    (Triandis,

    Vassilluu,

    and

    Nassiakou,

    1967a),

    an d

    a

    newapproach tostudies

    of

    stereotypes

    (Triandis,

    1967a;

    Triandis

    and

    Vasslliou,

    1967),

    number

    of

    theoretical

    developments

    concerned

    with

    cultural

    influences

    on

    cognition

    (Triandis,

    1964a),

    The

    study was

    supported

    bythe

    contract

    to

    study

    Communication,

    Cooperation,an d

    Negotiation

    in

    CulturallyHeterogeneous

    Groups

    between

    the

    university

    . f

    Illinoisandthe AdvancedResearch

    Projects

    Agency,ARPAOrder

    No.454,

    under

    theOffice

    of

    Naval

    Researcl

    ContractNR177-472,Nonr

    1834(36).

    (FredE.

    Fiedler

    andHarryC.

    Triandis,PrincipalInvestigators.)

    We

    areindebted

    to

    F.

    E.

    Fiedlerand

    David

    Summers

    for

    helpfulcritical

    comments

    on an

    earlier

    version

    of

    the

    paper.

    Triandis,

    H.C

    Davis,

    E.E .,

    Kilty,

    K. ,

    Shanmugam,

    A.

    V. ,Tanaka,

    Y.,

    an dVasslliou,

    Vasso

    A

    cross-culturalstudy

    of

    values:

    he

    use

    of

    the

    antecedsnt-ct-nsequent

    meaning

    of

    words

    (in

    preparation).

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    2 .

    oninterpersonalattitudes

    (Triandls,

    1967b),,andon

    the

    perception

    ot social

    behavior

    (Triandls,

    Vassillou,and

    Nasslakou,

    1967b;Triandls,

    Vasslliou,and

    Nasslakou,

    1968)havs

    also

    been

    presented.

    Inaddition,

    wellestablished

    techniques,

    suchassurveyresearch with

    representative

    samples

    of

    the

    Greek

    population,

    intensiveinterviewing,

    Osgood'ssemanticdifferential(Osgood,Sucl,andTannenbaum,1957),and

    Likert-typeattitudeitems

    have

    beenemployed

    byVassillouandhercollabora-

    torsinanalyses

    of

    the

    subjective

    culture ofGreek.

    The

    present

    paper

    reviewstheabove

    studies.

    It

    is

    an

    attempt

    to

    illustratehowIntensive

    analyses

    of

    the

    responsesofsubjects

    from

    different

    cultures

    canbe

    used

    to

    develop

    an

    image

    of

    the

    similaritiesa i i d

    differer

    nes

    in

    subjective

    culture

    in

    differentpopulations

    of

    subjects.

    he

    system

    of

    cognitions

    of

    subjects

    constitutes

    a

    map

    of

    the

    way

    they

    conceive

    their

    environment.

    uch

    maps

    probablyconstitute

    the

    basesfordifferent

    kinds

    ofbehavior,by

    subjects

    from

    different

    cultures.

    The

    majority

    ofthereadersofthepresentpaperwillbe

    familiar

    with

    American cultureandwillhave

    a subjective

    culture

    similar

    tothatfound

    inour

    studies

    to

    be

    typicalofAmericans.urfindingsaretherefore

    presented

    as

    explanations

    of

    Greek

    subjectiveculturefrom

    an

    American

    point

    of

    view.

    The

    paper willillustrate

    consistencies

    in

    the

    responses

    of

    subjects

    to

    different

    kinds

    of

    instruments.

    heinstrumentsthemselveswillnotbe

    described

    in

    detail,sincesuch

    a

    presentation

    can

    be

    found

    in

    the

    previously

    mentioned

    papers.

    hus,

    thepresentpaperwillbeconcernedwith

    substantive

    findingsrather

    thanthe

    methodology

    whichledtothe

    findJiocs