Emotion and Personality. Emotions  Components of Emotions (e.g., fear):  Distinct subjective...

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Transcript of Emotion and Personality. Emotions  Components of Emotions (e.g., fear):  Distinct subjective...

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Emotion and Personality Slide 2 Emotions Components of Emotions (e.g., fear): Distinct subjective feelings (e.g., anxiety) Accompanied by bodily changes (e.g., increase heart rate) Accompanied by action tendencies, or increases in the probabilities of certain behaviors (tendency to fight or flight) Slide 3 Emotions People differ in emotional reactions, even to the same event, so emotions are useful in making distinctions between persons Slide 4 Issues In Emotion Research Emotion States versus Emotion Traits Categorical Approach to Emotions versus Dimensional Approach The Content versus Style of Emotional Life Slide 5 Issues In Emotion Research Emotion states are transitory and depend more on the situation than on the specific person An emotional trait is a pattern of emotional reactions that a person consistently experiences across a variety of life situations Emotion States versus Emotion Traits Slide 6 Issues In Emotion Research Categorical Approach Emotions are a small number of primary and distinct emotions Dimensional Approach Emotions are broad dimensions of experience Anger, Joy, AnxietyPleasantUnpleasant Slide 7 Slide 8 Issues In Emotion Research Content: specific kinds of emotions Style: how emotions are experienced and expresses Content versus Style of Emotional Life Slide 9 The Content of Emotional Life Pleasant Emotions versus Unpleasant Emotions Slide 10 The Content of Emotional Life Pleasant Emotions Pleasant emotions: Happiness and life satisfaction (Subjective Well-Being) Researchers have defined happiness in two complimentary ways: (1) Judgment that life is satisfying (2) Predominance of positive relative to negative emotions Happiness not just absence of negative emotions Slide 11 The Content of Emotional Life Are self-reported happier people really happier? Self-report and non-self-report measures of happiness correlate with self-report scores on social desirability Part of being happy is to have positive illusions about the self, an inflated view of the self as a good, able, desirable person (Defense Mechanisms) Slide 12 The Content of Emotional Life Survey measures of happiness and well- being predict other aspects of peoples lives we would expect to relate to being happy Compared to unhappy people, happy people are less abusive, less hostile, report fewer diseases, are more helpful, creative, energetic, forgiving, and trusting Thus, self-reports of happiness are valid and trustworthy Slide 13 The Content of Emotional Life What We Know About Happy People No difference between the genders No difference between age groups; however, the circumstances that make us happy changes with age No differences with race or ethnicity Slide 14 The Content of Emotional Life Money? Within a country? Over time? Education? Marriage? Children? Religion? Slide 15 The Content of Emotional Life Personality and Well Being Two personality traits that influence happiness Extraversion Neuroticism Two different models Indirect model: Personality causes a person to create a certain lifestyle, and lifestyle causes emotion reactions Direct model: Personality causes emotional reactions Slide 16 The Content of Emotional Life Explanations Goal Satisfaction vs. Activity (goal striving) Top down (trait) vs. Bottom up (state) Slide 17 The Content of Emotional Life Unpleasant Emotions Trait anxiety, negative affectivity, or neuroticism Depression and melancholia Anger-proneness and hostility Slide 18 The Content of Emotional Life Anxiety, Negative Affectivity, or Neuroticism Eysencks Biological Theory Neuroticism is due primarily to the tendency of the limbic system in the brain to become easily activated Slide 19 The Content of Emotional Life Anxiety, Negative Affectivity, or Neuroticism Cognitive Theories Neuroticism is caused by styles of information processingpreferential processing of negative (but not positive) information about the self (not about others) Related explanation holds that high neuroticism people have richer networks of association surrounding memories of negative emotion unpleasant material is more accessible Slide 20 The Content of Emotional Life Depression and Melancholia Becks Cognitive Theory Certain cognitive style is a pre-existing condition that makes people vulnerable to depression Depressive schemas for Self, World, Future Versus Depressive realism Slide 21 The Content of Emotional Life Anger-Proneness and Hostility Type A personality: Syndrome or a cluster of traits, including achievement strivings, impatience, competitiveness, hostility Research identified Type A personality as a predictor of heart disease Research subsequently identified hostility as a trait of Type A most strongly related to heart disease Slide 22 The Content of Emotional Life Hostility: Tendency to respond to everyday frustrations with anger and aggression, to become easily irritated, to act in a rude, critical, antagonistic, uncooperative manner in everyday interaction Hostility in Big Five: Low agreeableness, high neuroticism Slide 23 Emotional Style Affect Intensity as an Emotional Style Assessing Affect Intensity and Mood Variability Research Findings on Affect Intensity Slide 24 Emotional Style High Affect Intensity Individuals who experience emotions strongly and are emotionally reactive and variable Low Affect Intensity Individuals who experience emotions only mildly and with only gradual fluctuations Slide 25 Emotional Style Assessing Affect Intensity and Mood Variability Affect Intensity Measure Beeper studies Slide 26 Emotional Style Research Findings on Affect Intensity High affect intensity subjects tend to evaluate the events in their lives (both positive and negative) as having more emotional impact Individuals high on the affect intensity dimension exhibit more mood variability Affect intensity relates to the personality dimensions of high activity level, sociability, and arousability Slide 27 The Interaction of Content and Style in Emotional Life Hedonic balance interacts with affect intensity to produce specific types of emotional lives that may characterize different personalities Slide 28 Slide 29 Summary Emotions as States or as Traits Emotional Content Emotional Style