Emotion A feeling that underlies behaviors and comprised of – Cognitive...

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Transcript of Emotion A feeling that underlies behaviors and comprised of – Cognitive...

  • Slide 1
  • Emotion A feeling that underlies behaviors and comprised of Cognitive (subjective feelings) Physiological (autonomic arousal) Behavioral (non-verbal expression)
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  • Types of Emotions What basic emotions can we agree to? Identify as many as you can and reduce the list to six basic emotions
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  • In Robert Plutchiks model there are 8 primary emotions, listed in the inner areas. Adjacent emotions combine as emotions listed around the perimeter. For example, fear plus anticipation produces anxiety. (Adapted from Plutchik, 2001) Lauren Silvas Grandpa!!! Robert Plutchiks 8 Primary Emotions
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  • Was a professor emeritus at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and adjunct professor at USF. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University He authored or coauthored more than 260 articles, 45 chapters and eight books and has edited seven books. His research interests include the study of emotions, the study of suicide and violence, and the study of the psychotherapy process Grandpa Plutchik's psycho-evolutionary theory of emotion remains one of the most influential classification approaches for general emotional responses Robert Plutchik Laurens Grandpa
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  • Emotions Carroll Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt, shame, and guilt Nancy Brown/ The Image Bank Tom McCarthy/ Rainbow
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  • Paul Ekmans Research on Emotions Primary Emotions 1) Are evident in all cultures 2) Are based in survival 3) Correlate with facial expressions Secondary All other emotions that are particular to humans and specific cultures Six primary emotions happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, disgust and anger (and degrees) Ekman
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  • Universality studies (Ekman) Ekmans universality studies Six expressions/five countries. Replicated in non-industrialized New Guinea, retested U.S. Primates and congenitally blind infants studied as well FACS and microexpressions Spot the Fake Smile
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  • Emotion and Physiological Arousal Limbic system role of amygdala Autonomic nervous system sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system response
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  • Physiological Arousal Physiological responses related to fear, anger, love, and boredom are very similar
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  • Early Theories of Emotion Common Sense View When you become happy, your heart starts beating faster. First emotion, then physiological activity
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  • Early Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory Emotion is a result of physiological responses to stimuli We are sad because we cry, afraid because we tremble... Facial feedback hypothesis?
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  • Early Theories of Emotion Cannon-Bard Physiological arousal and emotion (subjective feelings) occur simultaneously Heart begins pounding as we experience fear
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  • Cognitive Theories of Emotion Schachters Two factor theory Physiological arousal and then cognitive awareness and labeling Conscious interpretation necessary Schachter-Singer Epinephrine experiments Arousal intensifies and may spill over to other emotions (spillover effect)
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  • Cognition Can Define Emotion An arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event Spillover Effect Arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which may lead to rioting. Other examples?
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  • Cognitive Theories of Emotion Lazarus Appraisal Theory Temporal Sequence/Appraisal Theory (Lazarus) appraisal and reappraisal Appraisal determines emotion Cognitionemotioncognitionemotion Benign/positive/irrelevant/stressful?
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  • Challenges to Cognitive Theory Izzards facial movement and body posture research Pattern of unlearned movements independent of cognition Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Scoring System Facial feedback hypothesis (back to James-Lange). What happens?
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  • Challenges to Cognition Zajonc and Ledoux Some emotional reactions are more instantaneous than Schachter or Lazarus claim Cognition comes after emotion We experience some emotions before we think. Eye to thalamus to amygdala short-cut (bypass cortical awareness). BEAR!
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  • Challenges - Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to subjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of activity in the amygdala (Whalen et al. 2004)
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  • Non-verbal Expression of Emotion Study of communication through body movement, posture, gestures, and facial expressions Body language (kinesics) Facial expression Voice quality Personal space (proxemics) Explicit acts
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  • Emotions Across Culture Cross-cultural Differences in Expression Perception (and yes, even) Experience
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  • Emotions Across Culture Display rules - Expression Rules of social appropriateness. Learned in early life/unconscious practice Japanese- inappropriate display of negative emotions in public setting. Tatamae (on my face) and honne (in my heart) Ekman & Friesen study (Japan v. U.S.) Disgust SurveyDisgust Survey
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  • Cross-Cultural Expression Individualist v. Collectivist Emphasis in west on individual emotions Collectivist discomfort expressing ego-focused and negative emotions Differences in U.S. among and between racial and gender groups, e.g.?
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  • Culture-Specific Emotions Some cultures do not have a word for the concept of emotion (Ifaluk of Micronesia) No equivalent for considerate or lucky in Samoa Schadenfreude pleasure derived from anothers misfortunes (Germany) Han an intense form of rancor and enmity (Korea) Jung attachment/affection (Korea) Amae nave/immature and dependent
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  • Nature of Love Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Love Intimacy Affection, sharing, support, and communication in a relationship Passion High levels of physical arousal in a relationship, especially sexual Commitment Decision to love and stay with another person
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  • Sternbergs triangular theory of love
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  • Other Emotional Phenomena Catharsis hypothesis- psychodynamic theory that refers to an emotional release. It maintains that aggressive or sexual urges are relieved by "releasing" aggressive or sexual energy, usually through action or fantasy. Significant criticisms behavior feedback? Relax
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  • Other Emotional Phenomena Adaptation level phenomenon the tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level. We use our past to calibrate our present experience and to form expectations for the future. Examples? Emotions?
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  • Other Emotional Phenomena Positive psychology Subjective well-being SWBSWB Feel good, do good hypothesis - We are more likely to others when we are in a good mood (and vice versa)