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Pick up a clicker, find the right channel, and enter Student ID. Upcoming Deadlines. First Term Paper The Laws of Physics in an Animation Universe Due Today! (at 8AM) 100 points (50 points if late) Eighth homework (Reverse Video Reference) Due Thursday, Oct. 27 (Next week) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Uniform Motion

Upcoming DeadlinesFirst Term Paper The Laws of Physics in an Animation UniverseDue Today! (at 8AM)100 points (50 points if late)

Eighth homework (Reverse Video Reference)Due Thursday, Oct. 27 (Next week)20 points (10 points if late)

For full schedule, visit course website:ArtPhysics123.pbworks.comPick up a clicker, find the right channel, and enter Student ID1Homework #8Reverse video reference of walking

Normally, animators shoot video and use it as reference for their work. In this assignment, you will do the reverse. Specifically, you will watch each of three animation clips and shoot video in which you recreate them as accurately as possible. 2Homework #8Watch each of the three video clips on the assignment pageFilm yourself acting out each scene, each in a separate clip. Reproduce the motion of the character as accurately as possible - you will be graded on how well you do this. Dont just quickly act it out. Study each clip carefully to capture all of the motion details. Pay attention to staging, camera angle, camera moves (if any), etc. Post all three videos in a blog entry entitled Reverse Video Reference of Walking 3Homework #8Assignment is due by 8AM on Thursday, Oct. 27th20 points (10 points if late)

4Extra Credit Opportunities* Attend the Animation Show of Shows - Friday (tomorrow), 7:30 at the Morris Daley Aud. There will be 10 films shown and out of 5 of the films, the directors will be there. Pls see Lauren B for attendance credit.

* Attend any event at the NY-SF International Childrens Film Festival (October 21-23) Present proof of your attendance (receipt, photos, etc.) for 10 points of extra credit. * Attend any event at the San Francisco International Animation Festival (November 10-13). Present proof of your attendance (receipt, photos, etc.) for 10 points of extra credit.5Review Question

In this classic contrapposto pose, the weight of the body is primarily on which leg?A) Right LegB) Left Leg

6Hips and Shoulders

A) Right Leg

Notice the angles of the hips and shoulders and that they converge on the side that bears most of the weight.

Weight shifts from foot to foot are reflected by corresponding shifts in the hips and shoulders.Donatello's bronze statue of David (circa 1440s) 7Weight Shift in AnimationRex Grignon, head of character animation at Dreamworks, says that not having weight shift is one of them most common errors seen in the work of student animators.

Even when the lower body is out of frame, as in this medium shot, a good animator will think about what the lower body is doing because thats reflected in the whole pose.8

Lifting a WeightThis character is of normal human weight.The ball shes lifting is:

Very light, like a beach ball.Extremely heavy (she has super-human strength).Either A) or B) aboveis possible.

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Lifting a Heavy WeightXVery Light.XXHer CGBallsCGTotal CG if ball is lightNo matter how strong thecharacter is, the posecannot be in balance if theball is very heavy because the total center of gravity would not be over the base of support.

Imagine this as a free-standing statue; obviously it would tip over if the ball was very heavy.XTotal CG if ball is very heavy10Action &Reaction

11Newtons Laws of ForcesNewton established three basic laws to explain how motion is caused by forces:

Law of Inertia Law of Acceleration Action-Reaction Principle

Today we look at the Action-Reaction Principle, also known as Newtons Third Law.

Sir Isaac Newton12

Action-Reaction PrincipleFor every action force there is an equal reaction force in the opposite direction.ActionReactionActionReaction13Action and ReactionCommon expression for the principle is,

To every action theres an equal and opposite reaction.

Whats an action? A force exerted by one object on second object.

Whats a reaction? A force exerted by second object back on the first object that is causing the action.

How can reaction be equal and opposite?Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.14

Action-Reaction PairsAction-reaction always occurs in pairs.Action: Fist exerts force on jawReaction: Jawexerts forceon fistAction: (Thing A) exerts a force on (Thing B).Reaction: (Thing B) exerts a force on (Thing A).Action: Manexerts force on rockReaction: Rockexerts forceon man15Law of Acceleration (Reminder)Object AObject BForceAccelerationsBy Law of Acceleration, Object A accelerates more than the (heavier) Object B.ForceObject A has less mass (lighter) than Object B.Push each object with the same force.16

Class Demo: Mutual AttractionWhat happens when:Mr. A pulls, Mr. B holds.Mr. A holds, Mr. B pulls.Mr. A & Mr. B both pull.Mr. BMr. AMr. B has more mass (weighs more) than Mr. APut them on skateboards to minimize the effect of friction force.17

Class Demo: Mutual Attraction (cont.)If only Mr. A pulls on Mr. B then Mr. B accelerates.Reaction force of equal magnitude so Mr. A also moves.Who moves faster? Mr. A, Mr. B, or the same?ActionReactionMr. AMr. BMr. A goes faster (greater acceleration) since his mass is less.AccelerationsMr. A has less mass than Mr. B18Mutual Attraction SummaryObject AObject BActionReactionAccelerationsIf A pulls B then both accelerate in response to equal forces.By Law of Acceleration, Object A, having less mass, will accelerate more than the heavier Object B.19

Class Demo: Mutual Attraction (cont.)Action AReaction AMr. AMr. BAccelerationsTwice the force, twice the accelerationWhen both persons pull then there are two action forces and two reaction forces. If both pull with same force, how much greater is the acceleration than when only one pulls?Action BReaction B20

Class Demo: Mutual Attraction (cont.)We replace Mr. B with a solid wall and Mr. A pulls on the wall (thats the action force) .Due to the enormous mass of the building, the wall does not move.Wall exerts a reaction force, which pulls Mr. A towards the wall.ActionReactionMr. AAcceleration21

Class Demo: Mutual RepulsionSimilar demonstration is to have Mr. A and Mr. B push away instead of pull together.Same results; if Mr. A pushes and Mr. B holds then both move apart.ActionReactionMr. ApushesMr. B holdsLargeAccelerationSmallAcceleration22Mutual Repulsion SummaryObject AObject BActionReactionAccelerationsIf A pushes B then both accelerate by equal forces.By Law of Acceleration, Object A, having less mass, will accelerate more than the heavier Object B.23

Class Demo: Mutual Repulsion (cont.)If we replace Mr. B with a solid wall then Mr. A pushes on the wall (thats the action force) but due to the enormous mass of the building, the wall does not move.Wall exerts a reaction force, pushing Mr. A away from the wall.ActionReactionMr. AAcceleration24

Wile E. Coyote & Action/ReactionBeep Beep (1952)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vobhUvhO8N0http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csIIFGFr1wUGee Whiz-z-z-z (1956)Action/Reaction is often violated for comic effect.25Kung-Fu Panda

End credits of KFP play with the 3rd law, but consistently.Strong characters have mass; the weak ones are light.WeakStrong26Action/Reaction in KFPWatch the reaction for each character as they strike the inanimate punching bag.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGg6QiNOZ28

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Fight ScenesAction: Fist exerts force on jawReaction: Jawexerts forceon fistFight scenes are more realistic when reaction punches and kicks show the reaction force28Spiderman 3 (2007)Most elements of this fight scene do not have realistic reaction forces to match the actions.

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From Russia with Love (1963)This early James Bond film has a very brutal, realistic fight scene.A recent Bond film (Casino Royale, 2006) starts with a similarly realistic fight scene in a bathroom.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ea7JxAvzUMg30

Kung fu Hustle (2004)In a comedy its best to make a fight scene less realistic, which makes it funny.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glsUlacDN7Q31Recoil

Recoil Speed = (Bullet/Gun Weight Ratio) x (Bullet Speed)Action/Reaction also explains recoil, such as from a gun.The action force that accelerates the bullet results in areaction force in opposite direction, recoiling the gun. Heavy cannonFast cannonballExample: If the cannon weighs 100 times more than the cannon ball then cannons recoil speed is 100 times less than cannon balls speed.

Recoil from a Gunhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlFlXMHaSVQhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpFDHO-tqUYHigh recoil speed is cause by either:* Large Bullet/Gun Weight Ratio* High Bullet SpeedShooting an elephant gun33

Predator (1987)

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Eraser (1996)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aHoIMBXKSos

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Recoil & Wile E. CoyoteGuided Muscle (1955)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wxm9EdVFxk8http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7H6Pwzdw7oQUnexpected recoil is another common gag in animated cartoons.36

Force, Time, and ImpulseWhen any force causes a change in velocity, the more time that the force can act, the greater the change in the velocity.Pushing apart, these guys only exert forces on each other as long as their hands are together.37Crouching for a Jump

XXCrouchTake-offApexPush HeightCrouching is useful when jumping because it extends the time of contact for pushing off the ground.38

Pushing an ObjectAction: Manexerts force on rockReaction: Rockexerts forceon manAction: Manexerts force on groundReaction: Groundexerts forceon manThe man pushes on the rock but he is also pushing on the ground.Man moves forward when reaction from the ground is more than from the rock.39Shaolin Soccer (2001)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bREfcVPssiEExtreme kung-fu action appears in Shaolin Soccer.Think about the forces exert by the womans arms (pushing) and feet (holding her in pla