Understanding terror 5e ch 04

download Understanding terror 5e ch 04

of 21

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Understanding terror 5e ch 04

  1. 1. Part II: The TerroristsPart II: The Terrorists Chapter 4: Terror From AboveChapter 4: Terror From Above Terrorism by the StateTerrorism by the State Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  2. 2. Understanding State-Sponsored TerrorismUnderstanding State-Sponsored Terrorism The Patronage ModelThe Patronage Model The Assistance ModelThe Assistance Model Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  3. 3. Understanding State-Sponsored TerrorismUnderstanding State-Sponsored Terrorism State terrorism incorporates many types and degreesState terrorism incorporates many types and degrees of violence.of violence. Cases: Warfare, genocide, assassinations, torture.Cases: Warfare, genocide, assassinations, torture. Linkages between regimes and terrorism range fromLinkages between regimes and terrorism range from clear lines to murky deniable associations.clear lines to murky deniable associations. Concepts:Concepts: State patronage for terrorism.State patronage for terrorism. State assistance for terrorism.State assistance for terrorism. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  4. 4. The Patronage ModelThe Patronage Model Active state participation in terrorist behavior.Active state participation in terrorist behavior. Foreign and domestic participationForeign and domestic participation Active involvement by agencies and personnel.Active involvement by agencies and personnel. Cases: Direct arming, training, providing sanctuary.Cases: Direct arming, training, providing sanctuary. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  5. 5. The Assistance ModelThe Assistance Model Tacit state participation in terrorist behavior.Tacit state participation in terrorist behavior. Foreign and domestic participation.Foreign and domestic participation. Indirect support for extremist proxies.Indirect support for extremist proxies. Cases: Indirectly arming, training, and sanctuary.Cases: Indirectly arming, training, and sanctuary. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  6. 6. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  7. 7. Moral SupportMoral Support Technical SupportTechnical Support Selective ParticipationSelective Participation Active ParticipationActive Participation Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  8. 8. Moral SupportMoral Support Politically sympathetic sponsorship.Politically sympathetic sponsorship. Open embracement of the main beliefs andOpen embracement of the main beliefs and principles of a cause.principles of a cause. Governments may act as ideological role models forGovernments may act as ideological role models for championed groups.championed groups. Case: Iranian support for Islamist movements.Case: Iranian support for Islamist movements.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  9. 9. Technical SupportTechnical Support Logistically supportive sponsorship.Logistically supportive sponsorship. Providing aid and comfort to a championed cause,Providing aid and comfort to a championed cause, directly or indirectly.directly or indirectly. Permits an aggressive agenda while allowingPermits an aggressive agenda while allowing deniability.deniability. Case: Syrian regime of Hafez el-Assad.Case: Syrian regime of Hafez el-Assad.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  10. 10. Selective ParticipationSelective Participation Episode-specific sponsorship.Episode-specific sponsorship. Support for a single incident or a series of incidents.Support for a single incident or a series of incidents. Carried out by proxies or agents of the state.Carried out by proxies or agents of the state. Case: Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.Case: Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  11. 11. Active ParticipationActive Participation Joint operations.Joint operations. Government personnel jointly carry out campaignsGovernment personnel jointly carry out campaigns in cooperation with a championed proxy.in cooperation with a championed proxy. Case: Phoenix Program.Case: Phoenix Program. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  12. 12. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  13. 13. Legitimizing State AuthorityLegitimizing State Authority Vigilante State TerrorismVigilante State Terrorism Official State TerrorismOfficial State Terrorism Genocidal State TerrorismGenocidal State Terrorism Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  14. 14. Legitimizing State AuthorityLegitimizing State Authority Every type of regime seeks to legitimize its authorityEvery type of regime seeks to legitimize its authority and maintain its social order.and maintain its social order. Democracy.Democracy. Authoritarianism.Authoritarianism. Totalitarianism.Totalitarianism. Crazy states.Crazy states. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  15. 15. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  16. 16. Vigilante Domestic State TerrorismVigilante Domestic State Terrorism Unofficial repression.Unofficial repression. Terrorism perpetrated by nongovernmental groups.Terrorism perpetrated by nongovernmental groups. Unofficial support from agents of the state.Unofficial support from agents of the state. Case: Paramilitaries and death squads.Case: Paramilitaries and death squads. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  17. 17. Official Domestic State TerrorismOfficial Domestic State Terrorism Repression as a states domestic policy.Repression as a states domestic policy. Deliberate adoption of domestic terrorism.Deliberate adoption of domestic terrorism. Overt cases: Policies of Stalinist Russia, Nazi Germany,Overt cases: Policies of Stalinist Russia, Nazi Germany, Khmer Rouge Cambodia, and Taliban Afghanistan.Khmer Rouge Cambodia, and Taliban Afghanistan. Covert case: Iran during the reign of Shah MohammadCovert case: Iran during the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.Reza Pahlavi. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  18. 18. Genocidal Domestic State TerrorismGenocidal Domestic State Terrorism Dr. Raphael Lemkins 1944 book,Dr. Raphael Lemkins 1944 book, Axis Rule in OccupiedAxis Rule in Occupied EuropeEurope.. Scapegoating a group of people as policy.Scapegoating a group of people as policy. Acts classified as genocide against a group:Acts classified as genocide against a group: Killing members of the group.Killing members of the group. Creating conditions leading to the partial or completeCreating conditions leading to the partial or complete destruction of the group.destruction of the group. Preventing births or forcibly transferring children.Preventing births or forcibly transferring children.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  19. 19. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  20. 20. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  21. 21. U.S. Department of StatesU.S. Department of States Country Reports onCountry Reports on TerrorismTerrorism Annual list of countries designated as state sponsorsAnnual list of countries designated as state sponsors of terrorism.of terrorism. Private Agencies Monitoring Political AbusesPrivate Agencies Monitoring Political Abuses Human Rights WatchHuman Rights Watch Amnesty InternationalAmnesty InternationalMartin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016