Understanding terror 5e ch 05

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  1. 1. Chapter 5:Chapter 5: Terror From BelowTerror From Below Dissident TerrorismDissident Terrorism Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  2. 2. Revolutionary Dissident TerrorismRevolutionary Dissident Terrorism Nihilist Dissident TerrorismNihilist Dissident Terrorism Nationalist Dissident TerrorismNationalist Dissident Terrorism Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  3. 3. Revolutionary Dissident TerrorismRevolutionary Dissident Terrorism A clear world vision.A clear world vision. Goal: Destroy an existing order to build a well-Goal: Destroy an existing order to build a well- designed new society.designed new society. Case: Marxist revolutionary movements in LatinCase: Marxist revolutionary movements in Latin America.America. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  4. 4. Nihilist Dissident TerrorismNihilist Dissident Terrorism Revolution for the sake of revolution.Revolution for the sake of revolution. Goal: Destroy an existing order with no clearGoal: Destroy an existing order with no clear alternative for the aftermath.alternative for the aftermath. Victory is destruction of the old society.Victory is destruction of the old society. Cases: Abu Nidal. Al Qaida network.Cases: Abu Nidal. Al Qaida network. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  5. 5. Nationalist Dissident TerrorismNationalist Dissident Terrorism Championing the national aspirations of groups ofChampioning the national aspirations of groups of people.people. Goal: Mobilize a particular demographic groupGoal: Mobilize a particular demographic group against another group or a government.against another group or a government. Distinguished by their cultural, religious, ethnic, orDistinguished by their cultural, religious, ethnic, or racial heritage.racial heritage. Cases: Kurds in Turkey and Iraq. Catholics inCases: Kurds in Turkey and Iraq. Catholics in Northern Ireland.Northern Ireland. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  6. 6. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  7. 7. Antistate Terrorist EnvironmentsAntistate Terrorist Environments Defined by idiosyncrasies of each country and movement.Defined by idiosyncrasies of each country and movement. Histories that are unique to each society/Histories that are unique to each society/ The Terrorists Faith in VictoryThe Terrorists Faith in Victory Defeat is unthinkable. Victory is inevitable.Defeat is unthinkable. Victory is inevitable. Utopian visions justify their means and guarantee theUtopian visions justify their means and guarantee the triumph of their idealized ends.triumph of their idealized ends. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  8. 8. Ethnonationalist Communal TerrorismEthnonationalist Communal Terrorism Religious Communal TerrorismReligious Communal Terrorism Ideological Communal TerrorismIdeological Communal Terrorism Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  9. 9. Ethnonationalist Communal TerrorismEthnonationalist Communal Terrorism Terrorism directed against ethnic populations.Terrorism directed against ethnic populations. Scale of violence varies considerably from region toScale of violence varies considerably from region to region.region. Case: Violence between Hutus and Tutsis in RwandaCase: Violence between Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda and Burundi.and Burundi. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  10. 10. Religious Communal TerrorismReligious Communal Terrorism Sectarian violence often combining religious and ethnicSectarian violence often combining religious and ethnic cultural identity.cultural identity. Case: Breakup of the former Yugoslavia.Case: Breakup of the former Yugoslavia. Ideological Communal TerrorismIdeological Communal Terrorism A pattern of post- World War II civil wars.A pattern of post- World War II civil wars. Cases: Greece. Angola. Indonesia.Cases: Greece. Angola. Indonesia.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  11. 11. The New Dissident Terrorist MoralityThe New Dissident Terrorist Morality Fewer moral scruples than previous generations.Fewer moral scruples than previous generations. Broader definitions of enemy groups.Broader definitions of enemy groups. Unrestricted use of modern weapons technologies.Unrestricted use of modern weapons technologies. Terrorist Cells and Lone WolvesTerrorist Cells and Lone Wolves Cells: Indistinct command & organizational configurations.Cells: Indistinct command & organizational configurations. Lone Wolves: Single individuals.Lone Wolves: Single individuals. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016