Understanding terror 5e ch 03

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  1. 1. Chapter 3:Chapter 3: BeginningsBeginnings The Causes of TerrorismThe Causes of Terrorism Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  2. 2. Sociological Explanations of TerrorismSociological Explanations of Terrorism Psychological Explanations of TerrorismPsychological Explanations of Terrorism Criminological Explanations of TerrorismCriminological Explanations of Terrorism Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  3. 3. Sociological Explanations of TerrorismSociological Explanations of Terrorism Intergroup conflict that leads to collective violence.Intergroup conflict that leads to collective violence. Structural theory: Social conditions (structures) thatStructural theory: Social conditions (structures) that affect group access to societal benefits.affect group access to societal benefits. Deprivation theory: Relative deprivation and absoluteDeprivation theory: Relative deprivation and absolute deprivation.deprivation. Cases: Leila Khaled and Abu NidalCases: Leila Khaled and Abu Nidal Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  4. 4. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  5. 5. Psychological Explanations of TerrorismPsychological Explanations of Terrorism Individual-level explanations.Individual-level explanations. Group-level explanations.Group-level explanations. Generalized psychological explanations.Generalized psychological explanations. Case: The Stockholm Syndrome.Case: The Stockholm Syndrome.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  6. 6. Criminological Explanations of TerrorismCriminological Explanations of Terrorism Differential association theory.Differential association theory. Routine activity theory.Routine activity theory. Radical criminology.Radical criminology. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  7. 7. Acts of Political WillActs of Political Will Adversaries in the War on TerrorismAdversaries in the War on Terrorism Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  8. 8. Acts of Political WillActs of Political Will A rational strategic choice to force change.A rational strategic choice to force change. Terrorism as a tool to achieve a desired goal.Terrorism as a tool to achieve a desired goal. Case: Mao Zedong and peoples war.Case: Mao Zedong and peoples war. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  9. 9. Adversaries in the War on TerrorismAdversaries in the War on Terrorism Perceptions.Perceptions. Western: A war against Western-style civilization.Western: A war against Western-style civilization. Non-Western: An imbalance in policies toward MuslimNon-Western: An imbalance in policies toward Muslim countries vis--vis Israel.countries vis--vis Israel. Concept: TheConcept: The behaviorbehavior of the West is the cause ofof the West is the cause of angry sentiment in the Muslim world.angry sentiment in the Muslim world. Case: CIAs 2007 National Intelligence EstimateCase: CIAs 2007 National Intelligence Estimate warning Iraq is a new training ground for terrorists.warning Iraq is a new training ground for terrorists.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  10. 10. Moral Convictions of TerroristsMoral Convictions of Terrorists Simplified Good and EvilSimplified Good and Evil Seeking UtopiaSeeking Utopia Codes of Self-SacrificeCodes of Self-Sacrifice Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  11. 11. Moral Convictions of TerroristsMoral Convictions of Terrorists Terrorists have an unambiguous certainty in theTerrorists have an unambiguous certainty in the righteousness of a cause.righteousness of a cause. Concepts:Concepts: A group concludes it has been morally wronged by anA group concludes it has been morally wronged by an immoral, evil enemy.immoral, evil enemy. A group concludes it possesses an inherent moralA group concludes it possesses an inherent moral superiority to an enemy.superiority to an enemy. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  12. 12. Simplified Definitions of Good and EvilSimplified Definitions of Good and Evil A clear line is drawn between good and evil.A clear line is drawn between good and evil. Violent methods are justified by the ennobled goalsViolent methods are justified by the ennobled goals of the cause.of the cause. Seeking UtopiaSeeking Utopia The promised good outweighs present actions.The promised good outweighs present actions. The end justifies the means.The end justifies the means. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  13. 13. Codes of Self-SacrificeCodes of Self-Sacrifice Superior codes of living that cleanse those whoSuperior codes of living that cleanse those who follow the code.follow the code. Case: Germanys Waffen SS.Case: Germanys Waffen SS. Case: Japans code of Bushido.Case: Japans code of Bushido. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016