Understanding terror 5e ch 12

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  1. 1. Chapter 12:Chapter 12: The American CaseThe American Case Terrorism in the United StatesTerrorism in the United StatesMartin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  2. 2. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  3. 3. Origins of the Civil Rights MovementOrigins of the Civil Rights Movement Equality for African Americans in the South.Equality for African Americans in the South. Concept: Collective non-violence.Concept: Collective non-violence. The Rise of Black PowerThe Rise of Black Power Reaction to violence directed against nonviolent civil rightsReaction to violence directed against nonviolent civil rights movement.movement. Political independence, economic self-sufficiency, andPolitical independence, economic self-sufficiency, and cultural reawakening.cultural reawakening.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  4. 4. Growth of the New LeftGrowth of the New Left Arose in mid-1960s.Arose in mid-1960s. Concept: Direct action.Concept: Direct action. Military-industrial complex.Military-industrial complex. Counterculture.Counterculture. Case: Students for Democratic Society.Case: Students for Democratic Society. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  5. 5. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  6. 6. New Left TerrorismNew Left Terrorism Generational rebellion.Generational rebellion. Case: Weatherman organization.Case: Weatherman organization. Case: Symbionese Liberation Army.Case: Symbionese Liberation Army. Ethnonationalist Terrorism on the LeftEthnonationalist Terrorism on the Left Few violent nationalist movements.Few violent nationalist movements. Case: Black Liberation ArmyCase: Black Liberation Army Case: Puerto Rican Independencistas and the FALN.Case: Puerto Rican Independencistas and the FALN.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  7. 7. Leftist Hard CoresLeftist Hard Cores May 19 Communist Organization.May 19 Communist Organization. New African Freedom Fighters.New African Freedom Fighters. United Freedom Front.United Freedom Front. Single-Issue ViolenceSingle-Issue Violence Groups who focus on one issue to the exclusion of others.Groups who focus on one issue to the exclusion of others. Cases: Animal Liberation front and Earth Liberation Front.Cases: Animal Liberation front and Earth Liberation Front. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  8. 8. Religious Politics and the Christian RightReligious Politics and the Christian Right Mostly Protestant fundamentalists.Mostly Protestant fundamentalists. Links strict Christian values to political agendas.Links strict Christian values to political agendas. Rise of the Anti-Government PatriotsRise of the Anti-Government Patriots Consider themselves to be the true heirs of the ideals ofConsider themselves to be the true heirs of the ideals of the framers of the U.S. Constitution.the framers of the U.S. Constitution. Radical distrust of government.Radical distrust of government. Many New World Order conspiracy theories.Many New World Order conspiracy theories.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  9. 9. Racial SupremacyRacial Supremacy Rooted in historical racial policies and culture.Rooted in historical racial policies and culture. Organized supremacist groups include the Ku Klux Klan andOrganized supremacist groups include the Ku Klux Klan and neo-Nazi movements.neo-Nazi movements. Racial MysticismRacial Mysticism Incorporation of mystical quality to racial supremacy.Incorporation of mystical quality to racial supremacy. Cases:Cases: The Creativity movement.The Creativity movement. Asatru.Asatru. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  10. 10. The Christian Identity MythThe Christian Identity Myth Americanized strain of 18Americanized strain of 18thth -century Anglo-Israelism.-century Anglo-Israelism. One-seedline Christian Identity.One-seedline Christian Identity. Two-Seedline Christian Identity.Two-Seedline Christian Identity. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  11. 11. The Legacy of the Ku Klux KlanThe Legacy of the Ku Klux Klan Uniquely American racist organization.Uniquely American racist organization. Ritualistic, fraternity-like, and religious symbolism.Ritualistic, fraternity-like, and religious symbolism. Five eras of the KKK.Five eras of the KKK. Neo-Nazi TerrorismNeo-Nazi Terrorism American version of Nazism.American version of Nazism. Mystical beliefs combined with racial supremacy.Mystical beliefs combined with racial supremacy. Racial Holy War (RAHOWA).Racial Holy War (RAHOWA). Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  12. 12. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  13. 13. Patriot ThreatsPatriot Threats Concepts: Leaderless resistance and phantom cells.Concepts: Leaderless resistance and phantom cells. Case: The Oklahoma City bombing.Case: The Oklahoma City bombing. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  14. 14. Case: The Oklahoma City BombingCase: The Oklahoma City Bombing An act of war by Timothy McVeigh.An act of war by Timothy McVeigh. A devotee of the extremist Patriot movement.A devotee of the extremist Patriot movement. A believer in New World Order conspiracies.A believer in New World Order conspiracies. Symbolism of April 19, 1995.Symbolism of April 19, 1995. 220220thth anniversary of the American Revolution battles ofanniversary of the American Revolution battles of Lexington and Concord.Lexington and Concord. Second anniversary of the assault on the Branch DavidianSecond anniversary of the assault on the Branch Davidian cults compound in Waco, Texas.cults compound in Waco, Texas.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  15. 15. Moralist TerrorismMoralist Terrorism Mostly anti-abortion and anti-gay violence.Mostly anti-abortion and anti-gay violence. Case: Army of GodCase: Army of God Case: Phineas Priesthood.Case: Phineas Priesthood. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  16. 16. The Spillover Effect in the United StatesThe Spillover Effect in the United States Operations by international terrorists.Operations by international terrorists. Cases: Omega 7. IRA. Jewish Defense League.Cases: Omega 7. IRA. Jewish Defense League. The New Terrorism in the United StatesThe New Terrorism in the United States World Trade Center attacks.World Trade Center attacks. Presence of support organizations for jihadistPresence of support organizations for jihadist movements abroad.movements abroad. Case: September 11, 2001Case: September 11, 2001Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  17. 17. Case: September 11, 2001Case: September 11, 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon symbolizedWorld Trade Center and Pentagon symbolized American and Western power.American and Western power. Carried out by 19 Al Qaeda terrorists on a suicidalCarried out by 19 Al Qaeda terrorists on a suicidal martyrdom mission.martyrdom mission. Done in response to perceived domination andDone in response to perceived domination and exploitation of Muslim countries.exploitation of Muslim countries. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016