Understanding terror 5e ch 07

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  1. 1. Chapter 7:Chapter 7: Violent IdeologiesViolent Ideologies Terrorism From the Left and RightTerrorism From the Left and Right Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  2. 2. From the Left Fringe to the Right FringeFrom the Left Fringe to the Right Fringe Fringe-leftFringe-left: Extreme, often violent, interpretation of Marxist: Extreme, often violent, interpretation of Marxist or other leftist ideologies.or other leftist ideologies. Far-left:Far-left: Radical interpretations of Marxist or other leftistRadical interpretations of Marxist or other leftist ideologies that are usually non-violent.ideologies that are usually non-violent. Liberalism:Liberalism: Policy agenda promoting peoples rights.Policy agenda promoting peoples rights. Expectation of positive government role.Expectation of positive government role. Moderate center:Moderate center: Usually largest segment in democracies.Usually largest segment in democracies. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  3. 3. From the Left Fringe to the Right FringeFrom the Left Fringe to the Right Fringe Moderate center:Moderate center: Usually largest segment in democracies.Usually largest segment in democracies. Conservatism:Conservatism: Traditional distrust of change orTraditional distrust of change or government intervention.government intervention. Far-right:Far-right: Strong adherence to social order and tradition.Strong adherence to social order and tradition. Fringe-right:Fringe-right: Uncompromising, often violent, belief inUncompromising, often violent, belief in ethnonationalist or religious superiority.ethnonationalist or religious superiority. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  4. 4. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  5. 5. Ideologies and IdealsIdeologies and Ideals Ideologies: Systems of belief.Ideologies: Systems of belief. Anarchism: Minimal central governmental control.Anarchism: Minimal central governmental control. Propaganda by the deed.Propaganda by the deed. Marxism: Class warfare leading to a communist dictatorshipMarxism: Class warfare leading to a communist dictatorship of the proletariat.of the proletariat. Fascism: Strong antidemocratic, anti-Communist belief in lawFascism: Strong antidemocratic, anti-Communist belief in law and order.and order. Often ethnocentric and militaristic.Often ethnocentric and militaristic.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  6. 6. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  7. 7. Class StruggleClass Struggle Orthodox Marxism.Orthodox Marxism. Relationship to the means of production.Relationship to the means of production. Goal: Dictatorship of the proletariat.Goal: Dictatorship of the proletariat. Leftist NationalismLeftist Nationalism Selective application of Marxist theory.Selective application of Marxist theory. Rooted in Cold War rivalries.Rooted in Cold War rivalries. Wars of national liberation.Wars of national liberation. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  8. 8. Special-Interest ExtremismSpecial-Interest Extremism Single-issue terrorism.Single-issue terrorism. Cases: Environmentalism. Peace movements.Cases: Environmentalism. Peace movements. Problems on the Radical LeftProblems on the Radical Left Marxist revolutions occurred in the developing world.Marxist revolutions occurred in the developing world. Infighting about the revolutionary party.Infighting about the revolutionary party. Soviet versus developing world Communism.Soviet versus developing world Communism. Working classes in the West never acquired aWorking classes in the West never acquired a revolutionary consciousness.revolutionary consciousness. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  9. 9. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  10. 10. Case: Latin AmericaCase: Latin America ColombiaColombia FARCFARC National Liberation ArmyNational Liberation Army PeruPeru Shining Path (Shining Path (Sendero LuminosoSendero Luminoso)) Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) ArgentinaArgentina MontonerosMontoneros Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  11. 11. Case: EuropeCase: Europe ItalyItaly The Red BrigadeThe Red Brigade Years of LeadYears of Lead GermanyGermany Red Army FactionRed Army Faction June 2June 2ndnd MovementMovement Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland Provisional Irish Republican ArmyProvisional Irish Republican Army Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  12. 12. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  13. 13. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  14. 14. Political Parties and Dissident MovementsPolitical Parties and Dissident Movements Reflect the distinctive features of national environments.Reflect the distinctive features of national environments. Neofascist political parties in Europe and Latin America.Neofascist political parties in Europe and Latin America. Unorganized or partly organized dissident movements.Unorganized or partly organized dissident movements. Tradition and OrderTradition and Order Defenders of a supreme principle such as a new order.Defenders of a supreme principle such as a new order. Scapegoating enemy groups.Scapegoating enemy groups.Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  15. 15. Right-Wing NationalismRight-Wing Nationalism Notion of a superior national group or race.Notion of a superior national group or race. Loyalty to the superior group.Loyalty to the superior group. Subordination of inferior groups.Subordination of inferior groups. Religion and MysticismReligion and Mysticism Not universal traits on the reactionary right.Not universal traits on the reactionary right. Common in America.Common in America. Less common in Europe or Latin America.Less common in Europe or Latin America. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  16. 16. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  17. 17. Case: EuropeCase: Europe GermanyGermany Usually street-level confrontations.Usually street-level confrontations. ItalyItaly Random attacks by small fascist-leaning groups.Random attacks by small fascist-leaning groups. TurkeyTurkey Grey Wolves.Grey Wolves. Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016
  18. 18. The New TerrorismThe New Terrorism Difficult to classify as left or right terrorism.Difficult to classify as left or right terrorism. The Terrorist Left in the New EraThe Terrorist Left in the New Era Defeat of the urban guerrillas.Defeat of the urban guerrillas. A few remaining rebels in the hills.A few remaining rebels in the hills. Some grass-roots neo-anarchist activism.Some grass-roots neo-anarchist activism. The Terrorist Right in the New EraThe Terrorist Right in the New Era Continued scapegoating.Continued scapegoating. Rightist reactions to unpopular agendas.Rightist reactions to unpopular agendas. Martin, Understanding Terrorism Fifth Edition. (c) SAGE Publications 2016