Tx history-ch-12.2

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Transcript of Tx history-ch-12.2

  • Chapter 12: A New NationSection 2: Houstons First Term

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  • Thinking QuestionWhat are the qualities of a good leader?

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  • Houstons AdministrationOct 1836: Sam Houston elected president of the Republic of Texas

    Sam Houston

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  • Houstons AdministrationHoustons Goals:

    Peace with American Indians

    Keep guarded against Mexico

    Annexation by the U.S.

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  • Houstons AdministrationSecretary of State:Stephen F. AustinSecretary of the Treasury:Henry Smith

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  • Houstons AdministrationSecretary of the NavySamuel Rhodes FisherSecretary of WarThomas J. Rusk

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  • Houstons Administration

    Supreme Court:Chief Justice James Collinsworth4 Associate Justices

    4 District Courts

    23 County Courts

    Chief Justice James Collinsworth

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  • Houstons AdministrationTexas claimed Rio Grande as boundary

    Mexico claimed Nueces River as boundary

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  • Houstons Administration

    Ad interim government moved government to Columbia

    Late 1836: Houston named temporary capital

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  • Houston & Army UnrestFelix Huston: Texas army commander who desired to invade Mexico

    Replaced by Johnston

    Duel between Huston & Albert Sydney Johnston

    Felix Huston

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  • Houston & Army Unrest

    Johnston unable to take command

    Unrest grows

    Commander urges a march on the capital

    Albert Sidney Johnston

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  • Houston & Army UnrestPresident Houston reduced the size of the army in 1836 because unrest in the army threatened the new government.

    Houston relied on the Texas Rangers and militia for frontier defense

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  • Economic PoliciesExpendituresgovernment expenses

    Revenuesgovernment income

    National debt = $1.25 million

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  • U.S. National DebtEach citizens share = $179,355

    Grows on average of $1.43 billion per day

    As of March 8, 2011$55,828,955,743,790.11

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  • Economic PoliciesEfforts to solve problems:

    Collected taxes and duties

    Tried to get loans from the U.S.

    Sale of public lands

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  • Economic PoliciesPanic of 1837: Financial crisis during Houstons administration

    Began in U.S.

    Texas heavily traded with the U.S.

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  • Economic PoliciesLimited supply

    Not backed

    Value dropped after more paper money was printed

    Republic of Texas Currency

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  • Land Policy Under Houston1836: Texas claimed over 200 million acres in public lands

    Constitution of 1836 provided for sale of lands

    Empresario system

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  • Land Policy Under HoustonHeads of households: 4,604 acres

    Single men: 1,476 acres

    Distributed 37 million acres

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  • Houstons American Indian PolicyConflict spreads as settlement spreads

    American Indians want to keep land, Texans want to remove Indians

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  • Houstons American Indian Policy

    Houston lived with the Cherokee Indians

    Desired a peaceful solution

    Sam Houston

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  • Houstons American Indian PolicyHouston negotiated a treaty with the Cherokee

    Cherokee guaranteed title to land

    Senate refused to ratify

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  • Houstons American Indian PolicyRatifyapprove or accept formally

    Cherokee become angry

    Mexican agents convince Cherokee to attack

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  • Houstons American Indian PolicyChief BowlesCherokee leader and friend of Sam Houston

    Encourages Cherokee to remain patient

    Chief Bowles

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  • Houstons American Indian PolicyGave Cherokee land to keep peace

    Cherokee viewed as Mexican allies

    Enlisted Chief Bowles to help keep peace with Plains Indians

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  • Houstons American Indian PolicyEstablishes line of forts along frontier

    Used Texas Ranger to patrol frontier

    Texans viewed Indians as a roadblock

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  • Houstons American Indian PolicyNegotiated treaties with Indians

    Houston believed the best American Indian policy was to make peace with each American Indian group.

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  • ProblemSolution/Action

    Unruly ArmyDebtLack of clear land policyConflict with Indians

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