Sayre woa ch11_lecture-243774

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  • Learning Objectives1 of 3Describe the origins of photography and the formal principles that most inform it.Describe how color and digital technologies have transformed photographic practice.

  • Learning Objectives2 of 3Outline the basic principles of film editing, including montage, as well as the technological developments that advanced the medium.Outline some of the ways that video art has exploited the immediacy of the medium while at the same time critiquing popular culture.

  • Learning Objectives3 of 3Discuss some of the technological innovations that have advanced time-based art into the digital age.

  • Introduction1 of 3Catherine Opie's series of photographs for the Cleveland Clinic installation was created over the course of 12 months.It illustrates the fundamental ability of photography to capture moments in time.Photography began in 1838 with still images.

  • Catherine Opie, Untitled #13 (Spring), from Somewhere in the Middle, suite of 22 photographs installed at the Cleveland Clinic's Hillcrest Hospital.2011. Inkjet print, 50 37-1/2". Catherine Opie. [Fig. 11-1]

  • Introduction2 of 3Eadweard Muybridge captured photographs of a horse trotting with the use of a trip wire.Thomas Edison and W. K. Laurie Dickson invented the Kinetoscope, which used celluloid film to produced images that could "move" by being advanced on a roll.

  • Eadweard Muybridge, Annie G., Cantering, Saddled.December 1887. Collotype print, sheet 19 24-1/8", image 7-1/4 16-1/4". Philadelphia Museum of Art.1962-135-280. 2015. Photo Philadelphia Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence.[Fig. 11-2]

  • Introduction3 of 3The first projected motion picture for large audiences debuted in 1895.Soon, sound was added to film to better simulate real life.The history of time-based media involves increasing semblance to real life.

  • Poster for the Cinmatographe, with the Lumire Brothers film L'Arroseur Arros (Waterer and Watered) on screen.1895. British Film Institute.Mary Evans/Iberfoto. [Fig. 11-3]

  • The Early History and Formal Foundations of PhotographyThe photograph is a process of "instant assemblage" and "instant collage."Walker Evans's Roadside Stand near Birmingham, Alabama represented the artist's desire to capture every aspect of American visual reality.Tension between form and content is a common theme of photography.

  • Walker Evans, Roadside Stand near Birmingham, Alabama.1936. Library of Congress.[Fig. 11-4]

  • Early History1 of 6A darkened room called a camera obscura was used by artists to create nature accurately in the sixteenth century.A small hole shows a ray of light that projects a scene upside-down on the the opposite wall.While it could capture an image, it could not independently preserve it; artists traced on canvas or paper.

  • The first published illustration of a camera obscura observing a solar eclipse.Published in 1544 by Dutch cartographer and mathematician Gemma Frisius. Woodcut. Bridgeman Images. [Fig. 11-5]

  • Early History2 of 6William Henry Fox Talbot used paper coated with light-sensitive chemicals to produce photogenic drawings.Independently in France, a process yielding a positive image on a polished metal plate was called the daguerrotype.It was so realistic that it was declared "Painting is dead!"

  • William Henry Fox Talbot, Mimosoidea Suchas, 1841. Photogenic drawing. National Media Museum, Bradford, U.K.1937-366/14. National Media Museum/Science & Society Picture Library. [Fig. 11-6]

  • Louis-Jacques-Mand Daguerre, Le Boulevard du Temple.1839. Daguerreotype. Bavarian National Museum, Munich. Corbis. [Fig. 11-7]

  • Early History3 of 6The popularity of the daguerrotype made portraits available to more than just the upper classes, who would have been able to afford painted portraits.However, its disadvantages involved preparation, time, and utmost care; it also could not be reproduced.

  • Early History4 of 6Talbot's method of calotype, or exposing sensitized paper to light, became the basis of modern photography.His photograph, The Open Door, shows how photography became a work of art in its own right.

  • Henry Fox Talbot, The Open Door.1843. Calotype. National Museum of Photography, London.Digital image courtesy of Getty's Open Content Program. [Fig. 11-8]

  • Early History5 of 6Frederick Archer introduced a wet-plate collodion process in 1850.It was a cumbersome process but had short exposure time.Julia Margaret Cameron set up a studio in her chicken coop and photographed many influential British men.The Portrait of Thomas Carlisle was an attempt to capture the inner man.

  • Julia Margaret Cameron, Portrait of Thomas Carlyle.1863. Albumen print, 14-716 10-316". The J. Paul Getty Museum.Digital image courtesy of Getty's Open Content Program. [Fig. 11-9]

  • Early History6 of 6Photographs of war were first published during the Crimean War.A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863 is a condemnation of the horrors of war.Both foreground and background are blurred to draw attention to the corpses.

  • Timothy O'Sullivan (negative) and Alexander Gardner (print), A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863, from Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War.1866. Albumen silver print (also available as a stereocard), 6-1/4 7-1316". The Library of Congress. [Fig. 11-10]


  • Form and Content1 of 4By emphasizing formal elements over representation, an artist can underscore the abstract nature of photographs.The Steerage by Alfred Stieglitz portrays the artist's interest in spatial relations.The photo's geometry was inspired by the work of Charles Sheeler.

  • Alfred Stieglitz, The Steerage.1907. Photogravure, 12-5/8 10-3/16". Museum of Modern Art, New York.Provenance unknown, 526.1986. 2015. Digital image, Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence. 2015 Georgia O'Keeffe Museum/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. [Fig. 11-11]

  • Form and Content2 of 4Sheeler's task in his photographs of the Ford factory was to aestheticize the plant.The Farm Security Administration funded fifteen photographers to document the plight of farmers after the Great Depression.Walker Evans captured heroism in his subjects for Let Us Now Praise Famous Men.

  • Charles Sheeler, Criss-Crossed ConveyorsFord Plant.1927. Gelatin silver print, 10 8". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Lane Collection. Courtesy Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. [Fig. 11-12]

  • Walker Evans, Alabama Tenant Farmer's Kitchen (Washstand with View into Dining Area of Burroughs Home, Hale County, Alabama).1936. 35mm photograph.Courtesy of Library of Congress. Image copyright Walker Evans Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. [Fig. 11-13]

  • Form and Content3 of 4An-My L's series of photographs, 29 Palms, shows soldiers preparing for deployment to Afghanistan and Iraq.Her work deals with reenactments of war through training exercises; O'Sullivan's work was similarly staged to heighten the dramatic effect of the image.

  • An-My L, 29 Palms: Night Operations III.200304. Gelatin silver print, 26 37-1/2". An-My L, courtesy of Murray Guy, New York. [Fig. 11-14]

  • Form and Content4 of 4Henri Cartier-Bresson discussed the relationship between form and content to the instant composition allowed by photographs.Athens shows a second story Classical-style facade above two women walking past on the street below.Imagine how the artist might have spied the location and waited for the subjects to appear at the "decisive moment."

  • Henri Cartier-Bresson, Athens.1953.Magnum Photos, Inc. [Fig. 11-15]

  • The Photographic Print and itsManipulation1 of 2Fred Archer developed the Zone System for darkrooms.A zone represents the relation of the image's brightness to the value the photographer wishes it to appear in the final print.He also adjusted his camera's aperture to establish the desired luminescence prior to taking the photograph.

  • The Photographic Print and itsManipulation2 of 2Dodging is a technique that decreases the exposure of selected areas the photographer wishes to be lighter.Burning increases the exposure to areas of the print that should be darker.Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico features both of these techniques to create the feeling of a changing world.

  • Ansel Adams, Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico.1941. Gelatin silver print, 18-1/2 23". Ansel Adams Publishing Rights Trust/Corbis. [Fig. 11-16]

  • Color and Digital Photography1 of 6Color was associated with advertising and was ignored by fine art photographers until the 1960s.Gary Alvis, who worked with both color and black-and-white, maintained the tension in The Painted Hills with cool and warm colors.

  • Gary Alvis, The Painted Hills, John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon.2008. Six-stitch Cibachrome print, dimensions variable. Gary Alvis. [Fig. 11-17]

  • Color and Digital Photography2 of 6The Darkroom as Laboratory: Jerry Uelsmann's UntitledUelsmann considers photography to be about what happens after an image is captured on film rather than the moment it is photographed.He fits images from his contact sheets together in the darkroom, creating nearly surrealist landscapes.

  • Jerry Uelsmann, Untitled (rock component). 1970 Jerry N. Uelsmann. [Fig. 11-18]

  • Jerry Uelsmann, Untitled (tree component). 1970 Jerry N. Uelsmann. [Fig. 11-19]

  • Jerry Uelsmann, Untitled (hands component). 1970 Jerry N. Uelsmann. [Fig. 11-20]

  • The Creative ProcessThe Darkroom as Laboratory: Jerry Uelsmann's UntitledFormal relations among elements influence his decisions