Sayre woa ch10_lecture-243773
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Learning Objectives1 of 2Define what a print is and discuss its earliest uses.Characterize relief processes in printmaking.Characterize intaglio processes in printmaking.Describe the lithographic process and its invention.
Learning Objectives2 of 2Describe the silkscreen process.Differentiate monotypes from other kinds of print.
IntroductionA print is an image printed from an engraved plate, wooden block, or similar surface.After the death of her cat, Kiki Smith developed a print in various states, or stages, until it was finished.Prints allow artists to investigate the meaning of mechanically reproduced imagery.
Kiki Smith, Ginzer and Bird Skeleton.2000. Set of two prints, aquatint, drypoint, and etching on Hahnemuhle bright white paper; Ginzer: paper size 22-112 31", image size 18 24"; Bird Skeleton: paper size 12 12", image size 6 6". Edition of 24.Courtesy of the artist and Harlan & Weaver, New York. [Fig. 10-1a]
Kiki Smith, Bird Skeleton.2000. Print, aquatint, drypoint, and etching on Hahnemuhle bright white paper, paper size 12 12", image size 6 6". Edition of 24.Courtesy of the artist and Harlan & Weaver, New York. [Fig. 10-1b]
The Print and its Earliest Uses1 of 4In printmaking, the process creates an impression of an image that has been transferred through pressure onto paper from a matrix, or the surface onto which the design has been created.Multiple impressions from the same matrix are called an edition.
The Print and its Earliest Uses2 of 4Artists often reserve a small number of additional proofs or trial impressions for personal use.The world's earliest known printed book, the Diamond Sutra, was found in Dunhuang, China.Images were originally intended to be mass produced and distributed despite only one surviving work.
Frontispiece, Diamond Sutra, from Cave 17, Dunhuang.Printed in the ninth year of the Xiantong Era of the Tang dynasty, 868 CE. Ink on paper, woodblock handscroll. British Library. British Library Board, Or. 8210/P.2, frontispiece and text. [Fig. 10-2]
The Print and its Earliest Uses3 of 4Before paper was used widespread, pictorial designs were still printed onto fabric.When the Gutenberg press was invented between 1435 and 1455, printmaking soon followed.The Forty-Two Line Bible featured colorful painted designs in the marginalia and capitals.
Johannes Gutenberg, Page from the Forty-Two-Line Bible, Mainz.145556. Page 162 recto with initials "M" and "E" and depiction of Alexander the Great; text printed with movable letters and hand-painted initials and marginalia. Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin. Photo: Ruth Schacht. 2015. Photo Scala, Florence/bpk, Bildagentur fuer Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte, Berlin. [Fig. 10-3]
The Print and its Earliest Uses4 of 4The Nuremberg Chronicle was published by Anton Koberger and contains more than 1,800 pictures.It was printed in a black-and-white and color edition.Color would have been applied by hand and was therefore more expensive.
Hartmann Schedel, The Nuremberg Chronicle: View of Venice.12 July 1493. Woodcut, illustration size approx. 10 20". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.Rogers Fund, 1921.36.145. Image Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 10-4]
Relief ProcessesRelief refers to a process in which the image to be printed is raised off the background in reverse.
Woodcut1 of 5A design is drawn on the surface of the woodblock and parts that are to be printed in white are cut away with a knife or chisel.Thick, sticky ink that will not flow into the hollows is then applied to the block's surface.Artists can achieve dramatic contrast between light and dark.
Relief-printing technique.[Fig. 10-5]
Woodcut2 of 5Erich Heckel, a German Expressionist, used the expressive potential of woodcut in his Frnzi Reclining.Color block printing technology developed by Chinese artists in the mid-eighteenth century was becoming popularized in Japan.They were known as nishiki-e images due to their resemblance to brocade.
Erich Heckel, Frnzi Reclining.1910. Woodcut, printed in color, block 8-1516 16-916", sheet 13-1516 21-7/8". Museum of Modern Art, New York.Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Otto Gerson, 40.1958. Image 2015 Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence. 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn. [Fig. 10-6]
Woodcut3 of 5Suzuki Harunobu's designs were early examples of what would become known as ukiyo-e, "pictures of the transient world of everyday life."They portrayed women of great beauty, such as Two Courtesans. Graphic contrast between the inside and outside of the harimise reflects the principlesof yin and yang.
Suzuki Harunobu, Two Courtesans, Inside and Outside the Display Window.About 176869. Woodblock print (nishiki-e), ink and color on paper, 26-3/8 5-116". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.Denman Waldo Ross Collection, 1906.1248. Photograph 2015 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. [Fig. 10-7]
The Creative Process1 of 2Making an Ukiyo-e Print: Kitagawa Utamaro's StudioThe Fickle Type is a depiction of typical subject matter in ukiyo-e prints.Traditionally, printing required the equal and combined efforts of publisher, designer, carver, and printer.This depiction of Utamaro's studio is a mitate, or fanciful picture.
Kitagawa Utamaro, The Fickle Type, from the series Ten Physiognomies of Women.ca. 1793. Woodcut, 14 9-7/8".Courtesy of Library of Congress. [Fig. 10-8]
The Creative Process2 of 2Making an Ukiyo-e Print: Kitagawa Utamaro's StudioEach worker in the triptych is a pretty girl.On the left, workers size the paper.In the middle section, the block is prepared.On the right, Utamaro depicts himself in women's clothing and holding a finished print.
Kitagawa Utamaro, Utamaro's Studio, Eshi . . . dosa-hiki (the three primary steps in producing a print from drawing to glazing), from the series Edo meibutsu nishiki-e kosaku.ca. 1803. Oban triptych, ink and color on paper, 24-3/4 9-5/8". Published by Tsuruya Kiemon. The Art Institute of Chicago.Clarence Buckingham Collection, 1939.2141. Photo 1999, Art Institute of Chicago. All rights reserved. [Fig. 10-9]
Woodcut4 of 5European artists revived the art of woodcut due to the introduction of Japanese prints in the nineteenth century.Van Gogh was an enthusiastic collector of prints and would occasionally copy elements of them directly. Japonaiserie: The Courtesan (after Kesai Eisen) is an example.
Vincent van Gogh, Japonaiserie: The Courtesan (after Kesai Eisen).1887. Oil on canvas, 41-3/8 24". Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam.Courtesy of Vincent van Gogh Foundation. [Fig. 10-10]
"Le Japon," cover of Paris Illustr.May 1886. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam.Courtesy of Vincent van Gogh Foundation. [Fig. 10-11]
Woodcut5 of 5Mary Cassatt was most impressed with the intimate depiction of the world of women found in Japanese woodcut.She imitated works like Shaving a Boy's Head in her own prints.Bath explores contrasts between skin and printed textiles as well as a flat composition void of tonal variations often found in Western art.
Kitagawa Utamaro, Shaving a Boy's Head.ca. 1795. Color woodblock print, 15-1/8 10-1/4". The Minneapolis Institute of Arts Bequest of Richard P. Gale, 74.1.153. Bridgeman Images. [Fig. 10-12]
Mary Cassatt, The Bath.189091. Drypoint and aquatint on laid paper, plate 12-5/8 9-3/4",sheet 17-316 12". National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Rosenwald Collection. Photo Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Photo: Dean Beasom. [Fig. 10-13]
Wood Engraving1 of 2Wood engraving involves fine, narrow grooves cut into a block that leave a "white line" when printed.The grainy side of the wood is used instead of the smooth side, as end grain can be cut in any direction without splintering.
Wood Engraving2 of 2The engraving depicting Exploration of the Colorado River of the West was copied by a wood engraver from an original sketch.It presents some of the first views of the great American Western canyonlands.
Noon-Day Rest in Marble Canyon, after an original sketch by Thomas Moran, from J. W. Powell, Exploration of the Colorado River of the West and its Tributaries.1875. Wood engraving, 6-1/2 4-3/8". The New York Public Library, New York.[Fig. 10-14]
Linocut1 of 2In linocut, the block is made of linoleum instead of wood.Linoleum is easier to cut but wears down more quickly under pressure.It can be colored using a series of different blocks, one for each color, aligned via the process of registration.
Linocut2 of 2Elizabeth Catlett's Sharecropper is comprised of three separate linoleum blocks: black, dark green, and burnt sienna.Rather than portraying the reality of sharecroppers in conditions of slavery, Catlett shows a determined, strong figure representative of a commitment to social change.
Elizabeth Catlett, Sharecropper.1952, printed 1970. Color linocut on cream Japanese paper, image 17-3/4 17". The Art Institute of Chicago.Restricted gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Hartman, 1992.182. Catlett Mora Family Trust/Licensed by VAGA, New York. [Fig. 10-15]
Intaglio ProcessesIn intaglio, areas to be printed are below the surface of the plate and are filled with ink.The surface of the plate is wiped clean and a powerful roller picks up the ink in the depressed grooves.Modeling and shading are achieved by hatching, cross-hatching, and stippling.
Intaglio printmaking technique, general view. [Fig. 10-16]
Intaglio printmaking techniques, side views. [Fig. 10-17]