Sayre woa ch04_lecture-243767

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  • Learning ObjectivesDifferentiate between shape and mass.Describe how three-dimensional space is represented on a flat surface using perspective.Explain why modern artists have challenged the means of representing three dimensions on two-dimensional surfaces.

  • Introduction1 of 2Shape is a two-dimensional area.Julie Mehretu's Berliner Pltze features layers of place, space, and time that emerge from the flat shape of the canvas.Perspective is a system that allows the picture plane to function as a convincing window into its subject.

  • Julie Mehretu, Berliner Pltze. 200809. Ink and acrylic on canvas, 10 14'. Commissioned by Deutsche Bank AG in consultation with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation for the Deutsche Guggenheim, Berlin. Julie Mehretu, courtesy of Marian Goodman Gallery. [Fig. 4-1]

  • Introduction2 of 2The Deutsche Bank and Guggenheim Museum commissioned a group of works known as Grey Area, meant to display ambiguous spaces.Space has become an increasingly contested issue, especially in an age where the Internet and cyberspace dominate our daily lives.

  • Shape and Mass1 of 2Ellsworth Kelly's Three Panels: Orange, Dark Gray, Green applies the shapes to the gallery wall as though it were the canvas.The wall became the ground in the figureground relation.Shapes between figures are known as negative shapes, and the figures themselves are positive shapes.

  • Ellsworth Kelly, Three Panels: Orange, Dark Gray, Green. 1986. Oil on canvas, overall 9' 8" 34' 4-1/2 in. Museum of Modern Art, New York.Gift of Douglas S. Cramer Foundation, 776 2015 Ellsworth Kelly. [Fig. 4-2]

  • Rubin vase [Fig. 4-3]

  • Shape and Mass2 of 2A mass is a solid that occupies three-dimensional volume.It can be measured with height, width, and depth.For example, a circle is a shape but a sphere has mass.Martin Puryear's Self appears to possess weight and density, but is lightweight and made from wood.

  • Martin Puryear, Self. 1978. Polychromed red cedar and mahogany, 5' 9" 4' 25". Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha.Museum purchase in memory of Elinor Ashton, 1980.63. Martin Puryear. [Fig. 3-4]

  • Martin Puryear, Untitled IV. 2002. Soft-ground and spitbite etching with drypoint and Chine-coll Gampi, 8-5/8 6-7/8". Paulson Bott Press, San Francisco. Martin Puryear. [Fig. 4-5]

  • The Creative Process1 of 2From Two to Three Dimensions: Umberto Boccioni's Development of a Bottle in SpaceMarinetti's Futurist movement called for the beauty of speed.Umberto Boccioni asserted that no object exists in space by itself, and is rather coexistent with its surroundings.

  • The Creative Process2 of 2From Two to Three Dimensions: Umberto Boccioni's Development of a Bottle in SpaceA drawing of a glass bottle resting on a table renders the bottle and glass in volumetric spirals.The three-dimensional bronze version lures viewers from all sides.Further versions explored form and color.

  • Umberto Boccioni, Table + Bottle + House. 1912. Pencil on paper, 13-1/8 9-3/8". Civico Gabinetto dei Desegni, Castello Sforzesco, Milan. Comune di Milano. All rights reserved. [Fig. 4-6]

  • Umberto Boccioni, Development of a Bottle in Space. 1913. Bronze, 15-1/2 23-3/4 15-1/2". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.Bequest of Lydia Winston Malbin, 1990.38. 2015. Image copyright Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 4-7]

  • Negative Space1 of 2Standing vertical masses in Barbara Hepworth's Two Figures have negative spaces carved into them.The left-hand figure especially seems to represent anatomical features.The Feast-making spoon represents the generosity of the hospitable wunkirle woman in the Dan people of Liberia, its belly "pregnant with rice."

  • Barbara Hepworth, Two Figures. 194748. Elmwood and white paint, 38 17". Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, University of Minnesota.Gift of John Rood Sculpture Collection. Bowness. [Fig. 4-8]

  • Feast-making spoon (Wunkirmian). Liberia/IvoryCoast.Wood, Height 18-18". Private collection.Photo Heini Schneebeli/Bridgeman Images. [Fig. 4-9]

  • Negative Space2 of 2In architecture, buildings surround and frame empty space.The 125-foot tall nave of the Reims Cathedral in France elicits a sense of awe, particularly with the way that light fills the space.Olafur Eliasson's installation Suney featured a gallery bisected with a yellow sheet of Mylar.

  • Nave, Reims Cathedral, France.Begun 1211; nave ca. 1220. View to the west. Art Archive/Alamy. [Fig. 4-10]

  • Olafur Eliasson, Suney. 1995. Installation view, Kunstlerhaus Stuttgart, Germany. Courtesy of the artist, Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York, and Neugerriemschneider, Berlin. [Fig. 4-11]

  • Representing Three-DimensionalSpace in Two DimensionsStebe DiBenedetto creates the illusion of deep space in Deliverance.Overlapping images, such as the helicopter atop a landing pad, imply that one object is in front of the other in space.A shadow provides another visual cue.Finer lines on the landing pad draw the viewer inward.

  • Linear Perspective1 of 4One-point linear perspective relies on a single point, or vanishing point, on the viewer's horizon to represent parallel receding lines.When the vanishing point is directly across from the vantage point (where viewer is positioned), the recession is frontal; if it is to one side or the other, it is diagonal.

  • Steve DiBenedetto, Deliverance. 2003. Colored pencil and acrylic paint on paper, 30-1/8 22". Steve DiBenedetto, courtesy of David Nolan Gallery, New York, Collection of Morris Orden, New York. [Fig. 4-12]

  • One-point linear perspective. Left: frontal recession, street level. Right: diagonal recession, elevated position. [Fig. 4-13]

  • Linear Perspective2 of 4Duccio's Maest Altarpiece contains large panels as well as smaller compositions, such as the Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin.The piece, despite Duccio's attempt to create a realistic space via intuition, does not succeed in having a single vanishing point.

  • Perspective analysis of Duccio, Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin, from the Maest Altarpiece. 130811. Tempera on panel, 16-3/8 21-1/4". Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena. Canali Photobank, Milan, Italy. [Fig. 4-14]

  • Linear Perspective3 of 4Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper employs convincing perspective.The vanishing point is located behind Jesus, thus drawing all attention to him.

  • Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper. ca. 149598. Mural (oil and tempera on plaster), 15' 1-1/8" 28' 10-1/2". Refectory, Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. Studio Fotografico Quattrone, Florence. [Fig. 4-15]

  • Perspective analysis of Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper. ca. 149598. Studio Fotografico Quattrone, Florence. [Fig. 4-16]

  • Linear Perspective4 of 4Two-point linear perspective results in a more dynamic composition.Gustave Caillebotte's Place de l'Europe on a Rainy Day depicts an intersection of five streets through a series of vanishing points.The canvas is divided into four equal rectangles formed by the vertical line of the lamppost and the horizon line.

  • Two-point linear perspective. [Fig. 4-17]

  • Gustave Caillebotte, Place de l'Europe on a Rainy Day. 187677. Oil on canvas, 6' 11-1/2" 9' 3/4". he Art Institute of Chicago. Charles H. and Mary F. S. Worcester Collection, 1964.336. Photo 2015 Art Institute of Chicago. All Rights Reserved. [Fig. 4-18]

  • Line analysis of Gustave Caillebotte, Place de l'Europe on a Rainy Day. 187677. Charles H. and Mary F. S. Worcester Collection, 1964.336. Photo 2015 Art Institute of Chicago. All Rights Reserved. [Fig. 4-19]

  • Distortions of Space and Foreshortening1 of 3Photographs and media with perspective depict space as "real" because it is a monocular, or one-eyed, point of view.The stereoscope was invented in the nineteenth century to imitate binocular vision.From close up, the difference is more discernable.

  • Distortions of Space and Foreshortening2 of 3Man with Big Shoes was created with a stereoscopic view.Drawing to life a perspective such as that in Drer's Draftsman Drawing a Female Nude would result in a figure whose lower body would be too large in comparison to her head.

  • Photographer unknown, Man with Big Shoes. ca. 1890. Stereograph.Courtesy of Library of Congress. [Fig. 4-20]

  • Albrecht Durer, Draftsman Drawing a Female Nude. 1538. Woodcut, second edition, 3 8-1/2". One of 138 woodcuts and diagrams in Underweysung der Messung, mit dem Zirkel und Richtscheyt (Teaching of Measurement with Compass and Ruler). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Horatio Greenough Curtis Fund, 35.53. Photograph 2015 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. [Fig. 4-21]

  • Distortions of Space and Foreshortening3 of 3Mantegna's The Dead Christ applies foreshortening, adjusting the dimensions of closer extremities to make up for the distortion created by the point of view.

  • Andrea Mantegna, The Dead Christ. ca. 1480. Tempera on canvas. 26 30". Brera Gallery, Milan. DEA/G. CIGOLINI/De Agostini/Getty Images. [Fig. 4-22]

  • The Near and the Far1 of 2Japanese prints that flooded European markets after 1853 combined close-up views of nearby objects with views of distant landscapes.Utagawa Hiroshige's Moon Pine, Ueno contains a large gap between the pine in the foreground and the city behind.This particular tree was named for its looping round branch.

  • Utagawa Hiroshige (Ando), Moon Pine, Ueno, No. 89 from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo. 1856. Woodblock print, 14-3/16 9-1/4". The Brooklyn Museum. Gift of Anna Ferris, 30.1478.89. [Fig. 4-23]

  • The Near and the F