Sayre woa ch12_lecture-243775

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  • Learning Objectives1 of 2Differentiate among relief, sculpture in-the-round, and sculpture as an environment.Describe carving as a method of sculpture and account for its association with spiritual life.Account for the popularity of molded ceramic sculpture.

  • Learning Objectives2 of 2Describe the casting process, and the lost-wax process in particular.Define assemblage and account for its association with the idea of transformation.Compare and contrast installations and earthworks as environments.Describe how the body becomes sculptural in performance art.

  • Introduction1 of 2Sculpture employs two processes.Subtractive processes are when the sculptor works with materials larger than the finished work and the mass has pieces removed until the mass achieves its final form.Additive processes are when the artist builds the work from added materials.

  • Introduction2 of 2Sarah Sze's Triple Point (Pendulum) is an additive work consisting of objects arranged in a circle and oriented like a compass.A pendulum hanging from the ceiling is at the center of the work.The objects create a sense of purpose and randomness simultaneously.

  • Sarah Sze, Triple Point (Pendulum).2013. Salt, water, stone, string, projector, video, pendulum, and mixed media, dimensions variable. Sarah Sze. Courtesy of Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York and Victoria Miro Gallery, London. Photograph: Tom Powel Imaging. [Fig. 12-1]

  • The Three Forms of Sculptural SpaceSculptures intrude into the viewers' space as relief, in-the-round, and environments.Performance art can create a living sculpture from the bodies of its performers.

  • Relief1 of 3A carved relief sculpture has three-dimensional depth but is only meant to be viewed from one side, or frontally.Low (bas-) relief and high (haut-) relief are ways to describe this type of sculpture according to how shallow or deep its characteristics are carved.High-relief sculptures project from their base by at least half their depth.

  • Relief2 of 3The Parthenon frieze, called Maidens and Stewards, is considered low relief and features naturalistic figures.Two examples of high-relief sculpture were the depictions of the Sacrifice of Isaac created by Brunelleschi and Ghiberti in competition to win the commission for the baptistery doors in Florence.

  • Maidens and Stewards, fragment of the Panathenaic Procession, from the east frieze of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens. 447438 BCE. Marble, height approx. 43". Muse du Louvre, Paris.Bridgeman Images. [Fig. 12-2]

  • Relief3 of 3Brunelleschi rendered his figures as nearly fully realized 360-degree forms with the act of sacrifice taking place at center and the angel intervening directly at the top.Ghiberti placed the act of Isaac's sacrifice to one side, allowing for a more dynamic representation of the angel; he won the commission.

  • Filippo Brunelleschi, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition relief commissioned for the doors of the Baptistery, Florence.140102. Parcel-gilt bronze, 21 17-1/2". Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Studio Fotografico Quattrone, Florence. [Fig. 12-3]

  • Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition relief commissioned for the doors of the Baptistery, Florence.140102. Parcel-gilt bronze, 21 17-1/2". Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Studio Fotografico Quattrone, Florence. [Fig. 12-4]

  • Sculpture In-the-RoundFreestanding sculpture demands movement of the viewer to see it from all sides.Capture of the Sabine Women shows a rising spiral of figures with each side changing the viewer's experience.Giambologna's genius of composition mattered more than the subject matter, which shifted after it was created.

  • Giambologna, The Capture of the Sabine Women.1583. Marble, height 13' 6". Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence. Studio Fotografico Quattrone, Florence. [Fig. 12-5]

  • Giambologna, The Capture of the Sabine Women.1583. Marble, height 13' 6". Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence. Studio Fotografico Quattrone, Florence. [Fig. 12-6]

  • Environments1 of 2Environments are sculptural spaces in which viewers can enter or visually explore.They are also referred to as installations.Earthworks are large-scale outdoor environments made from the land.Site-specific works were made to transform a particular space.

  • Environments2 of 2TorusMacroCopula is a work by Ernesto Neto designed for the Louis Vuitton Tokyo store.The structure is a circle around a central axis that has been cut, and that the viewer must link in their mind as they walk across it.Imbalance makes the viewer contemplate the concept of madness.

  • Ernesto Neto, TorusMacroCopula, one of four sculptures in Madness is Part of Life.2012. Installation view, Espace Louis Vuitton, Tokyo, 201213. Polypropylene, polyester string, and plastic balls, length 25' 7".Courtesy of the artist, Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York, and Galeria Fortes Vilaa, So Paolo. [Fig. 12-7]

  • Carving1 of 3Material being carved is chipped, gouged, or hammered away from an inert block of raw material.Sculptors who work in wood must pay attention to the wood's grain, as working against it could destroy the work.Stone has different qualities and must be worked with accordingly.

  • Carving2 of 3Michelangelo's "Atlas Slave" is unfinished, a testament to the struggle of working with stone as well as an imaginative compromise by the artist.In ancient Egypt, stone funerary figures were built to house an individual's ka or spirit.Stone represented an enduring permanence.

  • Michelangelo, "Atlas" Slave.ca. 151320. Marble, 9' 2". Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence. 2015. Photo Scala, Florence, courtesy of the Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali. [Fig. 12-8]

  • Carving3 of 3Ancient Greeks adopted a more naturalistic style.The Kouros shows more relaxation, and lifelike posture and proportion.Praxiteles's Hermes and Dionysus is an example of contrapposto, or counterbalance, where the figure's weight falls on one foot and the shoulders are turned, creating an S-shape.

  • Menkaure with a Woman, probably Khamerernebty, from valley temple of Menkaure, Giza.Dynasty 4, ca. 2480 BCE. Schist, height 4' 8". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.Boston Museum Fine Art Expedition, 11.1738. Photograph 2015 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. [Fig. 12-9]

  • Kouros (a.k.a. The Kritios Boy).ca. 480 BCE. Marble, height 36". Inv. no. 698 akg-image/De Agostini/G. Nimatallah. [Fig. 12-10]

  • Praxiteles, Hermes and Dionysus.ca. 330 BCE. Marble, height 7' 1". National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Craig & Marie Mauzy, Athens. [Fig. 12-11]

  • Modeling1 of 2This is an additive process in which a pliant substance (usually clay) is molded.Clay can be made more durable by firing it in a kiln, or oven, at high temperatures.

  • Modeling2 of 2Works of clay are called ceramics.Chinese mastery of ceramic art is exemplified in the warriors found at the tomb of Qin Shihuangdi.More than 6,000 life-size figures of soldiers and horses acted as immortal bodyguards for the emperor.

  • Tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuangdi.221206 BCE. Painted ceramic figures, life-size. O. Louis Mazzatenta/National Geographic. [Fig. 12-12]

  • Casting1 of 5Casting involves a mold into which molten material is poured and allowed to harden.Bronze, brass, and other materials can be poured into a mold.The Head of an Oba from Benin in the eighteenth century was cast in bronze.The traditional heads are not portraits, but generalized images.

  • Head of an Oba, Nigeria, Africa, Edo, Court of Benin.18th century. Brass and iron, height 13-1/8". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Klaus G. Perls, 1991.17.2. 2015. Image copyright Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 12-13]

  • Casting2 of 5Greeks perfected the lost-wax (or cire-perdue) process of casting.A sculpture is modeled in a pliable material, then a mold is made of the model.Wax is poured into the impression and filled with an investment; then, the mold is removed and wax rods are applied.

  • Casting3 of 5Greeks perfected the lost-wax (or cire-perdue) process of casting.Another investment covers the wax cast and it is baked in a kiln, where the wax runs out.Bronze is poured into the casting gate, a replacement process for the wax that had been there.

  • The lost-wax casting process. [Fig. 12-14]

  • Casting4 of 5Bronze can be joined either by a hammer or by welding. Auguste Rodin's Burghers of Calais was welded together from individual pieces.He used the gestures of the hand to create emotion in the piece.The sculpture was intended to be viewed from the ground and individuals must walk around it to experience it.

  • Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais.188485. Bronze, 6' 7-3/8" 6' 8-7/8". Place de l'Htel de Ville, Calais, France. imageBROKER/Alamy. [Fig. 12-15]

  • Casting5 of 5Bronze was long favored for outdoor sculptural works, but aluminum and fiberglass have become available in more recent years.John Ahearn created Homage... with cast fiberglass made from plaster casts of living subjects.He sought to capture the spirit of an impoverished community with dignity.

  • John Ahearn, Homage to the People of the South Bronx: Double Dutch at Kelly Street 1: Frieda, Jevette, Towana, Stacey.198182. Cast fiberglass, oil, and cable, each figure 4' 6" 4' 6" 12".Image courtesy of Alexander and Bonin, New York. [Fig. 12-16]

  • Assemblage1 of 4Assemblage is the process of bringing individual objects together to form a larger whole.Louise Nevelson's Sky Cathedral is a frontal work that functions like a high-relief altarpiece, with wooden boxes housing found objects and painted all i