Sayre woa ch08_lecture-243771

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  • Learning ObjectivesDiscuss the history of drawing in the Italian Renaissance and how it came to be considered an art in its own right.Distinguish between dry and liquid drawing media and list examples of each.Give some examples of how drawing can be an innovative medium.

  • IntroductionThe video for the band a-ha's "Take On Me" was animated via rotoscope by Michael Patterson and Candace Reckinger.Viewers became entranced by the young woman's being inserted into the world of drawings.Drawing can be both a starting point and a finished artwork in itself.

  • Video for a-ha's "Take On Me".1985. Video stills. Animation by Michael Patterson and Candace Reckinger. Directed by Steve Barron.Courtesy of Rhino Entertainment Company 1985 Warner Music Group. [Fig. 8-1]

  • Video for a-ha's "Take On Me".1985. Video stills. Animation by Michael Patterson and Candace Reckinger. Directed by Steve Barron.Courtesy of Rhino Entertainment Company 1985 Warner Music Group. [Fig. 8-2]

  • From Preparatory Sketch to Finished Work of Art1 of 5Through drawing, artists can illustrate different approaches to compositions.It is useful in its directness as well as its ability to record visual history.Today, drawing may be viewed as an activity accessible to both artists and ordinary people.

  • From Preparatory Sketch to Finished Work of Art2 of 5An early drawing, possibly by the workshop of Maso Finiguerra, shows a youth working on expensive paper which he would have sanded clean after each drawing.Paper was not manufactured in the West until the thirteenth century and was preceded by papyrus in Egypt and parchment in ancient Rome.

  • Workshop of Maso Finiguerra, Youth Drawing.145075. Pen and ink with wash on paper, 7-5/8 4-1/2". The British Museum, London. 1895,0915.440 The Trustees of the British Museum. [Fig. 8-3]

  • From Preparatory Sketch to Finished Work of Art3 of 5Gutenberg's invention of the printing press spurred a need for paper.Because it required large quantities of cloth rags to produce, paper remained a luxury commodity and drawing was often not done on paper.Students learned painting from copying a master's work.

  • From Preparatory Sketch to Finished Work of Art4 of 5In Lives of the Painters, Giorgio Vasari wrote that crowds flocked to see Leonardo's cartoon drawing for Madonna and Child with St. Anne and Infant St. John the Baptist.This account is the earliest recorded example of the public admiring a drawing.

  • Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna and Child with St. Anne and Infant St. John the Baptist.14991500. Black chalk and touches of white chalk on brownish paper, mounted on canvas, 4' 7-3/4" 41-1/4". National Gallery, London.Purchased with a special grant and contributions from Art Fund, Pilgrim Trust, and through a public appeal organized by Art Fund, 1962. NG3887. 2015. Copyright National Gallery, London/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 8-4]

  • From Preparatory Sketch to Finished Work of Art5 of 5Leonardo's Study for a Sleeve shows fluidity and spontaneity of line.The arm is still and smooth in contrast to the swirling drapery.In drawing, Leonardo reveals the imbalance between the unmoving sitter and his own imagination.Such drawings are preserved and collected by connoisseurs as fine art.

  • Leonardo da Vinci, Study for a Sleeve.ca. 151013. Pen, lampblack, and chalk, 3-1/8 6-3/4". The Royal Collection. 2015 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II/Bridgeman Images. [Fig. 8-5]

  • Drawing MaterialsDrawing materials are often divided into dry media and liquid media.

  • Dry Media1 of 11Dry media includes metalpoint, chalk, charcoal, graphite, and pastel.Coloring agents, or pigments, are sometimes mixed with binders, although binders are not necessary if the pigment can be applied to the work directly.

  • Dry Media2 of 11MetalpointThis style, popular beginning in the late fifteenth century, involved a metal stylus applied to a surface prepared with powdered bones and gumwater.Wherever the stylus was applied, a chemical reaction produced line.A metalpoint line is pale gray and delicate; it cannot be made thicker by increasing pressure.

  • Dry Media3 of 11MetalpointLeonardo's Study of a Woman's Head or of the Angel of Vergine delle Rocce exhibits shadow rendered with careful hatching.The drawing could not be erased without resurfacing paper, so the loose and expressive lines here are particularly impressive.

  • Leonardo da Vinci, Study of a Woman's Head or of the Angel of the Vergine delle Rocce.1473. Silverpoint with white highlights on prepared paper, 7-1/8 6-1/4". Biblioteca Reale, Turin, Italy.Alinari/Bridgeman Images. [Fig. 8-6]

  • The Creative Process1 of 2Movement and Gesture: Raphael's Alba MadonnaRaphael was inspired by the freedom of movement found in Leonardo da Vinci's drawings.In the studies for The Alba Madonna, Raphael worked on both sides of a single piece of paper.

  • Raphael, Studies for The Alba Madonna (recto).ca. 1511. Red chalk 6-5/8 10-3/4". Muse des Beaux Arts, Lille, France. RMN-Grand Palais/Herv Lewandowski. [Fig. 8-7]

  • Raphael, Studies for The Alba Madonna (verso).ca. 1511. Red chalk and pen and ink, 16-5/8 10-3/4". Private collection.Bridgeman Images. [Fig. 8-8]

  • The Creative Process2 of 2Movement and Gesture: Raphael's Alba MadonnaThe circular format of the final painting is fully realized in the second study.While not all facial expressions are fully indicated, the emotional atmosphere is apparent in the fluency of the figures' composition.

  • Raphael, The Alba Madonna.ca. 1510. Oil on panel transferred to canvas, diameter 37-1/4 in., framed 4' 6" 4' 5-1/2". National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Andrew W. Mellon Collection. Photo 1999 Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art. Photo: Jose A. Naranjo. [Fig. 8-9]

  • Dry Media4 of 11Chalk and charcoalWhile the chief concern of metalpoint is delineation, chalk and charcoal are able to give a volumetric sense of their subject.With the invention of a variety of chalks by the sixteenth century, artists could make more gradual transitions from light to dark.

  • Dry Media5 of 11Chalk and charcoalGeorgia O'Keeffe's Banana Flower achieves volume and space rendered with charcoal.Charcoal, however, was not widely used in Renaissance works aside from sinopie, or tracing the outlines of compositions drawn on a wall prior to being painted as frescoes.

  • Georgia O'Keeffe, Banana Flower.1933. Charcoal and black chalk on paper, 21-3/4 14-3/4". Museum of Modern Art, New York.Given anonymously (by exchange), 21.1936. 2015. Digital image, Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence. 2015 Georgia O'Keeffe Museum/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. [Fig. 8-10]

  • Dry Media6 of 11Chalk and charcoalThe expressive directness and immediacy of charcoal made it popular for modern artists.Kthe Kollwitz's Self-Portrait, Drawing features the figure's arm realized by angular gesture lines, expressive and raw.This contrasts with the carefully rendered hand and face.

  • Kthe Kollwitz, Self-Portrait, Drawing.1933. Charcoal on brown laid Ingres paper (Nagel 1972 1240), 18-3/4 25". National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Rosenwald Collection, 1943.3.5217. 2015 Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art. 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn. [Fig. 8-11]

  • Dry Media7 of 11GraphiteLead pencils became increasingly popular after black chalk became harder to find in the sixteenth century.At the request of Napoleon and due to dwindling availability of imported pencils, the Cont crayon was invented.It partially substituted clay for graphite.

  • Georges Seurat, The Artist's Mother.188283. Cont crayon on Michallet paper, 12-516 9-716". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1951; acquired from the Museum of Modern Art, Lillie P. Bliss Collection, 55.21.1. 2015. Digital image Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 8-12]

  • Dry Media8 of 11GraphiteGeorges Seurat's Cont crayon study exhibits the wide range of tonal effects afforded by the new medium.Vija Celmins's Untitled (Ocean) further demonstrates the capabilities of graphite drawing to be photorealistic.The arbitrary frame of a camera lens suggests a continuance of space.

  • Vija Celmins, Untitled (Ocean).1970. Graphite on acrylic ground on paper, 14-1/8 18-7/8". Museum of Modern Art, New York.Mrs. Florene M. Schoenborn Fund, 585.1970. 2015. Digital image, Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence. 2015 Vija Celmins. [Fig. 8-13]

  • Dry Media9 of 11PastelPastel is a chalk medium with colored pigment and a nongreasy binder; the more binder, the harder the stick and less intense the color.Edgar Degas was attracted to its direct, unfinished quality for the portrayal of a series of women at their bath.He invented a new method of building up pigments in layers with fixative.

  • Edgar Degas, After the Bath, Woman Drying Herself.ca. 188990. Pastel on paper, 26-5/8 22-3/4". The Courtauld Institute of Art, London.The Samuel Courtauld Trust, The Courtauld Gallery, London/Bridgeman Images.[Fig. 8-14]

  • Dry Media10 of 11PastelMary Cassatt became a student of Degas and used pastel even more boldly than her mentor.Young Mother, Daughter, and Son features gestures of line that exceed their boundaries and seemingly arbitrary blue strokes throughout.Her freedom of line was praised as a symbol of women's strength.

  • Mary Cassatt, Young Mother, Daughter, and Son.1913. Pastel on paper, 43-1/4 33-1/4". Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester.Marion Stratten Gould Fund. mag.rochester.edu/. [Fig. 8-15]

  • Dry Media11 of 11OilstickOil