Sayre woa ch06_lecture-243769

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  • Learning ObjectivesExplain the difference between actual texture and visual texture.Outline some of the ways that time and motion inform our experience of visual art.

  • IntroductionPhillip K. Smith III's work, Lucid Stead, consists of a homesteader's shack transformed by alternating bands of mirror and weathered siding.At night, LED lights illuminate windows and the cracks between the structure's bands reveal interior light.The pace of change is the theme at the heart of the work: time and motion.

  • Phillip K. Smith III, Lucid Stead. 2013. Seventy-year-old homesteader shack, mirrors, LED lights, custom-built electronic equipment, and Arduino programming. Photo: Steve King. Phillip K. Smith III is represented by Royale Projects: Contemporary Art, CA and all artwork use permissions are courtesy of the gallery. [Fig. 6-1]

  • Phillip K. Smith III, Lucid Stead. 2013. Seventy-year-old homesteader shack, mirrors, LED lights, custom-built electronic equipment, and Arduino programming. Photo: Lance Gerber. Phillip K. Smith III is represented by Royale Projects: Contemporary Art, CA and all artwork use permissions are courtesy of the gallery. [Fig. 6-2]

  • TextureTexture describes a work's ability to call forth tactile sensations and feelings.It can be described as rough or smooth, slimy or soft; it may draw a desire to touch or repulsion.Museums and galleries utilize "Do Not Touch" signs so that works do not fall prey to the touch of visitors and erode over time.

  • Actual TextureMichelangelo's Piet transforms its marble medium into lifelike figures with gentle drapery.Manuel Neri's bronze sculpture from the Mujer Pegada Series emphasizes both a smooth, finished texture and a rough texture beside loose brushstrokes.It is as though the artist's subject is only half-realized, begun to appear.

  • Michelangelo, Piet. 1501. Marble, height 6' 8-12" Vatican City.Canali Photobank, Milan, Italy. [Fig. 6-3]

  • Manuel Neri, Mujer Pegada Series No. 2. 198586. Bronze with oil-based enamel, 5' 10" 4' 8" 11".Photo: M. Lee Fatheree courtesy of the Manuel Neri Trust. [Fig. 6-4]

  • Visual Texture1 of 2Visual texture appears to be actual, but is an illusion.Max Ernst's The Horde was created through frottage, a technique where an artist puts a sheet of paper over textured materials then rubs across the paper with a pencil or crayon.Ernst was able to create a wide variety of textural effects.

  • Max Ernst, The Horde. 1927. Oil on canvas, 18-18 21-58". Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. ADAGP/SPADEM, Paris and DACS, London, 1993. 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris. [Fig. 6-5]

  • Visual Texture2 of 2William A. Garnett produced an aerial view of strip farms across an eroding landscape to study American land-use practices.Predictable patterns of farming contrast the unfarmed regions, particularly apparent in the upper left of the photo.The photograph itself is smooth, therefore its texture is visual.

  • William A. Garnett, Erosion and Strip Farms, East Slope of the Tehachapi Mountains. 1951. Gelatin-silver print, 15-916 19-12". Museum of Modern Art, New York. 2015. Digital image, Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence. William A. Garnett Estate. [Fig. 6-6]

  • Time and MotionTraditionally, plastic arts such as painting and sculpture are spatial; written arts such as music and literature are temporal.However, time plays a greater role in plastic arts, in part through narrative structure.Sculpture can move, as in Calder's Untitled kinetic art.

  • Alexander Calder, Untitled. 1976. Aluminum and steel, overall 29' 11-38" 75' 11-58", gross weight 920 lb. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Gift of the Collectors Committee, 1977.76.1 Courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 2015 Calder Foundation, New York/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. [Fig. 6-7]

  • Narratives in Art1 of 2Gianlorenzo Bernini's David shows a figure caught in the middle of action, an incomplete and energetic moment when contrasted with Michelangelo's David.

  • Gianlorenzo Bernini, David. 1623. Marble, life-size. Galleria Borghese, Rome.Canali Photobank, Milan/SuperStock. [Fig. 6-8]

  • Narratives in Art2 of 2Isidro Escamilla's Virgin of Guadalupe narrates the event of Juan Diego beholding a dark-skinned woman who advised him to build a Christian church.In this story, when the bishop did not believe Juan Diego's story, the Virgin caused roses to bloom on the hill out of season; when Juan Diego presented the roses to the bishop, the image of the Virgin appeared on his cloak.

  • Isidro Escamilla, Virgin of Guadalupe. September 1, 1864. Oil on canvas, 22-78 15". The Brooklyn Museum.Henry L. Batterman Fund, 45.128.189. [Fig. 6-9]

  • Seeing Over TimeMonet's famous lily pond painting were designed to compel the viewer to move about the room in which they are exhibited.The viewer is surrounded by the paintings; the phenomenon of "Brownian motion" prevails as the viewer's eye has no place to rest.

  • Claude Monet, Water Lilies, Morning: Willows (central section and right side). 191626. Triptych, each panel 6' 8" 14' 2". Muse de l'Orangerie, Paris.Bridgeman Images. [Fig. 6-10]

  • The Illusion of MovementIn optical painting, or "Op Art," physical characteristics of formal elements are manipulated to stimulate the nervous system into thinking it perceives movement.Bridget Riley's large-canvas Drift No. 2 appears to wave and roll despite being quite fixed to the canvas.

  • Bridget Riley, Drift No. 2. 1966. Acrylic on canvas, 7' 7-12" 7' 5-12". Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York.Gift of Seymour H. Knox, Jr., 1967. 2015. Albright Knox Art Gallery/Art Resource, New York/Scala, Florence. Bridget Riley 2015. All rights reserved, courtesy of Karsten Schubert, London. [Fig. 6-11]

  • The Creative Process1 of 2Painting as Action: Jackson Pollock's No. 32, 1950Pollock's action paintings challenge the viewer to become actively engaged in the large canvas.Painting is not so much a finished work as it is also the process of painting."Pollock Paints a Picture" in Artnews tells us about his working method, despite being staged.

  • Rudy Burckhardt, Jackson Pollock painting No. 32, 1950.1950 Rudolph Burckhardt/Sygma/Corbis. [Fig. 6-12]

  • The Creative Process2 of 2Painting as Action: Jackson Pollock's No. 32, 1950When creating, Pollock absorbed himself in his work.We can imagine the immediacy of his gesture, full of dancelike movements.He mainly painted on the floor, citing the ability to walk around it as being nearer to it.

  • Jackson Pollock, No. 32, 1950.1950 Enamel on canvas, 8' 10" 15'. Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Dusseldorf, Germany.akg-images. Jackson Pollock/VAGA. 2015 Pollock-Krasner Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. [Fig. 6-13]

  • Time-Based Media1 of 2Grace Ndiritu creates videos of solo performances.Still Life: White Textiles ironically features the artist moving the printed fabric and animating it as she holds it across her body.Still Life was inspired by an exhibition of Matisse paintings.The artist's "passive" female body both invites and denies seduction.

  • Grace Ndiritu, Still Life: White Textiles. 2005/2007. Still. Silent video, 4 min. 57 sec. LUX, London. [Fig. 6-14]

  • Time-Based Media2 of 2Video artists Teresa Hubbard and Alexander portray their videos as "long photographs" with added sound.Detached Building shows scenes within and outside a tin shed in a 5-minute, 38-second loop.Since the video is looped, viewers can enter and leave the installation at any point, constructing their own version of the narrative.

  • Teresa Hubbard and Alexander Birchler, Detached Building. 2001. High-definition video with sound transferred to DVD, 5 min. 38 sec. loop.Stills courtesy of the artists and Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York. [Fig. 6-15a]

  • Teresa Hubbard and Alexander Birchler, Detached Building. 2001. High-definition video with sound transferred to DVD, 5 min. 38 sec. loop.Stills courtesy of the artists and Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York. [Fig. 6-15b]

  • Teresa Hubbard and Alexander Birchler, Detached Building. 2001. High-definition video with sound transferred to DVD, 5 min. 38 sec. loop.Stills courtesy of the artists and Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York. [Fig. 6-15c]

  • Teresa Hubbard and Alexander Birchler, Detached Building. 2001. High-definition video with sound transferred to DVD, 5 min. 38 sec. loop.Stills courtesy of the artists and Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York. [Fig. 6-15d]

  • Teresa Hubbard and Alexander Birchler, Detached Building. 2001. High-definition video with sound transferred to DVD, 5 min. 38 sec. loop.Stills courtesy of the artists and Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York. [Fig. 6-15e]

  • Teresa Hubbard and Alexander Birchler, Detached Building. 2001. High-definition video with sound transferred to DVD, 5 min. 38 sec. loop.Stills courtesy of the artists and Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York. [Fig. 6-15f]

  • Teresa Hubbard and Alexander Birchler, Detached Building. 2001. High-definition video with sound transferred to DVD, 5 min. 38 sec. loop. Installation photo by Stefan Rohner, courtesy of the artists and Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York. [Fig. 6-16]

  • The Critical ProcessThinking about the Formal ElementsBill Viola's Room for St. John of the Cross consists of a small television monitor with a still video of snow-covered mountain within a cubicle in front of a large projection of a shaky black-and-white video.A quiet audio track of a poetry reading drowns under the roar of wind.Formal elements surround the viewer.

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