Sayre woa ch05_lecture-243768

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  • Learning Objectives1. Describe the ways in which artists use light to represent space and model form.2. Outline the principles of color theory, and describe the different sorts of color schemes that artists might employ.3. Explain how color might be used both in representational painting and as a symbolic tool.

  • IntroductionLight and color are elements that affect the creation of space in art.Artist Dan Flavin transformed the space of his gallery room with fluorescent colored lights in 1936.Venezuelan artist Carlos Cruz-Diez saturated three gallery chambers in red, green, and blue in his Chromosaturation.

  • The Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton, New York. 196383.Courtesy of Dia Art Foundation, New York. Photo: Florian Holzherr. [Fig. 5-1]

  • Carlos Cruz-Diez, Chromosaturation. 201213. Site-specific environment composed of fluorescent lights with blue, red, and green filters.Courtesy of Americas Society Gallery, New York. Photo Arturo Sanchez. [Fig. 5-2]

  • LightNatural light helps define spatial relationships.Artists can control the experience of their work through the manipulation of light.

  • Atmospheric Perspective1 of 3Leonardo da Vinci concerned himself with writing "rules" for atmospheric or aerial perspective.Objects that are farther away appear less distinct, bluer in color, and have reduced light/dark contrast.

  • Atmospheric Perspective2 of 3Leonardo's Madonna of the Rocks shows three groupings of rocks with different distances marked only by atmospheric perspective.The one nearest to the viewer is on the right, and the one on the left that appears blue is the farthest.

  • Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks. ca. 14951508. Oil on panel, 6' 3" 47". National Gallery, London. 2015 National Gallery, London/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 5-3]

  • Atmospheric Perspective3 of 3J. M. W. Turner's Rain, Steam, and SpeedThe Great Western Railway does not depend solely on linear perspective.Light and atmosphere obscure the train tracks near the center of the work and create a more spiritual sense of reality.

  • J. M. W. Turner, Rain, Steam, and SpeedThe Great Western Railway. 1844. Oil on canvas, 33-1/4" 4'. National Gallery, London.akg-image/NationalGallery, London. [Fig. 5-4]

  • Value: From Light to Dark1 of 4The relative level of lightness or darkness of an area or object is traditionally called its relative value.When white is added to the basic hue (color), the variation is called a tint. When black is added to the basic hue, the variation is called a shade.For example, pink is a tint of red; maroon is a shade of red.

  • The gray scale. [Fig. 5-5]

  • Blue in a range of values. [Fig. 5-6]

  • Value: From Light to Dark2 of 4Pat Steir's Pink Chrysanthemum and Night Chrysanthemum feature three views of the same flower in stages of abstraction.Western culture often associates light with good and darkness with evil.In the eighteenth century, Goethe created a color theory linked with moral and religious significance.

  • Pat Steir, Pink Chrysanthemum. 1984. Oil on canvas, three panels, each 5 5'.Courtesy of the artist and Cheim & Read, New York. [Fig. 5-7]

  • Pat Steir, Night Chrysanthemum. 1984. Oil on canvas, three panels, each 5 5'.Courtesy of the artist and Cheim & Read, New York. [Fig. 5-8]

  • Value: From Light to Dark3 of 4For African Americans, particularly during the 1960s, blackness signified goodness and pride.Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man influenced the community to adopt the Black Power movement, which asserted that black was a color composed of all other colors.

  • Value: From Light to Dark4 of 4Ben Jones's Black Face and Arm Unit is a series of twelve arms and faces decorated with bands of color that recall ancient African sculpture.

  • Ben Jones, Black Face and Arm Unit. 1971. Acrylic on plaster, life-size plaster casts.Courtesy of the artist. [Fig. 5-9]

  • Chiaroscuro and Modeling1 of 3Chiaroscuro refers to the balance of light and shade in a work, most often exhibited when the artist transitions from light to dark around a curved surface.Using chiaroscuro on a curved surface is called modeling.

  • Chiaroscuro and Modeling2 of 3Paul Colin drew Figure of a Woman on beige paper, indicating shadow with black crayon and light with white crayon.Highlights are indicated by white and directly reflect the light source.Areas of shadow include the shadow proper, the core of the shadow, and the darkest cast shadow.

  • Paul Colin, Figure of a Woman. ca. 1930. Black and white crayon on light beige paper, 24 18-1/2". Frederick and Lucy S. Herman Foundation, University of Virginia Art Museum.Collection of Frederick and Lucy S. Herman Foundation. 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris. [Fig. 5-10]

  • A sphere represented by means of modeling. [Fig. 5-11]

  • Chiaroscuro and Modeling3 of 3Tenebrism is a technique separate from modeling in which areas of dark contrast sharply with smaller, brightly illuminated areas.Artemisia Gentileschi's Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes lights the heroic Judith strongly with a candle, with her hand casting a powerful shadow over her face.

  • Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes. ca. 1625. Oil on canvas, 6' 1/2" 4' 7-3/4". Detroit Institute of Arts.Gift of Mr Leslie H. Green. Bridgeman Images. [Fig. 5-12]

  • Hatching and Cross-Hatching1 of 2Hatching is an area of closely spaced parallel lines.The Coiffure by Mary Cassatt uses parallel lines to render the depth of shadow in the room.

  • Mary Cassatt, The Coiffure. ca. 1891. Graphite with traces of green and brown watercolor, approx. 5-78 4-38". National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Rosenwald Collection, 1954.12.6. Photo Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. [Fig. 5-13]

  • Hatching and Cross-Hatching2 of 2Michelangelo's Head of a Satyr employs hatching on the back of the figure's neck and head.It also features cross-hatching, where one set of hatches is crossed at an angle by one or more sets of hatches, creating a darker area of lines.

  • Michelangelo, Head of a Satyr. ca. 162030. Pen and ink over chalk, 10-5/8 7-7/8". Muse du Louvre, Paris.INV684-recto. Photo RMN-Grand Palais (muse du Louvre)/Michle Bellot. [Fig. 5-14]

  • Contrast: Light and DarkGreater contrast between light and dark often has greater dramatic impact.In Shirin Neshat's Fervor, women and men worshiping at a mosque are separated both by a divider and by the color of their garments.The single white face of a woman who turns toward the camera draws the viewer further into the narrative.

  • Shirin Neshat, Fervor. 2000. Gelatin silver print, 5' 6" 47". Shirin Neshat, courtesy of Gladstone Gallery, New York and Brussels. [Fig. 5-15]

  • The Creative ProcessThe Play of Light and Dark: Mary Cassatt's In the LogeCassatt sketched the idea with a clear division between light and dark, with the line of light abruptly stopping at the figure's hand and face.A slice of the woman's neck in the final version creates two light-and-dark diagonals.

  • Mary Cassatt, Study for In the Loge. 1878. Graphite, 4 6". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.Gift of Dr. Hans Schaeffer, 55.28. Photograph 2015 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.[Fig. 5-16]

  • Mary Cassatt, In the Loge (At the Franais, a Sketch). 1878. Oil on canvas, 32 26". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.Hayden Collection, 10.35. Photograph 2015 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. [Fig. 5-17]

  • ColorOn the evening of June 29, 2002, Cai Guo-Qiang's Transient Rainbow was displayed across the East River in New York City.It was a fireworks display in the colors of the rainbow.The symbolic message was one of hope, renewal, and healing in a post-9/11 period.

  • Cai Guo-Qiang, Transient Rainbow, realized over the East River, New York.June 29, 2002. One thousand 3" multicolor peony fireworks fitted with computer chips, 300 600', duration 15 sec. Commissioned by the Museum of Modern Art, New York, for the opening of MoMA Queens. Photo: Hiro Ihara, courtesy of Cai Studio. 2015 Cai Guo-Qiang. [Fig. 5-18]

  • Basic Color Vocabulary1 of 5Sir Isaac Newton discovered that light breaks into a spectrum, or bands of color, and he reorganized them into a circle to create the conventional color wheel.In this system, primary colors are red, yellow, and blue.

  • Colors separated by a prism into the spectrum. [Fig. 5-19]

  • Conventional color wheel. [Fig. 5-20]

  • Basic Color Vocabulary2 of 5Secondary colors are orange, green and violet, and are mixtures of two surrounding primary colors.Intermediate colors mix a primary color and nearby secondary color.In this system, mixing all colors together creates black, the absence of color; it is known as a subtractive process.

  • Color mixtures of reflected pigmentsubtractive process. [Fig. 5-21]

  • Basic Color Vocabulary3 of 5Mixing colored light is an additive process.Primary colors are red-orange, green, and blue-violet.Secondaries are yellow, magenta, and cyan.As more colors are combined and more light is added, the colors become brighter.

  • Color mixtures of refracted lightadditive process. [Fig. 5-22]

  • Basic Color Vocabulary4 of 5Color can be described by its hue, relative value, and intensity or saturation.Intensity can be reduced by adding a gray or opposite hue, or by adding a medium.

  • Basic Color Vocabulary5 of 5Michelangelo's frescoes in the Sistine Chapel were thought to have been painted in dull, somber hues, but were discovered to have been covered with centuries of