K Sayre - CA-Based Systems for Rice -Ken Sayre

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Transcript of K Sayre - CA-Based Systems for Rice -Ken Sayre

Potential for CA-Based Crop Management for Rice

Ken Sayre Agronomist - Conservation Agriculture-Based Crop Management

MAIN CROP MANAGEMENT ISSUES FACING MOST RICE FARMERS USING IRRIGATION HIGH PRODUCTION COSTS GENERAL ANDUNSTABLE PRICES = LOW PROFITABILITY CHRONIC LABOR SHORTAGES LEADING TO RAPID INCREASES IN LABOR COSTS DEGRADATION OF PRODUCTION RESOURCES ESPECIALLY SOIL PRODUCTIVITY POTENTIAL WHEN SOILS ARE PUDDLED FOR RICE AND UPLAND CROPS ARE GROWN IN ROTATION WITH RICE POOR WATER MANAGEMENT AND/OR REDUCED AVAILABILITY OF IRRIGATION WATER

IRRIGATED RICE-WHEAT IN SOUTH ASIA AND CHINA THE RICE- WHEAT SYSTEM CURRENTLY INVOLVES EXTENSIVE TILLAGE INCLUDING PUDDLING FOR RICE BOTH RICE AND WHEAT ARE PLANTED ON THE FLAT WITH FLOOD IRRIGATION MOST CROP RESIDUES ARE REMOVED FOR FODDER OR FUEL OR ARE BURNED

TILLAGE FOR RICE

PUDDLING PRIOR TO RICE TRANSPLANTING

PUDDLING PRIOR TO RICE TRANSPLANTING

TRANSPLANTED, PUDDLED RICE

CONVENTIONAL, PUDDLED TRANSPLANTED RICE

IN SOUTH ASIA, THE FIRST STEP TO ADOPT CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE FOR RICEWHEAT HAS BEEN TAKEN ZERO TILL PLANTING OF WHEAT ON THEFLAT AFTER TRANSPLANTED, PUDDLED RICE IS BEING ADOPTED, ESPECIALLY IN INDIA AND PAKISTAN PROGRESS TO DEVELOP THE TECHNOLOGIES TO DIRECT SEED RICE ON THE FLAT \ WITHOUT PUDDLING WITH MINIMAL OR ZERO TILLAGE THE PROGRESS HAS BEEN SLOW DUE TO RESISTANCE FROM MOST NARS INSTITUTES

ZERO TILL PLANTERS - INDIA

Existing Turbo-Happy Zero Till Seeder - INDIA

ZERO TILL WHEAT PLANTED ON THE FLAT AFTER TRANSPLANTED RICE

Direct Seeding Rice with Minimum Tillage

Direct seeded Rice in India

INDIA DIRECT SEEDED RICE ON THE FLAT WITH FLOOD IRRIGATION

Maturity -7-15 Days early in DSR

PTR

DSR

COMPARISON OF PUDDLED TRANSPLANTED RICE WITH ZERO TILL DIRECT SEEDED RICE IN BIHAR

Grain yield of Rice Cultivars under DSR and PTRCultivars DSR Pusa 06 Pusa 834(SD) Prabhat (SD) NDR 359 (MD) Pant 10(MD) Pusa 44(MD) NP49(MD) Sugandh 3(S) Pusa Basmati-1(S) Rajendra Mahsuri (LD) 3222 2389 3667 3333 3789 3589 2667 2611 5623 BGS 07 3766 2555 3778 3422 3289 6144 Pusa 06 2778 2111 3778 2944 4056 2833 2556 2611 5786 Grain Yield (kg/ha) PTR BGS 07 3489 2422 3828 2978 3111 6755

Effect of crop establishment methods on rice and wheat yields for a long term trial at Pusa, Bihar(Data from Ravi Gopal Singh - CSISA Hub Manager - Bihar)10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0PT W -CT R PT W - ZT R ) (-R

Wheat

Rice

Rice + Wheat

P r o d u c tiv ity (t/h a )

Z TR

) ) ) ) ) ) (-R (-R ( -R (-R +R ( +R W W W TW ( BP TW ZT - ZT W - ZT -Z -C T R R -Z TR Z TR Z TR CT Z WS

Crop establishment methods

Effect of establishment sytems on Yield attributes of rice (Data from Ravi Gopal Singh - CSISA Hub Manager - Bihar)Grain Yd (t/ha) grains/ panicle 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ZTR-SB ZTR-res ZTR+ res Ses CP fb ZTR PWSR fbZTR UPTPR PTPR Panicles /m2 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

CA-based Technologies can Increase the Profitability of Agriculture for FarmersEconomics of Wheat Production in India (Data from the Rice-Wheat Consortium)$1,000 USD per ha $800 $600 $400 $200 $Conventional till Zero tillGross benefits Costs that vary Net benefits

SummaryCost saving ~ Rs 3000/ha . Water Saving ~ 20-25cm of irrigation water. In on-farm trials, DSR yield was similar or higher in 65% cases than PTR. Basmati type and hybrid rice cultivars performed better under DSR. Sesbania Co-culture with retained residues in DSR reduces weeds by half, and saves 15-20 kg N/ha. DSR facilitates timely planting of wheat and helps in improving system productivity

New Strategy for Rice Zero Till, Mechanical TransplantingMechanical Rice Transplanter Zero Till Mechanical Transplanted Rice

Mechanically Transplanted, Unpuddled Rice in Bihar, India

CAN RICE BE PLANTED ON RAISED BEDS INCLUDING PERMANENT RAISED BEDS?

TRANSPLANTING RICE ON TILLED BEDS IN INDIA

TRANSPLANTED RICE ON TILLED BEDS IN INDIA

DIRECT SEEDED RICE ON PERMANENT BEDS AFTER WHEAT - INDIA

MUNGBEAN ON PERMANENT BEDS AFTER WHEAT AND BEFORE RICE

TRANSPLNTED RICE ON PERMANENT BEDS AFTER MAIZE - BANGLADESH

TRANSPLANTED RICE ON PERMANENT BEDS WITH RESIDUE REMOVED - BANGLADESH

Boro Rice Transplanted on Permanent Raised Beds in Bangladesh

TRANSPLANTED T AMAN RICE ON PERMANENT BEDS DINAJPUR, BANGLADESH

TRANSPLANTED RICE ON PERMANENT BEDS AFTER WHEAT - BANGLADESH

Effect of Planting Method and N-levels on Grain yield of Aman Rice in Rajshahi, Bangladesh (Dr. M. Ilias Hossain)8 7Grain yield (t/ha)

6Ga y ld(t/h ) r in ie a

5 4 3 2 1Bed X 50N Bed X100N Bed X 150N Con X 50N Con X 100N Con X 150N

0

Planting Method and N-levels

Comparison of Total Productivity for the Conventional Puddled, Fooded Rice Versus Permanent Raised Beds with Different Straw Retention Levels for a Rice-WheatMungbean System in Rajshahi, Bangladesh (Dr. M. Elias Hossain)Total Systems Productivity (t/ha)

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Rice

Wheat

Mungbean

Bed x 0% Straw

Conv x 0% Straw

Bed x 100% Straw

Conv x 100% Straw

Planting method options x straw levels

Effect of Planting Method on Grain and Straw Yield for Boro and Aman Rice In Bangladesh ( Dr. H M Talukder) Boro Rice Boro Rice Aman Rice Aman Rice Planting Straw Grain Straw Method Grain yield Yield Yield (t/ha) Yield (t/ha) (t/ha) (t/ha) Permanent Raised Beds Puddled, Flooded Flat Planting 6.88 8.47 6.38 8.14

6.06

7.94

5.61

7.64

Effect of Planting Method on Irrigation Water Application (mm) for Boro and Aman Rice In Bangladesh ( Dr. H M Talukder) Planting Method Boro Rice Irrigation Water Applied (mm) 827 1187 30 Aman Rice Irrigation Water Applied (mm) 192 268 29

Permanent Raised Beds Puddled, Flooded Flat Planting % Irrigation Water Savings with Permanent Raised Beds

Effect of Planting Method on Grain and Straw Arsenic Content for Boro Rice In Bangladesh ( Dr. H M Talukder) Planting Method Boro Rice Arsenic Content (ppm) Boro Rice Arsenic Content (ppm)

Permanent Raised Beds

0.25

1.55

Puddled, Flooded Flat Planting

0.65

10.93

INDIA TRANSPLANTED RICE ON BEDS

INDIA TRANSPLANTED RICE ON BEDS AFTER WHEAT

INDIA TRANSPLANTED RICE ON BEDS AFTER WHEAT

TRANSPLANTED RICE ON BEDS - INDIA

DIRECT SEEDED RICE ON BEDS - INDIA

INDIA HARVESTING BED PLANTED RICE

Effect of planting method and tillage on paddy rice yield in India during the 2001 crop season*6,000 5,020 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Planting method Tillage Direct seeded On beds used for wheat Transplanted Direct seeded on flat Direct seeded on flat Transplanted on flat On beds used for Zero till after wheat Reduced till after Normal tillage with wheat wheat puddling 5,620 5,690 5,190 5,290

* Average yields from 14 ha (22 farmers) direct seeded on beds Average yields from 12 ha (20 farmers) transplanted on beds Average yields from 12 ha (10 farmers) zero tilled after wheat Average yields from 1.6 ha (7 farmers) reduced till after wheat

Effect of planting method and tillage on irrigation water requirement for rice grown in India during the 2001 crop season*285

T o t a l ir r ig a t io n t im e ( h o u r s /h a )

265 245 225 205 185 165 145 125 Direct seeded On beds used for wheat Transplanted On beds used for wheat 153 146 216 205

250

Planting method

Direct seeded on flat Direct seeded on flat Transplanted on flat Zero till after wheat Reduced till after Normal tillage with wheat puddling

* Average from 14 ha (22 farmers) direct seeded on beds Average from 12 ha (20 farmers) transplanted on beds Average from 12 ha (10 farmers) zero tilled after wheat Average from 1.6 ha (7 farmers) reduced till after wheat

Percent savings in irrigation water for rice compared to the transplanted rice with normal tillage and puddling in India during the 2001 crop season*50 45 42 39

P e r c e n t w a t e r s a v in g s

40 35 30 25 20 15

18 13

10 Planting method

Direct seeded Transplanted On beds used for wheat On beds used for wheat from 14 ha (22 farmers) direct seeded on beds from 12 ha (20 farmers) transplanted on beds from 12 ha (10 farmers) zero tilled after wheat from 1.6 ha (7 farmers) reduced till after wheat

Direct seeded on flat Zero till after wheat

Direct seeded on flat Reduced till after wheat

* Average Average Average Average

Comparison of Crop Establishment of Maize after Different Rice Seeding Systems in Pusa, Bihar, India

After Direct Seeder Rice on Permanent Beds

After Puddled Transplanted Rice

After Zero Tiil Rice on the Flat

THANKS