1 - K Sayre - Rainfed CA-Based Systems - Ken Sayre

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    CIMMYT nternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center nternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

    Conservation Agriculture-based CropManagement Technologies for

    Rainfed Production Systems in Mexico

    en Sayreonsulting Agronomist with the CIMMYT Conservation Agriculture-Based Cropanagement

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    CIMMYT HeadquartersEl Batn

    Low RainfallLow RainfallMainlyMainly RainfedRainfed

    2249 m

    MexicoMexicoCityCity

    TolucaHigh Rainfall

    Rainfed 2640 m

    Locations of the CIMMYT Main

    Rainfed Experiment Stations inMexico where the CIMMYT

    Conservation Program is Working

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    Toluca May-Oct. 870 536 1127 5 21

    El Batan May-Sept. 501 357 618 9 24

    Summary of weather variables during the wheat growing

    season at the rainfed Toluca and El Batan ExperimentStations (period covered 1973-1996).Average Min. Max. Average

    total total total min. max.

    Months for rainfall rainfall rainfall temp temp.the wheat ------------------------------------------------------------Experiment growthStation cycle (mm) (mm) (mm) C C

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    Rainfed Production Systems in the Central

    Highlands of Mexico Rainfed maize and small grain-based production systems (someeans too)

    Range in elevation from 1500 to 2800+ masl

    Annual average rainfall in the area ranges from 400 to 1000 mmer year distributed from late May to early October and highly ariable both within year and year-to-year

    Very erratic onset and ending of rains and very unpredictable

    istribution during the rainy season commonly with heavy ownpours followed by extended dry periods

    Crop/Livestock interactions are common with associated

    ompetition for crop residues

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    Rainfed Small Grain-Based Systems

    in the Central Highlands of Mexico

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    Crop Residue Status on Soil Surface after Removal Of Residuesfrom Different Crops

    After Maize - All Residues Removed for Fodder Almost No Ground Cover

    After Beans All Residues Removed Very Minimal Ground Cover

    After Wheat Most Residues Removed -Some Ground Cover

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    Crop Residue Status on Soil Surface after

    Retention Of All Residues For Rainfed Maize For Rainfed Wheat

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    Planting rainfed wheat on permanent raised beds

    wheat into full retention of wheat residue

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    Early Stage Zero Till Rainfed Wheat Removed versus Retained Residues

    Zero Till Residues Removed Zero Till Residues Retained

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    Later Stage Zero Till Rainfed Wheat

    Removed versus Retained Residues Zero Till Residues Removed Zero Till Residues Retained

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    Comparison of Rainfed Wheat Yields for the Most Common FarmerPractice versus the Best Conservation Agriculture Practice at El

    Batan, Mexico from 1996 to 2006

    1500

    2500

    3500

    4500

    5500

    6500

    7500

    8500

    1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

    G r a i n Y i e l d

    ( k g / h a )

    FarmerPractice -ContinuousWheat: Conv.tillage:Residue

    RemovedBest CAPractice -Wheat-Maize:Zero tillage:ResidueRetained

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    Effect of Rotation, Tillage and Residue Management on AverageRainfed Wheat Grain Yields from 1997 to 2009 at El Batan in the

    Central Highlands of Mexico (Mean Annual Rainfall = 550mm)

    3000

    35004000

    4500

    50005500

    6000

    6500

    Wh-Wh - ConvTill - All

    ResiduesRemoved(Farmer

    Practice)

    Wh-Wh - ZeroTill - All

    ResiduesRemoved

    Wh-Wh - ZeroTill - All

    ResiduesRetained

    Wh-Mz - ZeroTill - All

    ResiduesRetained

    Wh-Mz - ZeroTill - 50% ofResiduesRetained

    Wh-Mz - ZeroTill - All

    ResiduesRemoved

    Rotation - Tillage - Residue Management

    G r a i n Y i e l d ( k g / h a )

    LSD (0.05) = 235 kg/ha

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    Effect of rotation, tillage and residue management for rainfed production systems onthe distribution ofsoil wet aggregate distribution

    (0-20cm) at El Batan in the Central Highlands of Mexico

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    Wh-Wh - Conv.Till - Residue

    Removed(FarmerPractice)

    Wh-Wh - ZeroTill - Residue

    Removed

    Wh-Wh - ZeroTill - Residue

    Retained

    Wh-Mz - Zero Till- ResidueRemoved

    Wh-Mz - Zero Til- ResidueRetained

    Rotation - Tillage - Residue Management

    M W D o f

    S o i l W

    e t

    A g g r e g a t e s ( m m ) LSD (0.05) = 0.6 mm

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    Rainfed Maize-Based Systems in theCentral Highlands of Mexico

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    Contrasts in Maize Residue RetentionComplete Residue Removal

    Partial Residue Removal

    Complete Residue Retention

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    Roller for Managing Standing Crop Residues

    Instead of Chopping

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    Field after zero-tilled rainfed maize with full retention of

    maize straw rolled down and left on soil surface

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    Field afterzero-tilled

    rainfed wheatwith straw left

    on soil surface

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    Zero Till Rainfed Maize

    Removed versus Retained Residues Zero Till Residues Removed after Maize Zero Till Residues Retained

    ero Till Residues Removed after Wheat

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    Planting Rainfed Maize on Permanent Raised

    Beds into Wheat Straw

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    Rainfed Maize After Full Retention of WheatResidues from the Previous Crop

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    Daily Rainfall Ammounts (mm) from June 1 to August 31 , 2009, at

    El Batan in the Central Highlands of Mexico

    0.0

    5.0

    10.0

    15.0

    20.0

    25.0

    1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89

    Consecutive days from June 1 to August 32, 2009

    D a i l y R a i n f a l l ( m m )

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    Zero Till Rainfed Maize Removed versus Retained Residues

    Zero Till Residues Removed Zero Till Residues Retained

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    Comparison of Rainfed Maize Yields for the M ost Common FarmerPractice versus the Best Conserv ation Agriculture Practice at El

    Batan, Mexico from 1996 to 2006

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    7000

    1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

    G r a i n

    Y i e l d ( k g / h

    a )

    Farmer Practice - Continuous Maize: Conv. Tilage: Residue Removed

    Best CA. Practice: Maize-Wheat: Zero tillage: Residue Retained

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    Comparison of Rainfed Maize Yields for the Most Common FarmerPractice versus the Best and Worst Conservation Agriculture

    Practice at El Batan, Mexico from 1996 to 2006

    010002000

    300040005000

    60007000

    1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

    G r a i n

    Y i e l d ( k g / h a )

    Farmer Practice - Continuous Maize: Conv. Tilage: Residue Removed

    Best CA-based. Practice: Maize-Wheat: Zero tillage: Residue Retained

    Worst Practice - Continuous Maize: Zero Tillage: Residue Removed

    LSD (0.05) = 550 kg/ha

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    Effect of Rotation, Tillage and Residue Management of Average Rainfed M aizeYields from 1997 to 2009 at El Batan in the Central Highlan