Sayre woa ch09_lecture-243772

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  • Learning Objectives1 of 2Distinguish among the early painting mediaencaustic, fresco, and tempera.Describe what is distinctive about oil painting as a medium.Explain why watercolor is perhaps the most expressive of the painting media.

  • Learning Objectives2 of 2Discuss some of the advantages offered the artist by synthetic painting media.Outline some of the ways that painting has combined itself with other media.

  • IntroductionA figure known as La Pittura, "the picture," emerged in Italian art around the fifteenth century.This personification of painting announced the cultural arrival as painting as an art.Artemisia Gentileschi's Self-Portrait presents the artist as both a real person and La Pittura.

  • Giorgio Vasari, The Art of Painting.1542. Fresco of the vault of the Main Room, Casa Vasari, Arezzo, Italy.Canali Photobank, Milan, Italy. [Fig. 9-1]

  • Artemisia Gentileschi, Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting.1630. Oil on canvas, 35-1/4 29". The Royal Collection.Bridgeman Images. Photo: C. Cooper Ltd. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.[Fig. 9-2]

  • Early Painting Media1 of 2Artists use pigments suspended in a medium, or binder, that anchors the pigment to the support or painting surface.Most supports are too absorbent to allow easy application, so they are primed with a paintlike ground.

  • Early Painting Media2 of 2A solvent or vehicle is a thinner that allows the paint to flow more readily; often, it is water- or oil-based, depending on the base used to create the paint.

  • Encaustic1 of 2One of the oldest painting media, encaustic is made by combining a pigment with hot wax.Most surviving paintings come from Faiyum in Egypt.A transplanted Greek artist may have been responsible for Mummy Portrait of a Man; there is remarkable skill with the brush.

  • Mummy Portrait of a Man, Faiyum, Egypt.ca. 16070 CE. Encaustic on wood, 14 18". Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York. Charles Clifton Fund, 1938. 2015. Albright Knox Art Gallery/Art Resource, New York/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 9-3]

  • Encaustic2 of 2Encaustic requires the painter to work quickly while the wax is still liquid.Luminosity afforded by the medium has led to a recent revival, as seen in Jasper Johns's Flag.

  • Fresco1 of 5Early frescoes were discovered well at Pompeii and Herculaneum.Still Life with Eggs and Thrushes features objects painted to life-size.Fresco was the preferred medium for wall painting.Pigment is mixed with limewater and applied to a lime plaster wall either still wet (buon fresco) or dry (fresco secco).

  • Still Life with Eggs and Thrushes, Villa of Julia Felix, Pompeii.Before 79 CE. Fresco, 35" 4' National Archaeological Museum, Naples. 2015. Photo Scala, Florence, courtesy of the Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali. [Fig. 9-4]

  • Fresco2 of 5Artists must work quickly with buon fresco before the plaster dries, but with fresco secco, the artist's pace can be as slow or quick as desired.However, a disadvantage of fresco secco is that moisture can creep between the plaster and the paint. They survive best in arid climates.

  • Fresco3 of 5The Bodhisattva from India was created with layers of mud and straw as well as gypsum or lime plaster.The figure is lavishly adorned with jewelry and forms a teaching mudra in his right hand.Italian Renaissance and later frescoes emphasized creating the illusion of reality.

  • Bodhisattva, detail of a fresco wall painting in Cave I, Ajanta, Maharashtra, India.ca. 475 CE. Dinodia Photos/Alamy. [Fig. 9-5]

  • Fresco4 of 5The Scrovegni Chapel was designed to house 38 individual scenes of the lives of the Virgin and Christ.In Lamentation, lines between different sections of the fresco are apparent, especially in the sky.Giornata, or a "day's work," is what we call sections of frescoes that are able to be completed in a day.

  • Giotto, Lamentation.ca. 1305. Fresco, approx. 5' 10" 6' 6". Scrovegni Chapel, Padua, Italy. Studio Fotografico Quattrone, Florence. [Fig. 9-6]

  • Fresco5 of 5A Baroque illusion ceiling is seen in The Glorification of St. Ignatius by Fra Andrea Pozzo.From the point of view of the congregation, it is as though the roof of the church were removed to reveal the glories of heaven.Dramatic foreshortening adds to the effect.

  • Fra Andrea Pozzo, The Glorification of St. Ignatius.169194. Ceiling fresco. Nave of Sant' Ignazio, Rome. Vincenzo Pirozzi, Rome. [Fig. 9-7]

  • Tempera1 of 4Tempera paint is made by combining water, pigment, and a gummy material such as egg yolk.In Renaissance times, working with tempera meant colors could not be blended readily and chiaroscuro was accomplished through the means of hatching.

  • Tempera2 of 4Gesso, made from glue and plaster or chalk, prepares a surface for tempera paint.Giotto's Madonna and Child Enthroned exhibits an effort to advance the realism.The painting denotes a Madonna and Child, but connotes the greater love of God for humanity.

  • Giotto, Madonna and Child Enthroned.ca. 1310. Tempera on panel, 10' 8" 6' 8-1/4". Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Studio Fotografico Quattrone, Florence. [Fig. 9-8]

  • Tempera3 of 4The didactism, or ability of a work to teach or elevate the mind, was important to audiences in Giotto's time.Sandro Botticelli's Primavera is one of the greatest tempera paintings ever achieved.Much is known about the process utilized to layer paints and washes due to its restoration in 1978.

  • Sandro Botticelli, Primavera.ca. 1482. Tempera on a gesso ground on poplar panel, 6' 8" 10' 3-1/4". Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Studio Fotografico Quattrone, Florence. [Fig. 9-11]

  • The Creative Process1 of 2Preparing to Paint the Sistine Chapel:Michelangelo's Libyan SibylPope Julius II had originally envisioned a commission for the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel to include geometric ornaments and the Apostles.The new design containing 12 Old Testament prophets alternating with 12 sibyls was laid in cartoons traced with a stylus prior to being painted.

  • Michelangelo, Study for the Libyan Sibyl.1510. Red chalk on paper, 11-3/8 8-716". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1924 (24.197.2). Image Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 9-9]

  • Michelangelo, The Libyan Sibyl.151112. Fresco, detail of the Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Vatican City.Vatican Museums, Vatican City. Photograph: A. Braccetti/P. Zigrossi/IKONA. [Fig. 9-10]

  • The Creative Process2 of 2Preparing to Paint the Sistine Chapel:Michelangelo's Libyan SibylA surviving study shows the figure of a woman twisting in an almost spiral contrapposto.The severity of line and detail in the original sketch has been reduced in the final painting.

  • Tempera4 of 4Julie Green's Don't Name Fish after Friends features faint traces of earlier paintings beneath the surface of the current version.It was painted overtop a portrait of a Hasidic Jewish man, along with a portrayal an armadillo and a dozen other versions.

  • Julie Green, Don't Name Fish after Friends.19992009. Egg tempera on panel, 24 18".Courtesy of the artist. [Fig. 9-12]

  • Oil Painting1 of 6Painters in Europe realized that oil paint was a more versatile medium than tempera.It can be blended on the painting surface, thinned with turpentine, taken straight from the tube for impasto, and is slower to dry.Glazing the painting causes painted objects to appear to reflect light.

  • Diagram of a section of a 15th-century oil painting, demonstrating the luminosity of the medium.[Fig. 9-13]

  • Oil Painting2 of 6Robert Campin and his workshop created The Mrode Altarpiece in oil to realistic effect.It is portable at only 2 feet square.Details of the Annunciation scene include rays of sunlight that enter the room to fall directly on Mary's abdomen; a miniature Christ carrying the cross reveals that his entire life enters her body at the moment of conception.

  • Robert Campin and workshop, The Annunciation (The Mrode Altarpiece).ca. 142530. Oil on wood, triptych, central panel 25-1/4 24-7/8", each wing 25-3/8 10-3/4". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.Cloisters Collection, 1956.70. 2015. Image Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence. [Fig. 9-14]

  • Robert Campin and workshop, The Annunciation (The Mrode Altarpiece) (detail).ca. 142530.[Fig. 9-15]

  • Oil Painting3 of 6Jan de Heem's Still Life with Lobster depicts the wealth of the Dutch with a vanitas warning.These paintings remind us of the frivolous vanity of human existence; material goods do not last as long as spiritual gifts.

  • Jan de Heem, Still Life with Lobster.Late 1640s. Oil on canvas, 25-1/8 33-1/4". Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio.Photo: Photography Incorporated, Toledo. [Fig. 9-16]

  • Oil Painting4 of 6New Refrigerator by Antonio Lpez exemplifies a contemporary still life.The contrast between the light in the room compared with the abstract blotches of items within the refrigerator still reflects the vanitas theme.

  • Antonio Lpez Garca, New Refrigerator.199194. Oil on canvas, 7' 10-1/2" 6' 2-1316". Collection of the artist.Photo Francisco Fernndez, Unidad Mvil Fotografa Especializada. 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/VEGAP, Madrid. [Fig. 9-17]

  • Oil Painting5 of 6Josephine Halvorson's Carcass shows the expressive potential of the oil medium. The artist paints overlooked objects in single, day-long sittings on site to draw attention to what brought her to the object in the first place.This particular painting was created for a carcass from a slaughterhouse.

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