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    Emotions and Stress

    on the Job

    Chapter 4

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    p

    Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 2

    Learning Objectives

    1. Distinguish between emotions and moods.2. Describe the effects of emotions and moods on

    behavior in organizations.3. Describe ways that people manage their

    emotions in organizations.4. Identify the major causes and consequences of

    stress.5. Identify various organizational resources for

    managing stress.6. Identify various ways that we can manage our

    own stress as individuals.

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    Emotions and Moods

    Emot ions : Overt reactions that expressfeelings about events. Emotions always have an object. There are six major categories of emotions. Expression of major emotions is universal. Culture determines how and when people

    express emotions.Display Ru les : Cultural norms about the appropriateways to express emotions.

    Mood : An unfocused, relatively mildfeeling that exists as background to ourdaily experiences.

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    Categories of Emotion

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    Emotions, Moods, and Job Performance

    People in highly emotional states have lower job performance.Especially true in the case of negative emotions.

    People showing high positive affectivity make better decisions

    than those showing high negative affectivity.Being in a positive mood helps people recall positive things andbeing in a negative mood helps people recall negative things.

    People report greater satisfaction with their jobs while they are ina good mood.

    Being in a good mood leads people to judge the work of othersmore positively.

    People who are in a good mood also tend to be more generousand are inclined to help their fellow workers.

    People who are in a good mood are inclined to work morecarefully with others to resolve conflicts.

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    Managing Emotions in Organizations

    Emo t iona l Dis so nance : Inconsistenciesbetween the emotions we feel and the

    emotions we express.Emo t iona l Labor : The psychological effortinvolved in holding back ones trueemotions.Organiza tiona l Com pass ion : Steps takenby organizational officials to alleviate thesuffering of its employees or others.

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    Organizational Compassion

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    Stress

    Stressor : Any demand, either physical orpsychological in nature, encountered during thecourse of living.

    Stress : The pattern of emotional states andphysiological reactions occurring in response todemands from within or outside an organization.Cogni t ive A ppra isal : A judgment about thestressfulness of a situation, based on the extent towhich someone perceives a stressor as threateningand capable of coping with its demands.Strain : Deviations from normal states of humanfunctioning resulting from prolonged exposure tostressful events.

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    Stress

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    Causes of Stress

    1. Occupational demands2. Conflict between work

    and nonwork3. Stress fromuncertainty

    4. Overload andunderload

    5. Responsibility forothers

    6. Lack of social support7. Sexual harassment

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    Occupational Demands

    Making decisionsConstantly monitoring

    devices or materialsRepeatedly exchanginginformation with othersWorking in unpleasant

    physical conditionsPerformingunstructured ratherthan structured tasks

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    Work vs. Nonwork

    Role Con fl ic t :Incompatibilities

    between the varioussets of obligationspeople face.Rule Jug g l ing : The

    need to switch backand forth between thedemands of work andfamily.

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    Overload and Underload

    Quantitative OverloadQualitative OverloadInformation AnxietyQuantitative UnderloadQualitative Underload

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    Overload

    Quanti ta t ive Ov erload :The belief that one isrequired to do morework than possibly canbe completed in aspecific period.

    Qualitat ive Overload :

    The belief that one lacksthe required skills orabilities to perform agiven job.

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    Information Anxiety

    Pressu re to s tore and p roc ess a great deal ofin form at ion in ou r heads and to keep up con s tan t ly

    w ith gather ing i t .

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    Social Support

    The friendship and support of others, whichhelp minimize reactions to stress.Sources: Cultural norms Social institutions Friends and familyBenefits: Boosting self esteem Sharing information Providing diversion Giving needed resources

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    Sexual Harassment

    Unwantedcontact orcommunicationof a sexual

    nature, usuallyagainst women

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    Statistics about Stress

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    Stress Effects

    Task Perform anc e :Some individuals perform at higher

    levels in times of high stress.For most people, however, higher levelsof stress lead to lower levels of jobperformance.

    Desk Rage : Lashing out at others inresponse to stressful encounters onthe job.

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    Burnout

    A syndrome ofemotional, physical,and mentalexhaustion coupledwith feelings of lowself-esteem or lowself-efficacy, resultingfrom prolongedexposure to intensestress, and the strainreactions followingfrom them.

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    Characteristics of Burnout

    Physica l Exhaust ion : Includes low energy levelsand feeling tired much of the time, as well assymptoms of physical strain such as frequent

    headaches, nausea, poor sleep, and changes ineating habits.Emo t ional Exhaust ion : Depression, feelings ofhelplessness, and feelings of being trapped.Depersonalization : A pattern of behavior markedby becoming cynical toward others, treatingothers as objects, and holding negative attitudestoward others.Feel ings o f Lo w Persona l Acco m pl i shmen t , both

    in the past and in the future.

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    Stress and Health

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    Organizational ResourcesEmplo yee Ass is tance Program s (EAPs) : Plans thatprovide employees with assistance for various personalproblems (e.g., substance abuse, career planning, and

    financial and legal problems).Wellness Program s : Company-wide programs in whichemployees receive training regarding things they cando to promote healthy lifestyles.Ab sence Cont ro l P rograms : Procedures that giveemployees flexibility with respect to when they can taketime off work.Stress Managem ent Program s : Systematic efforts totrain employees in a variety of techniques that they can

    use to become less adversely affected by stress.

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    Managing Stress

    Manage your timeEat a healthy diet and be

    physically fitRelax and meditateGet a good nights sleep Avoid inappropriate self-talkControl your reactions

    Take a time out

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    Time Management

    The practice of taking control over howyou spend time.Effective practices: Prior i t ize yo ur act iv i t ies : Distinguish between

    tasks that are urgent and important. A llocate your t im e real is t ical ly : Accurately

    assess how much time needs to be spent oneach task.

    Take con t ro l o f yo ur t ime : Make a to do listand carefully keep track of what you have toaccomplish. Unless something urgent comesup, dont let yourself be distracted.

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