Emotion, Stress, and Health Chapter 11 11-1. Chapter Outline The Nature of Emotion The Nature of...

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Transcript of Emotion, Stress, and Health Chapter 11 11-1. Chapter Outline The Nature of Emotion The Nature of...

  • Emotion, Stress, and HealthChapter 1111-*

  • Chapter OutlineThe Nature of EmotionThe Nature of Stress Culture and ControlStress and EmotionCoping with Stress How Much Control do we have over our Emotions and our Health?11-*

  • The Nature of EmotionEmotion is a state involving:1. Physiological changes in the face, brain, and body2. Cognitive processes such as interpretation of events3. Cultural influences that shape the experience and expression of emotion

    11-*

  • The Nature of EmotionEmotion evolved to help people meet the challenges of lifeMotivates, helps decision making and planning, builds relationshipsPleasurable emotions are adaptiveIncrease mental flexibility, creativity, reduce stress, build social bonds

    11-*

  • Function of Facial Expressions

    Emotions can contradict logic and thus have a negative effect on decision making BUT we require emotions in order to make decisions*

  • Emotions and the BodyPrimary emotionsEmotions considered to be universal and biologically based Generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contemptEach has distinctive physiological reaction and facial expression

    11-*

  • Emotions and the Body

    Secondary emotionsEmotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and culturesEx) jealousy, insecurity, disapproval, paranoia 11-*

  • The Face of EmotionEvolutionary explanations say that emotions are hard-wired and have survival functionsEvidence for the universality of 7 facial expressions of emotion (Ekman, 1997)Emotions recognized cross-culturallyGenuine versus fake emotions can be distinguishedhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/smiles/

    11-*

  • Functions of Facial ExpressionsFacial expressions reflect our internal feelings, but can also influence themFacial feedbackThe process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed

    11-*

  • Functions of Facial Expressions

    Emotions help us communicate emotional states & signal others (survival value)

    Begins in infancy, babies convey emotions & can interpret parental expressions

    Still face experiment (2 min 50 seconds) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=apzXGEbZht0

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZSfw45LsAIBaby recognizes emotion (40 seconds)

    11-*

  • Prefrontal CortexLeft prefrontal cortex: involved in motivation to approach others; damage results in loss of joy

    Right prefrontal cortex: Involved in withdrawal and escape; damage results in excessive mania & euphoria

    11-*

  • Amygdala

    Evaluates sensory information and determines its emotional importanceAssesses threatDamage results in abnormality in processing fear 11-*

  • Mirror Neurons

    The discovery by Giacomo RizzolattiNeurons that fire when a person or animal observes others carrying out an intentional actionThey are involved in empathy, imitation, and reading emotions

    *

  • Mirror Neurons

    May cause us to inadvertently mimic someones expressions, gestures (even accents!)Synchronization/mimicry builds relationship Mirror neurons go to sleep when people look at individuals they dislike or are prejudiced against.

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Education Canada*

  • Mirror Neurons

    Mood contagionA mood spreading from one person to another, as facial expressions of emotion in the first person generate emotions in the other

    Nonverbal signals can cue emotional responses in others as well

    Copyright 2013 Pearson Education Canada*

  • Emotion and the MindExperience of emotion depends on two factors:1)Physiological arousal 2) Cognitive interpretationWe label the physiological changes but may not always be accurateE.g., Capilano Bridge study (1974)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P0aMEkGlcQE

    11-*

  • Emotion & Gender

    Stereotypes that women are emotional and men are reservedLittle evidence that one sex feels any of the everyday emotions more often than the other

    11-*

  • Emotion & Gender

    But people see what they expect to see (stereotypes guide expectations/perceptual set remember perception!)Western cultures associate angry with males and happy with females

    Differences exist in how emotions are expressed, and how they are perceived by others.11-*

  • Emotional Expressiveness

    Stereotypical gender differences may arise from the fact that women are more willing to express their feelings

    Women are more likely to . . .

    Smile more oftenGaze at listeners moreHave more emotionally expressive facesUse expressive hand & body movementsTouch others more oftenTalk about their emotions11-*

  • Emotional ExpressivenessNorth American men only express one emotion more freely than women:

    Anger towards strangers, especially other men, when challenged or insultedExpectation that men will control or mask negative emotionsConsequence is increased difficulty in recognizing when men are seriously unhappy

    11-*

  • Communicating Emotions

    Display rules

    Social & cultural rules that regulate when, how, and where a person may express (or must suppress) emotions

    11-*

  • The Nature of Stress

    What is stress?A stimulus that triggers arousalMany different things to different peopleE.g., conflict with parents or partner, frustration with life, feeling overwhelmed with work or caring for others, etc.Stress is influenced by physiology, cognitive processes, and cultural rules

    11 - *

  • General Adaptation SyndromeHans Selye, 1956Enhanced our understanding of the mind-body connectionKeeping our bodies in balanceFailure to cope with or adapt to stressors can produce diseases of adaptation11-*

  • General Adaptation Syndrome

    Alarm PhaseBody mobilizes the sympathetic nervous system to deal with immediate threat11-*

  • Resistance PhaseBody attempts to resist or cope with stressor that cannot be avoidedPhysiological alarm responses occur but increase vulnerability to other stressors

    11-*

  • Exhaustion PhasePersistent stress depletes the body of energyIncreased vulnerability to physical problems & illness11-*

  • Stress & the BodyHPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex) axisA system activated to energize the body to respond to stressors (crucial for short-term stress responses)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RyP8L3qTW9QStart 30 seconds in11-*

  • Coping with Stress

    Immediate way of coping is to reduce physiological arousal caused by stress/reduce tension: Journaling Art workMeditationTalking to someonePraying Social support (more on this soon)Do something you enjoy*

  • Emotion-focused copingConcentrates on the emotions the problem has caused (anger, anxiety, grief etc.) After tragedy or disaster, emotions may be overwhelmingThis may be the only realistic option when the source of stress is outside the persons control

    11-*

  • Coping with Stress

    Problem-focused copingDealing with a problem by solving the problem itselfDefine the problem, research optionsIncreases feeling of control and speeds recovery11-*

  • Cognitive Coping

    Three effective cognitive coping methods:Reappraising the situationReappraisal: thinking about problem differentlyBecome aware of your thoughts Evaluate contentChallenge negative perceptions by questioning their validity

    11-*

  • Cognitive Coping

    Learning from the experienceLooking for a positive change from the experienceGain strength and resilience Find meaning in tragedy

    11-*

  • Cognitive Coping

    Making social comparisonsSocial comparison: compare self to others who are believed to be less fortunate or in a similar situation but doing well 11-*

  • Social Support

    Do not always need professional helpSocial supportAssistance from others in your network of family, friends, neighbours, and co-workersProvide concern and affection, resources, connection

    11-*

  • Social Support

    Friendships can reduce the risk of health problemsAssociated with fewer colds, less harmful stress reactions, and longer livesSocial support may enhance health because it bolsters the immune system (greater sense of control & optimism)

    11-*

  • Social SupportUnder stress, women who got a supportive touch from their close partner resulted in a reduced stress response11-*

  • Oxytocin

    fight or flight mechanism does not explain social responses to stressOxytocin a tend and befriend mechanism If social contacts are supportive and comforting, stress responses declineSeeking friends, helping others May affect sensitivity of HPA axishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFWmHjePPOM1 minute

    11-*

  • Stress and the MindSome persons experience extremely stressful situations and do not become illHow we respond to stress may protect us Optimism Sense of control

    11-*

  • Optimism & PessimismOptimism general expectation that things will go well despite setbacks associated with better health relative to pessimists:Relative to pessimists, optimists tend to:Live longer (lower physiological response to stress)Take better care of their health Are active problem-solversDont give up Keep a sense of humour

    11-*

  • The Sense of ControlLocus of controlPeople can tolerate all kinds of stressors if they feel able to predict or control themCrowds, work place Feelings of control can reduce or even eliminate the relationship between stressors and health

    11-*

  • Hostility Being easily ange