Defining and Measuring Stress Chapter 5. WHAT IS STRESS? RESPONSE TO INCREASED DEMAND RESPONSE TO...
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Defining and Measuring StressChapter 5
WHAT IS STRESS?RESPONSE TO INCREASED DEMAND
A NEGATIVE EMOTION
THE CAUSE OF ILLNESSES
THE STRESSORCOULD BE ANY STIMULUSPOSITIVE OR NEGATIVE
COGNITVE PROCESSING - APPRAISALLAZARUS POPULARIZED THE IDEA OF APPRAISAL
OUR INTERPRETATIONS DICTATE WHAT IS STRESSFUL
BASED ON PERCEIVED THREAT
TYPES OF APPRAISALPRIMARYThe initial appraisal
SECONDARYAppraisal of coping abilityOptionsSelf-efficacyOutcome Expectancy
THE RESPONSEPHYSIOLOGICALFIGHT OR FLIGHTBEHAVIORAL INHIBITION SYSTEM (BIS)COGNITIVEWORRYRUMINATIONFOCUSAFFECTIVETENSESAD/HURTOVERWHELMEDPUMPED
PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESSDIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Figure 5.1 (p. 100)Divisions of the human nervous system.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMCONTROLS MOBILIZATION OF BODIES RESOURCES FIGHT/FLIGHT RESPONSE
THE EFFECTS OF ANSSYMPATHETICINCREASEHR, RESPIRATION, BP, GLUCOSE UTILIZATION, BLOOD TO MUSCLESDECREASEIMMUNE SYSTEM , DIGESTIVE FUNCTIONSPARASYMATHETICRETURN TO BASELINERELAXATION DIGESTIONPUPILLARY CONSTRICTIONSALIVA FLOWNEAR VISION
NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND HORMONES
SUMMARY OF STRESS RESPONSEHYPOTHALAMUS RELEASES CRFPITUITARY RELEASES ACTHAC RELEASES CORTISOL +ENERGY +FOCUS - IMMUNE
AUTONOMIC NEURONS TRAVEL TO AM AND SECRETE AchAM - RELEASES E AND NE INIATES AND DRIVES FIGHT/FLIGHTSTESSOR IS APPRAISED AS HARMFUL/THREAT
The Effect of Chronic Stress Over Time: The General Adaptation Syndrome
SOURCES OF STRESSENVIRONMENTCROWDINGPOLLUTIONNOISEURBAN PRESSOCCUPATIONRELATIONSHIPS
MEASURING STRESSPSYCHOPHYSIOLOGIAL MEASURESHORMONE LEVELSBPHRGSRLIFE EVENTS SCALESEVERYDAY HASSELS SCALE
CopingEmotion Focused CopingCoping w/the response
Problem-Focused CopingChanging the appraisalChanging the event
EVENTRESPONSEAPPRAISALProblem Focused CopingEmotion Focused Coping
Theories of Coping: Problem- & Emotion- Focused Lazarus & Folkman (1984) (Strategy)Problem-FocusedEmotion-FocusedSeeking info. Going to GP Think of options Devise plan Change job Talk to friends Going shopping Drinking Relaxing AvoidanceResolve cause of problemsManaging emotional impact of problem
Who Uses Which?Problem-FocusedEmotion-FocusedChildrenMalesAdolescents+High perceived controllabilityLow perceived controllabilityRelationship problemsFemalesLow resourcesWork problems
Effectiveness of Coping StrategiesEffectiveness of coping strategy relates to the nature of the problem
A flexible approach is better than rigid use of specific style
Many studies indicate that problem-solving is overall a better strategy
Global Factors Influencing Coping: Social SupportSocial Support Material and emotional support from othersEmotionalInstrumentalInformationalStructureSocial Network MarriageSocial IsolationGender Differences Tend and BefriendWomen seek moreWomen give moreStronger effects on health for women
Social Support and HealthThe DataStudies in different states and countries support the linkCorrelationalThe mechanismEncouragement - ComplianceAppraisal copingBuffering hypothesis
Just Thinking About Support Helps
For this study, undergraduates (41 men, 41 women) wrote about supportive ties or casual acquaintances. Supportive ties were rated as warmer and less controlling than acquaintances, and writing about them evoked reductions in negative affect, especially for low-hostile participants," the researchers said. "Compared with the acquaintance condition, the supportive tie condition resulted in reduced heart rate and blood pressure response during a subsequent speech stressor among low-hostile participants.
Mental activation of supportive ties, hostility, and cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stress in young men and women. Health Psychology, 2004;23(5):476-485.
Mobilizing Social SupportQualities of Effective Social SupportEmotional SharingCooperationIncreasing Social SupportImprove Existing NetworksSupport Groups
Global Factors Influencing Coping: Personal ControlInternal vs. External Locus of ControlInternal is betterPerceived ControlHigher is betterLanger and Rodin (1976)Nursing home residentsPersonal control increased physical and mental health status