Defining and Measuring Stress Chapter 5. WHAT IS STRESS? RESPONSE TO INCREASED DEMAND RESPONSE TO...

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Transcript of Defining and Measuring Stress Chapter 5. WHAT IS STRESS? RESPONSE TO INCREASED DEMAND RESPONSE TO...

  • Defining and Measuring StressChapter 5

  • WHAT IS STRESS?RESPONSE TO INCREASED DEMAND

    A NEGATIVE EMOTION

    A MOTIVATOR

    THE CAUSE OF ILLNESSES

  • StressorEventCognitive ProcessingAppraisalBehaviorCopingResponsePhysiologicalCognitiveAffective

  • THE STRESSORCOULD BE ANY STIMULUSPOSITIVE OR NEGATIVE

    LIFE EVENTS

    DAILY HASSELS

  • COGNITVE PROCESSING - APPRAISALLAZARUS POPULARIZED THE IDEA OF APPRAISAL

    OUR INTERPRETATIONS DICTATE WHAT IS STRESSFUL

    BASED ON PERCEIVED THREAT

  • TYPES OF APPRAISALPRIMARYThe initial appraisal

    SECONDARYAppraisal of coping abilityOptionsSelf-efficacyOutcome Expectancy

  • THE RESPONSEPHYSIOLOGICALFIGHT OR FLIGHTBEHAVIORAL INHIBITION SYSTEM (BIS)COGNITIVEWORRYRUMINATIONFOCUSAFFECTIVETENSESAD/HURTOVERWHELMEDPUMPED

  • PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESSDIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    NEUROENDOCIRNE SYSTEM

    ADRENOCORTICAL RESPONSE

    ADRENOMEDULLARY RESPONSE

  • Figure 5.1 (p. 100)Divisions of the human nervous system.

  • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMCONTROLS MOBILIZATION OF BODIES RESOURCES FIGHT/FLIGHT RESPONSE

  • THE EFFECTS OF ANSSYMPATHETICINCREASEHR, RESPIRATION, BP, GLUCOSE UTILIZATION, BLOOD TO MUSCLESDECREASEIMMUNE SYSTEM , DIGESTIVE FUNCTIONSPARASYMATHETICRETURN TO BASELINERELAXATION DIGESTIONPUPILLARY CONSTRICTIONSALIVA FLOWNEAR VISION

  • ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

  • NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND HORMONES

  • SUMMARY OF STRESS RESPONSEHYPOTHALAMUS RELEASES CRFPITUITARY RELEASES ACTHAC RELEASES CORTISOL +ENERGY +FOCUS - IMMUNE

    AUTONOMIC NEURONS TRAVEL TO AM AND SECRETE AchAM - RELEASES E AND NE INIATES AND DRIVES FIGHT/FLIGHTSTESSOR IS APPRAISED AS HARMFUL/THREAT

  • The Effect of Chronic Stress Over Time: The General Adaptation Syndrome

  • SOURCES OF STRESSENVIRONMENTCROWDINGPOLLUTIONNOISEURBAN PRESSOCCUPATIONRELATIONSHIPS

  • MEASURING STRESSPSYCHOPHYSIOLOGIAL MEASURESHORMONE LEVELSBPHRGSRLIFE EVENTS SCALESEVERYDAY HASSELS SCALE

  • CopingEmotion Focused CopingCoping w/the response

    Problem-Focused CopingChanging the appraisalChanging the event

  • EVENTRESPONSEAPPRAISALProblem Focused CopingEmotion Focused Coping

  • Theories of Coping: Problem- & Emotion- Focused Lazarus & Folkman (1984) (Strategy)Problem-FocusedEmotion-FocusedSeeking info. Going to GP Think of options Devise plan Change job Talk to friends Going shopping Drinking Relaxing AvoidanceResolve cause of problemsManaging emotional impact of problem

  • Who Uses Which?Problem-FocusedEmotion-FocusedChildrenMalesAdolescents+High perceived controllabilityLow perceived controllabilityRelationship problemsFemalesLow resourcesWork problems

  • Effectiveness of Coping StrategiesEffectiveness of coping strategy relates to the nature of the problem

    A flexible approach is better than rigid use of specific style

    Many studies indicate that problem-solving is overall a better strategy

  • Global Factors Influencing Coping: Social SupportSocial Support Material and emotional support from othersEmotionalInstrumentalInformationalStructureSocial Network MarriageSocial IsolationGender Differences Tend and BefriendWomen seek moreWomen give moreStronger effects on health for women

  • Social Support and HealthThe DataStudies in different states and countries support the linkCorrelationalThe mechanismEncouragement - ComplianceAppraisal copingBuffering hypothesis

  • Just Thinking About Support Helps

    For this study, undergraduates (41 men, 41 women) wrote about supportive ties or casual acquaintances. Supportive ties were rated as warmer and less controlling than acquaintances, and writing about them evoked reductions in negative affect, especially for low-hostile participants," the researchers said. "Compared with the acquaintance condition, the supportive tie condition resulted in reduced heart rate and blood pressure response during a subsequent speech stressor among low-hostile participants.

    Mental activation of supportive ties, hostility, and cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stress in young men and women. Health Psychology, 2004;23(5):476-485.

  • Mobilizing Social SupportQualities of Effective Social SupportEmotional SharingCooperationIncreasing Social SupportImprove Existing NetworksSupport Groups

  • Global Factors Influencing Coping: Personal ControlInternal vs. External Locus of ControlInternal is betterPerceived ControlHigher is betterLanger and Rodin (1976)Nursing home residentsPersonal control increased physical and mental health status