Chuong1 He Thong Thong Tin

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    He thong ien than xe & ieu khien t ong tren o to Trang:3

    Ch th ap suat nht ong c thap di mc bnh thng.h- en bao nap

    Bao he thong nap hoat ong khong bnh thng (may phat h).i- en bao pha

    Bao en au ang che o chieu xa.j- en bao reBao re phai hay trai.

    k- en bao nguy hoac u tien.en nay c bat khi muon bao nguy hoac xin u tien. Luc nay ca hai benen re phai va trai se chp.

    l- en bao mc nhien lieu thap.Bao nhien lieu trong thung nhien lieu sap het.

    m- en bao he thong phanh.Bao ang keo phanh tay, dau phanh khong u hay bo phanh qua mon.

    n- en bao ca m.Bao co ca cha c ong chat.

    o- en bao loi cua cac he thong ieu khien: phanh chong ham cng ABS, hethong ieu khien ong c CHECK ENGINE, he thong kiem soat lc keoTRC...

    p- en bao v tr tay so cua hop so t ong: P-R-N-D-1-21.1.2.2. Phan loai

    He thong thong tin tren oto co hai dang:a. Thong tin dang tng t

    Thong tin dang tng t (analog) tren oto thng hien th thong qua cacloai ong ho ch bao bang kim.

    b. Thong tin dang soThong tin dang so: (digital) s dung cac tn hieu t cac cam bien khac nhauva tnh toan da tren cac tn hieu nay e xac nh toc o xe, roi hien th

    chung dang so hay cac o th dang cot.1.1.3. Cac yeu cau cua he thong thong tin tren o toDo ac thu trong hoat ong cua oto, he thong thong tin tren oto ngoai yeu cautnh my thuat phai am bao:

    - o ben c hoc.- Chu c nhiet o cao.- Chu c o am.- Co o chnh xac cao.- Khong lam choi mat tai xe.

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    He thong ien than xe & ieu khien t ong tren o to Trang:4

    +

    Hnh 1.3 S o mach cua mot tableau loai tng t

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    He thong ien than xe & ieu khien t ong tren o to Trang:5

    1.2. THONG TIN DANG TNG T (ANALOG)He thong thong tin dang tng t bao gom cac ong ho dang kim va cac enbao e kiem tra va theo doi hoat ong cua mot so bo phan quan trong cua ong

    c cung nh toan xe.

    Hnh 1.4 Tableau dang tng t vi ch th bang kim.

    Trong he thong thong tin loai nay thng co cac ong ho di ay:

    1.2.1. ong ho va cam bien bao ap suat dauong ho ap suat nht bao ap suat nht trong ong c giup phat hien h hongtrong he thong boi trn. ong ho ap suat nht thng la loai ong ho kieu lngkim.

    Cau tao

    ong ho loai nay thng gom hai phan: cam bien ap lc nht, c lapvao cac-te cua ong c hoac lap bo loc nht va ong ho (bo phan ch th)

    c bo tr bang tableau trc mat tai xe. ong ho va bo cam bien macnoi tiep vi nhau va au vao mach sau cong tac may.

    Cam bien lam nhiem vu bien oi s thay oi cua ap suat dau nhn thanhtn hieu ien e a ve ong ho o. ong ho la bo phan ch th ap suatnht ng vi cac tn hieu ien thay oi t cam bien. Thang o ong hoc phan o theo n v kg/cm2hoac bar.

    Tren cac oto ngay nay, ta co the gap bon loai ong ho ap suat dau nht:loai nhiet ien, loai t ien, c kh va loai ien t. ay ch gii thieu hai

    loai la ong ho nhiet ien va t ien.

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    He thong ien than xe & ieu khien t ong tren o to Trang: 6

    ong ho ap suat nht kieu nhiet ien.

    Cau tao: Cau tao cua ong ho c trnh bay tren hnh 1.5.

    Hnh 1.5 S o cau tao ong ho ap suat nht.

    Nguyen ly hoat ong: khi cho dong ien i qua mot phan t lng kimc che tao bang cach lien ket hai loai kim loai hoac hp kim co he sogian n nhiet khac nhau khien phan t lng kim thng cong khi nhiettang. ong ho bao gom mot phan t lng kim ket hp vi mot day mayso. Phan t lng kim co hnh dang nh hnh 1.6. Khi phan t lng kim b

    cong do anh hng cua nhiet o moi trng khong lam ong ho ch sai.Hnh 1.6 Hoat ong cua phan t lng kim.

    Hoat ong:

    A

    Sinh nhiet Nhiet o khong cao(Khong sai so)

    B cong bi dong ien

    Lng kim

    Day may so

    A

    Khong sinh nhiet

    Accu

    Congtac may

    Phan t lng kim Bo tao ap suat dau

    Phan t lng kim

    Mang

    Tiep iem

    Cam bien ap suat dau

    Day may soDay may so

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    He thong ien than xe & ieu khien t ong tren o to Trang: 7

    Ap suat nht thap/khong co ap suat nht.

    Phan t lng kim bo phan ap suat nht co gan mot tiep iem. o dchchuyen cua kim ong ho t le vi dong ien chay qua day may so. Khi apsuat nht bang khong, tiep iem m, khong co dong ien chay qua khi bat

    cong tac may. V vay, kim van ch khong.Khi ap suat nht thap, mang ay tiep iem lam no tiep xuc nhe, nen dongien chay qua day may so cua cam bien. V lc tiep xuc cua tiep iemyeu, tiep iem se lai m ra do phan t lng kim b uon cong do nhiet sinhra. Tiep iem m ra khi dong ien chay qua sau mot thi gian rat ngan nennhiet o cua phan t lng kim tren ong ho khong tang va no b uon t. Vvay, kim se lech nhe.

    Hnh 1.7 Hoat ong cua ong ho nhiet ien khi ap suat nht thap/nho.

    Ap suat nht cao.

    Khi ap suat nht tang, mang ay tiep iem manh nang phan t lng kim len. Vvay, dong ien se chay qua trong mot thi gian dai. Tiep iem se ch m khi phan tlng kim uon len tren. Dong ien chay qua ong ho ap suat nht trong mot thigian dai cho en khi tiep iem cua cam bien ap suat nht m, nhiet o phan tlng kim pha ong ho tang lam tang o cong cua no, khien kim ong ho lechnhieu. Nh vay, o cong cua phan t lng kim trong ong ho t le vi o cong cuaphan t lng kim trong cam bien ap suat nht.

    Congtac may

    Accu

    ong ho bao ap suat dau

    Cam bienap suat dau

    Khong co ap suat dau

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    Hnh 1.8 Hoat ong cua ong ho nhiet ien khi ap suat nht cao.

    ong ho ap suat nht loai t ien.

    Cau tao:

    Cau tao ong ho loai nay c trnh bay tren hnh 1.9.

    Hnh 1.9 ong ho ap suat dau nhn loai t ien.

    Cong

    tac may

    Accu

    ong ho bao ap suat dau

    Cam bienap suat dau

    Ap suat dau cao

    Bo cam bienong ho ch th

    Cong tac may

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    He thong ien than xe & ieu khien t ong tren o to Trang:9

    Chu thch hnh ve 1.9:

    a) S o chung.b) Vect t thong tong va v tr kim ong ho ng vi cac v tr khac nhau.c) S o nguyen ly au day.1- Buong ap suat 11- La ong tiep ien

    2- Chot t 12- Day dan ong

    3- va 7- Vt ieu chnh 13- Lo xo.

    4- Mang 14- Can han che kim ong ho.

    5- Vo bo cam bien 15- Ranh cong.

    6- Tay on bay 16 va 20- Nam cham vnh cu

    8- Con trt 17- Khung chat deo

    9- Nap bo cam bien 18- Kim.

    10- Cuon ien tr cua bien tr 19- Vo thep

    Rcb- ien tr cua cam bien.

    Hoat ong:

    Khi ngat cong tac may, kim lech ve pha vach 0 tren thang ong ho. Kimong ho c gi v tr nay do lc tac dung tng ho gia hai nam cham

    vnh cu 6 va 20.Khi bat cong tac may, trong cac cuon day cua ong ho va cam bien xuathien nhng dong ien chay theo chieu mui ten nh hnh ve 1.9.a va 1.9.c.Cng o dong ien, cung nh t thong trong cac cuon day phu thuoc vaov tr con trt tren bien tr 10. Cng o dong ien cc ai trong machong ho va cam bien 0,2A.

    Khi trong buong ap suat 1 cua bo cam bien co tr so ap suat P = 0th contrt 8 nam v tr tan cung ben trai cua bien tr 10 (theo v tr cua hnh

    ve), tc la ien tr Rcbco gia tr cc ai. Khi o cng o dong ien trongcuon W1se cc ai, con trong cac cuon day W2va W3cc tieu. T thong 1va 2cua cac cuon W1va W2tac dung ngc nhau, nen gia tr va chieu tthong cua chung xac nh theo hieu 1- 2.

    T thong 3do cuon day W3tao ra se tng tac vi hieu t thong 1- 2di mot goc lech 90o.

    T thong tong cua ca 3 cuon day se xac nh theo qui luat cong vect. se nh hng quay va v tr cua a nam cham 16, cung co ngha la xac

    nh v tr cua kim ong ho tren thang so.

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    He thong ien than xe & ieu khien t ong tren o to Trang: 10

    Khi bat cong tac ma ap suat trong buong 1 bang 0 th t thong tong sehng da nam cham truc quay en v tr sao cho kim ong ho ch vach 0cua thang so. Khi ap suat trong buong 1 tang, mang 4 cang cong len, ayon bay 6 quay quanh truc cua no. on bay thong qua vt 7 tac dung len

    con trt 8 lam cho no dch chuyen sang phai. Tr so ien tr cua bien tr(hay Rcb) giam dan, do o cng o dong ien trong cac cuon day W1vaW2cung nh t thong do chung sinh ra 1 va 2 tang len. Trong khi o,dong ien trong cuon day W3va t thong 3cua no giam i. Trong trnghp nay, gia tr va hng cua t thong tong thay oi, lam cho v tr cuaa nam cham 16 cung thay oi va kim ong ho se lech ve pha ch so apsuat cao.

    Trong trng hp ap suat P = 10 kg/cm2, con trt se v tr tan cung benphai cua bien tr 10, tc la ien tr cua cam bien Rcb= 0(bien tr b noitat) th cuon day W1cung b noi tat va dong ien trong cuon day se bang 0,kim ong ho se lech ve pha phai cua thang so.

    1.2.2. ong ho nhien lieuong ho nhien lieu co tac dung bao cho ngi tai xe biet lng xang (dau)co trong bnh cha. Co hai kieu ong ho nhien lieu, kieu ien tr lngkim va kieu cuon day ch thap.

    a. Kieu ien tr lng kimMot phan t lng kim c gan ong ho ch th va mot bien tr trtkieu phao c dung cam bien mc nhien lieu.

    Bien tr trt kieu phao bao gom mot phao dch chuyen len xuong cungvi mc nhien lieu. Than bo cam nhan mc nhien lieu co gan vi ien trtrt, va on phao noi vi ien tr nay. Khi phao dch chuyen, v tr cuatiep iem trt tren bien tr thay oi lam thay oi ien tr. V tr chuancua phao e o c at hoac la v tr cao hn hoac la v tr thap hn cuabnh cha. Do kieu at v tr thap chnh xac hn khi mc nhien lieu thap,

    nen no c s dung nhng ong ho co dai o rong nh ong ho hien thso.

    Khi bat cong t