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Transcript of Cell structure
Cell Organelles and their Functions
CellsCells are the basic unit of all living things.IF IT IS ALIVE, IT HAS CELLS!Cell Theory:
All organisms are made up of one or more cellsThe cell is the basic unit of all organismsall cells come from cells
Two Types of Cells
Parts in common
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This is a prokaryotic cellIs a single celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles.Its DNA is locked in the cytoplasm.
Four Classes of Eukaryotic CellsThere are 4 classes of eukaryotic cells. Will only discuss 2; Plant & Animal cells -
Plant cellsAnimal Cells
Cell DifferentiationEach kind of cell has a DIFFERENT job to doit is specialized.
I am a heart cell!I am a skin cellIm a Prison Cell!
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When you hear the new vocabulary, just think of a TURTLE!
Cell MembraneThe cell membrane holds the cell together and allows nutrients into the cell.Its just like a turtles skin - the cell membrane is on the edge of a cell.
CytoplasmCytoplasm is the watery gel (Jello!) inside a cell.its goop! It holds the ORGANelles.Cytoplasm is like the turtles blood and other liquids.
MitochondriaMitochondria is an ORGANelle that releases energy from food.Every type of cell has a different amount of mitochondria. There are more mitochondria in cells that have to perform lots of work, for example - your leg muscle cells. Other cells need less energy to do their work and have less mitochondria.Mitochondria is like a turtles stomach.
NucleusThe nucleus controls the cell.It is the largest organelle in the cell and contains the cells DNA.The nucleus is like the turtles brain.
NucleolusInside the nucleus is another organelle called the nucleolus.It is responsible for making ribosomes.It is similar to all the neuron pathways inside a turtles brain.
ChromosomesChromosomes are inside the nucleus and are made of genes (DNA).Genes decide the cells traits and activities (heart cell, eye cell - such as color).
Nuclear MembraneThe nuclear membrane allows substances to pass in and out of the nucleus.It surrounds the nucleus (the brain) like the turtles skullprotects it.
VacuolesVacuoles are spaces in the cytoplasm (gel) where food and chemicals are storedIts like fat on a turtle
I am NOT fatIm just a little plump!!
Endoplasmic ReticulumIt is a network of membranes throughout the cytoplasm of the cell.It helps to move materials around the cell.It is much like the blood vessels throughout a turtle.
Golgi apparatusIt is organelle in the cell that is responsible for sorting and correctly shipping the proteins produced in the ER.The Golgi apparatus are stacks of membrane-covered sacs.They also package proteins to be moved out of the cell.Its like the digestive system of a turtle.
VesiclesIt is a small sac that surrounds material to be moved into or out of a cell
RibosomesOrganelles that help in the synthesis of proteins.Some ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm, but most are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. While attached to the ER, ribosomes make proteins that the cell needs and also ones to be exported from the cell for work elsewhere in the body.
LysosomesLysosomes function as the cell's recycling compartment.Lysosomes contain digestive chemicals that help break down food molecules, wastes, and worn out cell parts.Its similar to the turtles digestive system!
The lysosomes are stained RED!
Cell WallCell Walls are only in plant cellsThey make the cell strong and rigidThey are like a turtles shell (but only plants have themthats why grass stands straight up!)
ChloroplastsChloroplasts are only in plant cellsThey contain chlorophyll, which helps make energy/food from sunlightChlorophyll is green in color.
Im greendo I have chloroplasts?
Whats the Difference?So what are two things that Plant cells have that animal cells dont?
?Chloroplasts, vacuoles, & Cell Walls
Now, lets reviewCell MembraneCell Wall ChloroplastsChromosomesNuclear Membrane NucleusMitochondriaCytoplasm Vacuoles