Cell structure

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  1. 1. Andrijana Koloa2nd year, 2013/2014School of Medicine
  2. 2. Starting point living organisms cells smaller pieces proteinsand organelles larger pieces tissues,organs and organsystems
  3. 3. About cell cell basic structural andfunctional unit tissues,organs each cell different function every cells reproduction,growth and development
  4. 4. One name, many types cells unique to each type ofTYPES OF CELLS:1) prokaryotic cells (prokaryotes):eubacteria, archeabacteria2) eukaryotic cells (eukaryotes unicellular, multicellular ):- plant cells- animal cells (human cells)organism
  5. 5. Cell specialization multicellular organismsdifferent cell types that are adapted to particularfunctionsmajor cell types skin cells, muscle cells, neurons,blood cells, fibroblasts, stem cells most distinct cell types arise from a single totipotentcell(a zygote) that differentiates into hundreds ofdifferent cell types
  6. 6. Organelles parts of cell specialized for carrying out one or morevital functions to the organs several types1. typically solitary (nucleus, golgi apparatus)2. numerous (mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes,lysosomes) cytosol gelatinous fluid that fills cell and surroundsthe organelles
  7. 7. Cell membrane Biological membrane envelops the cell separation and protection from cells surroundings selectively permeable regulates what moves in and out made mostly from a double layer of phospholipids other functions: cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cellsignalling
  8. 8. Cytoskeleton it acts to organize and maintain the cells shape endocytosis; cytokinesis moves parts of the cell in processes of growth andmobility composed of microfilaments,intermediate filamentsand microtubules
  9. 9. Endoplasmic reticulum transport network for moleculestargeted for certain modifications continuous with the outermembrane of the nuclear envelope endomembrane systemSMOOTH ER lipid, phospholipidand steroid synthesis; sarcoplasmicreticulumROUGH ER ribosomes; proteinsynthesis
  10. 10. Golgi apparatus part of endomembrane system packages and modifies proteinsinside the cell before secretion involved in creation oflysosomes lysosomicvesicles lysosomes organellscontaining acid hydrolases intrcellular digestion
  11. 11. Mitochondrion "cellular power plants" generate mostof the cell's ATP composed of specialized regions: outer membrane, intermembrane space,inner membrane, cristae and matrix its own independent genome
  12. 12. Nucleus "cell informaton center" houses theecell chromosomes separated from cytoplasm by doublemembrane nuclear envelope DNA replication and RNA synthesis nucleolus specialized region withinnucleus where ribosome subunits areassembled.
  13. 13. Genetic material DNA long-term information storage RNA is used for information transport (mRNA) enzymatic functions (rRNA) adding amino acids during proteintranslation (tRNA) genetic material contained in the cell nucleus and in themitochondria nuclear genome is divided into 46 linear DNAmolecules called chromosomes
  14. 14. Replication involves a single cell(mother cell) dividing intotwo daughter cells prokaryotic binary fission eukaryotic mitosis,meiosis
  15. 15. Protein synthesis cells are capablesynthesizing newproteins two major steps:transcription andtranslation
  16. 16. Growth and metabolism processing nutrient molecules two distinct divisions:1) catabolism cell breaks down complex molecules toproduce energy and reducing power2) anabolism cell uses energy and reducing power toconstruct complex molecules glycolysis; Krebs cycle
  17. 17. Movement or motility cells move during processes wound healing, theimmune response, cancer metastatis three steps:1. protrusion of the leading edge of the cell2. adhesion of the leading edge and de-adhesion at the cellbody and rear3. cytoskeletal contraction to pull the cell foward
  18. 18. Resources http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_main.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology) Cooper, Hausman: The Cell, Amolecular approach, SinauerAssociates, 5th edition