Eukaryotic Cell Structure Eukaryotic Cell Structure Chapter 7.2

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Transcript of Eukaryotic Cell Structure Eukaryotic Cell Structure Chapter 7.2

  • Eukaryotic Cell StructureChapter 7.2

  • The Eukaryotic CellDivided into two major parts:

    1. The nucleus

    2. The cytoplasm Portion of the cell outside the nucleus Contains the organelles

  • OrganellesFunctional components of the cellEach carries out a specific jobDetermines the job of the cellWork together to make the cell function

    Typically surrounded by a membraneSame membrane structure that surrounds the cellAllows incorporation between organelles and the cell membrane

  • How these notes workRed = Cell structureGreen = FunctionPurple = Other informationPicture = Structure (separate slide)

  • The NucleusThe nucleus holds nearly all of the cells DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important moleculescontrol center of the cellSurrounded by a double membrane with pores in it nuclear envelope outer boundary of the nucleus

    Houses genetic material and nucleolusGenetic material = DNA and proteinsNucleolus makes ribosomes

  • The Nucleus

  • Genetic MaterialChromatinTangles mass of protein and DNA

    ChromosomeHighly organized and compact mass of protein and DNA

    Chromatin becomes a chromosome before cell division

  • ChromatinChromosome

  • Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis

    Composed of RNA and protein

    Can be attached or free-floating

    Most common organelle- found in prokaryotes as well

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)The site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled; along with proteins and other materials that re exported from the cell

    Two types

    Smooth ER no ribosomes attached to itContains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks (makes membrane lipids and detoxifies drugs)

    Rough ER has ribosomes attached to itPortion of ER where protein synthesis occursNewly made proteins enter the ER and are modified

  • Golgi ApparatusThe function of the Golgi Apparatus is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell

  • Lysosomes Small organelles filled with digestive enzymes

    Digestion of macromolecules into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell

    Breakdown of organelles that have outlived their usefulness

    Cell suicide organelles

  • Lysosomes

  • Vacuoles Store materials such as water, salts, proteins, or carbohydrates

    One large vacuole is found in plant cellsAllows the plant to grow tall

    Found in some single celled organisms and in some animalsUsed to control the amount of water in the organismHomeostatic mechanism

  • Mitochondria Convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to useEnclosed by two membranesInner membrane is highly folded Called cristae

    FYI = All mitochondria come from your mother

  • Chloroplast Capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis

    Mostly found in plants (some other single celled organisms)Surrounded by two membranesHighly stacked internal membraneCalled the thylakoidHolds chlorophyll

  • Mitochondria and ChloroplastBoth contain their own DNA

    Endosymbiotic theoryLynn Margolis suggested that ancient mitochondria and chloroplasts were independent prokaryotesCreated a symbiotic relationship with early eukaryotes

  • Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments that help the cell to maintain its shapeAlso involved in movement

    Principle protein filamentsMicrofilamentsMicrotubules

  • Centrioles / Cilia / FlagellaCentrioles, cilia, and flagella are all made of microtubules

    Centrioles Help to organize cell divisionOnly in animal cells

    Cilia / FlagellaHair-like projections that enable cells to swim in a liquid environment

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