Cell Structure and Cell Organism

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    NAME : NUR AFIQAH ABDULLAH

    CLASS : 5 BERSIH (2012)

    SCHOOL : SEKOLAH TUN FATIMAH

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    Animal Cell

    and

    Plant Cell

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    ANIMAL CELL

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    PLANT CELL

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    FUNCTION OF CELLULAR

    COMPONENTS OF

    ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL

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    Plasma MembraneFunction:

    y Separatesacell fromitsexternal environment.

    y Holdsthe cellcontentstogether.

    y Controlthe exchange ofmoleculesbetweenthe

    cellandits externalenvironmentthroughactive transport, passivetransportandsimplediffusion.

    Also knownasthe cellmembrane.

    Isathinmembrane

    aroundthe cytoplasmofthe cell.

    Isselectively permeableorsemi-permeable.

    Ismade up oftwolipidlayers.

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    CELL MEMBRANEStructure:y Istherigidcelluloselayer surroundingthe plasmamembraneofplant

    cell.

    Function:yProvides supportand

    protectionforthecell.

    yPreventsthecell

    from burstingindilute solution.

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    CYTOPLASMStructure:

    y Refersto everythingbetweenthe cell

    membrane andthenucleus.

    y Isacontinuousaqueoussolution,containingorganelles exceptnucleus.

    Function:

    y Givesshape tocell

    y Supportsand protectsthecellorganelles.

    y Ingeneral,its providesamedium forallcellularmetabolicreactionsto

    occur.y Providesamediumto

    produce energytomanufacture materials.

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    NUCLEUSStructure:

    y Is an organellebounded by the

    nuclear membrane(two layers)containing a

    nucleolus,chromosomes, and

    nucleoplasm.

    Function:

    y Controls allthecellactivities.

    y Separates thegenetic

    material (chromatin)from thecytoplasm.

    y Has many pores(nuclear pores) in thenuclear membrane forthe materialto enterand exitthe nucleus.

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    ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC

    RETICULUMStructure:

    y Is a flat sealed sacthat is

    continuous withthenuclearmembrane.

    y Is ER withribosomes

    embeddedon its surface.

    Function:

    y Transport protiens made

    by ribosome.y Present in large amounts

    incells that make protiens,

    such as therough ER in

    gutcells that manufacturedigestiveenzymes.

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    SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC

    RETICULUMStructure:

    y Is tubularratherthan

    flaty Does nothavethe

    ribosomes.

    y Mayextend separately

    fromtheoutermembraneofthenucleus

    orextend fromtherough

    ER.

    Function:

    y Synthesises and

    transportlipids.y Presentinlargeamounts

    incells thatmakelipids

    and steroids, suchas the

    cells oftheliverandtestes.

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    GOLGI APPARATUSStructure:

    y Also calledthe golgibody.

    y

    Consist ofa stackmembrane-bound sacswith small vesiclesbudding of theedges.

    Function:

    y Receives protien fromtheRERthen modifiesandcombines theprotien withcarbohydrates toform glyco-proteins.

    y Transportand storelipids.

    y

    Forms lysosomes.y Producesdigestiveenzyme.

    y Secretes wasteproduct from thecell.

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    MITOCHONDRIANStructure:

    y Is rod-shaped

    yHas two membranes: aninner membrane and

    outer membrane.

    y Theouter membrane

    limits theorganelle.

    y The inner membrane is

    folded inwards to form

    thecristae.

    Function:

    y Form thecells

    powerhouse.y Produces adenosine

    triphosphate (ATP),which

    is an energy source for

    thecell.

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    LYSOSOMESStructure:

    y Are sac-like organelles

    boundedbyamembraneandcontaindigestive

    enzymes (hydrolytic

    enzymes).

    Function:

    y Generally forbreaking

    down foodand foreignmaterials.

    y Digest protein,lipids,and

    carbohydrates.

    y Transport undigested

    materialtothe cell

    membrane forremoval.

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    RIBOSOMESStructure:

    yAre smalldot-like

    organelles foundinlarge numbersinall

    cells.

    yAre eitherattachedto

    the ER oroccur freelyinthe cytoplasm.

    Function:

    yA small protein

    factories forproteinsynthesises.

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    CHLOROPLASTStructure:

    yAre lens-shaped

    organelle.y Have aninnerandan

    outermembrane.

    y Containchlorophyllin

    the grana trap sunlightenergy.

    Function:

    y Carryout

    photosynthesisinthechlorophyllofthe grana.

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    CENTRIOLESStructure:

    y Are paired cylindrical

    organelles just outsidethe nucleus.

    y Lie at right angles to

    each other.

    y Each centriole consists

    of nine tubes, each tube

    with three tubules.

    y Are found in only animal

    cell.

    Function:

    y Areinvolvedincell

    division (mitosis andmeiosis).

    y Migratetotheopposite

    poles ofthecell, produce

    spindletoassistthe

    movementofchromoses.

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    VACUOLEStructure:

    yis a small cavity inthecytoplasm of a

    cell, bound by singlemembrane andcontaining water,food ormetabolicwaste.

    y Generallyfor storage,digestion and wasteremoval.

    yCentral vacuole inplantcells forstorage and cellexpansion.

    y Food vacuoles in

    amoeba forphagocytosis.

    y Contractile vacuolesin paramecium expelwater.

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    Compareandcontractananimal

    cellanda plant

    cell

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    SIMILARITIESHave a nucleus, cytoplasm, a cell membrane , ribosomes, golgi

    apparatus, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum

    ANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL

    y Smallerthan plantcell.

    y Not fixed shape.

    y Cell wall is absent.

    y Vacuoleusually not present

    y Chloroplast is absent.

    y Centrioles is present.

    y Carbohydrates storage isglycogen.

    y Lysosomes common.

    y Largerthan an animal cell.

    y Fixed andregularshape.

    y Has a thick wall.

    y Has a largecentral vacuole.

    y Chloroplast is present.

    y Centrioles absent.

    y Carbohydrates storage is starch.

    y Lysosomes is uncommon.

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    Cell

    organisms

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    The Living Processes of

    Unicellular OrganismsUnicellular organisms are singlecelledorganisms capable of carrying out thefollowing basic life processes:

    y Feeding

    y Reproduction

    y Respiration

    y Excretion

    y Locomotion

    y Sensitively

    y Growth

    y

    Osmoregulation

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    Living Processes of Unicellular

    Organisms Amoebay Found in fresh waterpuddles, ponds.

    y Have a irregularshape, withdiameter0.1mm.

    y Its move by following its cytoplasm forward, forming

    pseudopodium thathelps itto move forward slowly.y A pseudopodium means a false foot.

    y Is anomnivore andeats algae, bacteria, plantcells, andothermicroscopicorganisms.

    y Feeds by engulfingtiny food particles with its pseudopodia,forming a bubble-like food vacuoletocontainthe food.

    y This is called phagocytosis

    y Digestiveenzymes are produced inthe food vacuoletodigestthe food particles.

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    AMOEBA

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    Living Processes of Unicellular

    Organisms Parameciumy F

    ound in fresh water, especially indecaying organic matter.

    y Its has a slipperlike shape, with a lengthabout 0.3mm.

    y

    The outer surface of the cell membrane iscovered with fine hairs called cilia.

    y It uses its hairlike cilia to beat againstthe water, enabling it to swim.

    yTo swim forward, its beats its backwardsdiagonally; to swim backwards, it beat itscilia forward.

    y Paramecium eats bacteria and other

    microscopic organic material.

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    PARAMECIUM

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    Theuniqueness

    ofthe

    ce

    ll

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    THEUNIQUECELLThe word uniqueness of the cell used with reference totissues, organs, and organs systems gives an exactdescription of the cell as:

    y Each cell is one its kind after specialisation.

    y Each cell performs a specialised fuction.

    The cell unique because each cellular component:y Has its own distinctive structure.

    y Has its own specialised function.

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    Cell without particular cellular component

    Organelle missing Predicted State of the cell

    Nucleus All cell activities stop

    C