Cell Structure Function - Dublin City Schools cell notes info...Cell Structure Function . Cell...

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Transcript of Cell Structure Function - Dublin City Schools cell notes info...Cell Structure Function . Cell...

  • Cell Structure & Function


  • Cell Theory an explanation of the relationship between cells and living things

    All living things are composed of cells.

    Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things

    All cells are produced from other cells.

  • Definition of Cell

    The basic unit of structure and function in living things

    Cells form the parts of an

    organism and carry out all of an organisms processes, or


  • Seeing Cells

    The invention of the microscope made it possible for people to discover and learn about cells

    Robert Hooke was one of the first people to observe cells using a compound microscope he built in 1663. He looked at a thin slice of cork.

    He thought they looked like tiny rectangular rooms and called the empty spaces cells, which is a word meaning small rooms

  • Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus

    Plant Stem

    Red Blood Cell

    Nerve Cell


  • Cells

    Different body tissues and organs are made of different kinds of cells. Nerve cells make up nerves, brain cells make

    up the brain, muscle cells make up muscles

    Muscle Cell

    Red and White Blood Cells

  • Making New Cells

    Cells are repeatedly dividing resulting in more cells and growth and repair in multicellular organisms

    This process is called mitosis.

  • Cells Sustain Life

    Many basic functions of organisms occur in cells Cells take in nutrients and energy to perform

    work Every cell is covered by a membrane that

    controls what can enter and leave the cell Within the cell are specialized parts for the

    transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, information feedback and movement

  • Living Systems Living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate

    the complementary nature of structure and function The level of organization within organisms includes

    cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and whole organisms

    Whether the organism is single-celled or multicellular, all of its parts function as a whole to perform the tasks necessary for the survival of the organism

    Organisms have diverse body plans, symmetry and internal structures that contribute to their being able to survive in their environments

  • Prokaryotic

    Do not have structures surrounded by membranes

    Few internal structures

    One-celled organisms, Bacteria


  • Eukaryotic Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organisms

    Plant Animal


  • Typical Animal Cell


  • http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif

    Typical Plant Cell

  • Cell Parts Organelles

    a tiny structure that carries out a specific

    function within the cell

  • Surrounding the Cell

  • Cell Membrane

    Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell

    Double layer


  • Cell Wall Most commonly found

    in plant cells & bacteria

    Supports & protects cells


  • Inside the Cell

  • Nucleus

    Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear

    membrane Contains genetic material - DNA

  • Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow

    material to enter and leave nucleus


  • Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions

    for traits & characteristics


  • Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build



  • Cytoplasm

    Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around

    in cell Smooth type: lacks

    ribosomes Rough type (pictured):

    ribosomes embedded in surface


  • Ribosomes Each cell contains

    thousands Make proteins Found on ER &

    floating throughout the cell


  • Mitochondria Produces energy through

    chemical reactions breaking down fats & carbohydrates

    Controls level of water and other materials in cell

    Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates


  • Golgi Bodies Protein 'packaging

    plant' Move materials within

    the cell Move materials out of

    the cell


  • Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for

    proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

    Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal

    Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes


  • Vacuoles Membrane-bound

    sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal

    Contains water solution

    LARGE vacuoles help plants maintain shape


  • Chloroplast Usually found in plant

    cells Contains green

    chlorophyll Where

    photosynthesis takes place