Uyghur Art

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Central Asia MUSIC OF THE UIGHURS Traditions of Ili and Kashgar INEDIT Maison des Cultures du Monde Asie centrale MUSIQUE DES OUÏGOURS Traditions d’Ili et de Kachgar
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Transcript of Uyghur Art

  • W 260113 INEDIT/Maison des Cultures du Monde 101, Bd Raspail 75006 Paris France tl. 01 45 44 72 30 fax 01 45 44 76 60 www.mcm.asso.fr

    Central AsiaMUSIC OF THE UIGHURSTraditions of Ili and Kashgar

    INEDITMaison des Cultures du Monde

    Asie centraleMUSIQUE DES OUGOURSTraditions dIli et de Kachgar

    Couverture (1 & 4) 27/06/06 13:05 Page 1

  • Collection fonde par Franoise Grnd et dirige par Pierre Bois Direction artistique et texte de prsentation, Jean During. Traduction anglaise, Theodore Levin etChristopher English. Enregistrement effectu le 10 mars 2002 la Maison des Cultures du Monde parPierre Bois. Montage et prmastrisation Jean During, DJ Yol, Pierre Bois. Illustration de couverture,Franoise Grnd. Photographies, Marie-Nolle Robert. et OP 2003 Maison des Cultures du Monde.

    Cette production a t ralise dans le cadre du sixime Festival de l'Imaginaire (fvrier-avril 2002). Elle a bnfici du concours de l'Aga Khan Music Initiative in Central Asia, un programme de l'Aga KhanTrust for Culture.INEDIT est une marque dpose de la Maison des Cultures du Monde (direction, Chrif Khaznadar).

    1. Muqm Rokhsari : muqm bashi ..........................4222. Chants de Kachgar / Kashgar songs ..................10143. Muqm Chargh : muqm bashi ..........................5134. Muqm Oshshq : dstn & marghul ..................6005. Onikki Muqm : marghul 1, 2, 3 ..........................6576. Kocha nakhshesi.....................................................10547. Dostlarim mn ........................................................4278. Yru ............................................................................5179. Chants dIli / Ili songs...........................................1523

    Ayshamgul Mamat, chant/voice [n1 2 9] AbdulazizHashimov, luth/lute tanbur [n2 4 5 8 9] Abdurashid Ndirev,chant/voice & luth/lute dutr [n2 3 4 6 7 8 9] AripjnMuhamadov, viole pique/spike fiddle ghijak [n1 2 4 8 9] Abdughani Tokhtiev, luth/lute tanbur [n2 3 4 6 8 9] AkramHashimov, luth/lute dutr [n2 4 5 8 9]

  • Un peuple de haute culture Les Ougours constituent une grande etancienne ethnie turque orientale issue desHuns. D'abord tablis dans l'actuelleMongolie o ils formrent un empire, ilsoccuprent progressivement le Xinjiang par-tir du IXe sicle. Ils vivent de nos jours princi-palement dans cette aire qui est devenue laplus vaste province de Chine Populaire. LesOugours, dont la nation est atteste par desinscriptions dates du Ve sicle, furent le pre-mier peuple turc possder une criture et laborer une haute culture. De ce fait, ilsjourent le rle de civilisateurs pour lespeuples avec qui ils entrrent en contact. Chang'an, la capitale chinoise des Tang (VIIe s.),au moins huit ensembles de musique duTurkestan taient reprsents, dont ceux deSamarkand, Kachgar, Turfan, Khotan etQumul. Les fresques bouddhistes de Qyzyl,prs de Kucha, (vers l'an 500) montrent desdivinits musiciennes ou des scnes du para-dis reprsentant des luths ronds longmanche et trois cordes, des luths piriformes quatre cordes, ainsi que des orchestresrunissant harpe arque, cithare, hautbois,flte traversire, flte de pan, orgue bouche,tambour en sablier, et divers idiophones.

    Largement majoritaires au Xinjiang avec plusde 8 millions d'mes, les Ougours se trouventgalement louest, au Kazakhstan, dans lavalle de lIli, tandis quune importante dias-pora sest constitue dans diffrentes rpu-bliques voisines, en particulier durant la rvo-lution culturelle chinoise. Ils sont 200.000 auKazakhstan, et 300.000 en Ouzbkistan.

    Musiciens de la diasporaBien quayant quitt leur pays natal, lesOugours de la diaspora sont rests fidles leurs racines, lesquelles sont moins ancresdans la terre que dans leur culture, et parti-culirement la musique et la danse pour les-quels leur passion est bien connue. Les com-munauts recres au Kazakhstan, enKirghizie ou en Ouzbkistan ont naturelle-ment perptu les rites sociaux qui consti-tuent un contexte privilgi pour lamusique. En chappant la politique cultu-relle chinoise, les Ougours de la diasporaont contribu prserver leur musique et sestextes originaux, ainsi qu' restaurer desrpertoires endommags par les rformes oules modes nouvelles. C'est le cas notamment de deux artistes pr-sents sur ce disque : Abdulaziz Hashimov qui

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    Asie centraleMUSIQUE DES OUGOURS

    Traditions dIli et de Kachgar

  • transcrivit tout le rpertoire d'Ili quil avaitappris Gulja dans sa jeunesse et AripjnMuhametov qui dirigea TachkentlEnsemble de Muqm ougour durant lesannes 80. Cet ensemble laissa un prcieuxenregistrement de la version abrge duOnikki Muqm (cf. bibliographie) telle que lesmatres de Kachgar lavait transmise dans lenord du pays. Par la suite il se dispersa et nefut jamais reconstitu. Ce n'est qu' l'incita-tion de l'Aga Khan Music Initiative inCentral Asia, rpondant une demande de laMaison des Cultures du Monde de Paris, quequelques artistes se regrouprent afin de pr-senter leur musique sous sa forme la plusauthentique. Le prsent disque compact estissu de l'enregistrement du concert donnpar le groupe d'Aziz Hashimov le 10 mars2002. Ce concert fut peru comme un vne-ment, car il est trs rare que les artistes ou-gours se produisent en Occident, notam-ment dans des concerts librement conusselon des critres de got et de tradition.C'est apparemment aussi la premire foisqu'un groupe de la diaspora se produisit enEurope. La qualit et la raret de l'vnementincita Radio-France diffuser ce concert.

    Traditions et colesLa musique des Ougours est dune granderichesse et dune remarquable originalit. Elleprend racine dans un pass culturel brillant,accumulant des lments des antiquescivilisations indo-iraniennes (Tokhariens,

    Sogdiens), le bouddhisme, le manichisme, laculture turcique et enfin musulmane. LesOugours sont proches des Ouzbeks par leurlangue et leurs coutumes. De nos joursencore, les Ougours traversent courammentla frontire chinoise pour se rendre en Asiecentrale ex-sovitique, mais c'est surtoutdurant le XIXe sicle que les changes furentimportants entre la Kachgarie et le Ferghana(en Ouzbkistan). Les affinits entre cespeuples se retrouvent dans leur musique,notamment sa conception, ses instruments,ses genres et ses fonctions. Un de leurs pointscommuns est la mise en forme du rpertoireen grandes suites comparables aux nubaarabo-andalouses ou au Shash Maqm tadjik-ouzbek. Linfluence de la culture musulmanecontribua peut-tre cette structuration etsystmatisation du rpertoire, mais il ne fautpas perdre de vue que le principe de la suite(muqm au sens o l'entendent les Ougoursainsi que les Tadjiks et Ouzbeks) existait bienavant la nuba moyen-orientale et pourraitmme en tre l'origine.Le monument de la musique ougoure est leOnikki Muqm, les 12 Suites dans douzemodes (muqm) diffrents, durant chacuneenviron deux heures dans la tradition de largion de Kachgar. Les noms de chacun desmuqm renvoient la thorie persano-arabe,mais dans l'ensemble ne recouvrent pas lesmmes intonations qu' l'Ouest. Ce sont :Rk, Chabbiyt (chap Bayt), Chrgh,Panjgh, Ozhl (Ozzl), Ajam, Mushwrak,

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  • Ushq ('Ushshq), Bayt, Nav, Segh, Erq.Dans la version canonique de Kachgar, quiest la plus tendue, la totalit de ce rper-toire comprend 242 mlodies, chantes sur1.235 distiques. Dautres recensement fonttat de 316 units (hang).Dans d'autres rgions se trouvent dautresstyles et dautres formes : les coles deTurfan, Urumchi et Khotan peuvent treconsidres comme des branches de celle deKachgar. Toute diffrente est la musique desDolan, avec ses modes de six notes et soninclination pour le contrepoint ou lhtro-phonie, et plus encore, le Muqm de Qumuldlibrment pentatonique.

    MuqmDans la rgion de l'Ili, do sont originairestous les musiciens runis sur ce disque, enplus des formes locales, se retrouvent deslments de rpertoire des autres rgions. Ili ainsi qu' Kucha le Onikki Muqm se jouesous une forme abrge. Dans la versionkachgarienne, chaque muqm comportetrois sections en plus de l'ouverture nonmesure (muqm bashi) :1. Chong naghme, lit. Grands chants, com-portant de nombreuses pices vocales et instru-mentales aux rythmes varis, lourdes et com-plexes au dbut, puis de plus en plus lgres. 2. Dstn naghme, lit. Airs narratifs. Il s'agitde chants et de pices instrumentales (mar-ghul) se droulant sur trois formes rythmiquessuccessives : 4 temps, 7 ou 9 temps, et 3

    temps. Les pomes, de facture populaire parrapport ceux des chong naghme, sont souventtirs des popes lyriques dstn, dont leshros sont chants dans toute l'Asie int-rieure, tels que Gharip et Sanam, Farhd etShirin, Thir et Zahra, ou Yusup Ahmat.3. Mashrap, un terme qui voque un ritesocial festif, ainsi que sa forme sublime pra-tique par les derviches. La section mashrapregroupe de courtes chansons au rythmeassez vif, sans pices instrumentales.Dans le processus de propagation du Muqmkachgarien vers le nord-est, seules ont tretenus les deux sections dstn naghme etmashrap.

    NakhsheL'ide de grouper les pices en suites est lie la culture des grandes villes et la prsenced'un pouvoir central. Ainsi dans chaque citd'Asie Centrale s'est labor un rpertoire dece type : Khiva, Boukhara-Samarkande,Qoqand, Kachgar-Yarken. Dans les villes deseconde importance, on se contente d'orga-niser les chansons en petites suites : cellesd'Ili en sont un exemple.Le genre typique de la rgion d'Ili est un cor-pus de douze suites (nakhshe, lit. tableau),appeles Ili nakhshesi. Dorigine purementlocale, elles sont sans rapport avec le sys-tme du Muqm : elles sont plus courtes, (entre 15 et 30minutes), avec 5 12 parties, parfoisouvertes par un prlude non-mesur ;

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  • elles portent diffrents noms littraires sansrapport avec la thorie moyen-orientale, telsque Laylun, Kichik Laylun, Tchong Laylun,Khn Laylun, Gul Laylun, Qdir, Mastun hey-rn, Gulzr ey, Ulnm I et II, etc. ; elles se droulent sur des rythmes simples 2 ou 4 temps. Seul point commun avec les Muqm : leurorganisation commenant par un chant nonmesur, et le lien entre les diffrentes chan-sons qui composent la suite. Chaque chan-son reprend un motif de la prcdente enfaisant une sorte de boucle, comme dans lesmarghul du Onikki Muqm.Ces suites ne sont pas destines la dansemais lcoute attentive, notamment dansles runions mashrap, cest pourquoi leursmlodies sont plus labores que celles dessuites de chansons et d'airs danser appe-les sanam. Ce genre se retrouve dans touteville ougoure de quelque importance. Onen dnombre galement douze, selon unesymbolique de la totalit chre la cultureougoure, correspondant aux principalesvilles du Xinjiang. Le sanam d'Ili est l'und'eux. Comme tous les autres, il consiste enune courte suite au tempo sacclrant pro-gressivement. En plus de ces rpertoires, il existe danschaque rgion, et notamment Kachgar etIli, un trs grand nombre de chansonsanciennes ou rcentes qui, quoique relative-ment complexes sont davantage la portedes amateurs que le Nakhshe et les Muqm.

    En effet les Ougours sont rputs pour trede grands amateurs de musique et de danse.Leur culture favorise toutes les occasions depratiquer ces arts, notamment dans lesgrands ftes prives toy, runissant des cen-taines de personnes l'occasion d'unmariage ou d'une circoncision, ou dans desmashrap, des runions plus restreintes o lamusique alterne avec diffrentes phases d'unbanquet. Contrairement dautres culturesvoisines, les femmes ont une place impor-tante dans la vie musicale, et beaucoupdentre elles savent accompagner leur chan-son au grand luth dutr, au petit luth rawapou au moins au tambourin dap.

    Quelques traits de la musique ougoureLe paysage modal ougour porte la marquedes diffrents peuples qui ont finit par consti-tuer lidentit ougoure : dabord les Indo-ira-niens, les Tokhariens, puis les proto-Turcs,enfin les Ougours proprement dits, auxquelsse sont joints d'autres ethnies turciques.Les mlodies, surtout dans le Onikki Muqmmodulent frquemment non seulement lintrieur du systme heptatonique(gammes diatoniques, rappelant la musiqueeuropenne mdivale), mais encore dunsystme lautre, cest dire mlangeant desintonations disons moyen-orientales avecdes lments pentatoniques qui voquentl'Asie orientale. Il ne sagit aucunement din-fluence chinoise, mais dlments propresaux cultures dAsie centrale.

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  • D'une faon gnrale le style de la valle del'Ili contraste avec celui du sud-est par sesrythmes plus simples, ses intonations pluspentatoniques et son instrumentarium plusrestreint. Kachgar au contraire, les modessont souvent proches de ceux de l'Inde, del'Ouzbkistan ou de l'Afghanistan et lesrythmes, plus varis et souvent complexes.Dans le style ancien (non sinis), certainesmlodies de Muqm voquent lInde ou leCachemire.Les mlodies voluent grandes enjambes,comme dans les systmes pentatoniques, defaon couvrir rapidement plus duneoctave, ce qui constitue un des traits dis-tinctifs avec le style ouzbek-tadjik classique,lequel prsente nanmoins des affinits aveccelui des Ougours (instrumentarium,langue, modes, formes musicales, danse,etc.). Ili les rythmes sont couramment en4 temps, parfois divis 3+3+2, tandis queles 5, 6, 7 et 9 temps sont courants dans leOnikki Muqm, ainsi que des mesures com-plexes de 12 ou 13 temps. Dans les mesuresimpaires, les Ougours introduisent ungroove subtil qui neutralise la pulsation ets'accommode mal avec laccompagnementdinstruments de percussion. De fait, le dutr lui seul suffit marquer lerythme, avec tous les monnayages, variationset ddoublements souhaitables. Dans la tradi-tion d'Ili, la configuration idale et suffisanteest le chant, le dutr et le tanbur, un autre luth trs long manche. Pour les chansons et le

    Muqm peuvent s'y adjoindre la viole ghijak,ventuellement le luth rawap, le chang (cym-balum) et la flte traversire, linstar desformations kachgariennes. Il est intressantde souligner que la percussion n'apparatjamais dans les ensembles de la tradition d'Ili,sauf pour les suites de danse sanam.

    Les instruments Le dutr (dont le nom signifie deuxcordes) est un luth long manche large-ment rpandu, sous des formes diffrentes,depuis le Kurdistan jusqu'au Xinjiang.Chaque peuple en a adapt la technique, lesproportions et la sonorit selon ses besoins.En Asie centrale il est toujours mont decordes en soie accordes en quinte, quarteou l'unisson, tandis qu'au Turkmnistan etau Khorasan les cordes sont en mtal depuisenviron un demi-sicle. Le dutr ougour estle plus grand des instruments de cettefamille, la longueur de corde vibrante attei-gnant 105 cm. Il est entirement fait de boisde mrier finement dcor d'incrustationsd'os et de corne. On le joue dans la musiquepopulaire, pour l'accompagnement deschansons, aussi bien que dans le Muqm, enparticulier dans l'cole de Khotan. Commetous les luths ougours, ses frettes donnentune chelle chromatique. Sous une formelgrement moins grande, il est galementrpandu en Ouzbkistan et au Tadjikistan. Le luth long manche tanbur appartientgalement cette aire. La forme ougoure est

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  • plus longue que les spcimens ouzbek, tad-jik ou kashmiri, la corde vibrante atteignant125 cm et couvrant deux octaves et demi.Les cinq cordes mtalliques sont accordessol-sol, do (une quinte en dessous), sol-sol ; lamlodie se joue seulement sur la doublecorde aigu, les autres servant de bourdon ;comme dans les autres luths de cette famille,on les pince avec l'index muni d'un onglet. Le ghijak est rpandu dans toute l'Asie sousdes noms et des formes varies. Il sagit ldune viole pique dont la caisse est une

    sphre tronque recouverte dune peau dechvre ou de poisson. Dans la forme rcem-ment rpandue en Chine Populaire, le parche-min est tendu l'intrieur de la caisse de rso-nance entre les deux hmisphres, soutenantune me en contact avec la table d'harmonieen bois. Les musiciens de la diaspora rejettentcette innovation qui dfigure le timbre delinstrument. De mme ils n'utilisent jamaisles instruments nouveaux ou rinvents pourles besoins des orchestres officiels, comme lerawap basse, ou la viole khoshtr.

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    LES PICES

    1. Muqm bashitir du Muqm Rokhsari.Ayshamgul Mamat, chantAripjn Muhamadov, ghijak.Zikri Alpatta, un matre et transmetteurimportant du sicle dernier composa en1940 un Muqm nouveau qu'il baptisaRokhsari. Il fut chant pour la premire foispar Abliskhan Mahmud. L'introduction(muqm bashi) s'est inspire d'un pome entchaghatay de Ali Shir Navi (XVe s).

    Junun vdisiga mil korarman jn uzarimniTilayman bir yoli buzmq buzulgan ruzgrimniJe voudrais voir mon me repentante dans ledsert de MajnunJe voudrais tout dun coup briser mon exis-tence dtruite.

    2. Suite de chansons de KachgarAyshamgul Mamat, chantAripjn Muhamadov, ghijakAbdulaziz Hashimov, tanburAkram Hashimov, dutrAbdurashid Ndirev, dutrAbdughani Tokhtiev, tanbur.

    La premire de ces trois chansons populairescommence ainsi :Qurguyim ucip ketti Kashqa yoliga qarapKozimning gawhari qdi yarning yoliga qarap Kunda kormadim yrni kunida korarman depUmit uzmadim yorden olmasam korarman depMon pervier sest envol vers la route deKachgarLe joyau de mes yeux s'est mis scruter laroute de l'aim

  • Au fil des jours, je ne voyais pas mon aim,mais j'esprais le voir un jour Je nai pas perdu lespoir, si je reste en vie, jele verrai.

    La seconde :Kece bolsa yorqin oydin tiraklar boshiga qarapKozum kuysa, yuraghim qanlimidir, ey yrCilan bghqa kirmanglar cilan boghda ilan bor Men yrim deganim bilan yrim xumrli, ey yrQuand il fait nuit, contemplant les frondai-sons des peupliers claires par la lune aim, les yeux me brlent et mon cursaigne.N'entre pas dans le jardin de Tchilan, il y aun serpent Avec celui que j'appelle mon ami, ami,quant moi je suis ivre

    La troisime :Cerayinni cmaysen, ey yr, konghling yrdayoq mi ? ey yr Gul qisqan mening yrim ey yr, gullar cilipqldiPourquoi es-tu contrari ? N'as tu pas donnton cur l'aim, trs cher ? Mon ami m'a donn une rose, et tous lesboutons de rose ont clos.

    3. Muqm bashitir du Muqm Chrgh.Abdurashid Ndirev, chantAbdughani Tokhtiev, tanbur.

    Jahnda toptilar insn rizatden rahnamliqni Taningni el ucun aylap qilip bu jn jn-fedliqniAgar sen yaxshi bolmqa ishanseng yaxshiliqkopdir Ymnliq izlama hargez, qiymatdin eltjliqniDans lascse, lhomme trouve une guidanceen ce monde Consacre tes forces la socit, et sacrifieton me totalement.Si tu crois tre bon, il y a beaucoup de bien faire Ne cherche jamais faire du mal, sinon lejour du Jugement tu devras supplier.

    4. Dstn et Marghultirs du Muqm Oshshq.Abdurashid Ndirev, chantAbdughani Tokhtiev, tanburAripjn Muhamadov, ghijakAbdulaziz Hashimov, tanburAkram Hashimov, dutr.

    Kel gharib jn, sayl etilar dyim bu bghda Bulbul korsin gullarning tamshseniSl qolingni boynimga jnla sadaqaQizlar korsin bizlaning tamshmizniViens, cher tranger, dans ce jardin o nousnous promenons toujours Que le rossignol contemple le spectacle desfleurs.Mets ton bras autour de mon cou Afin que les jeunes filles contemplent lespectacle que nous offrons.

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  • 5. Marghul 1, 2, 3Pices instrumentales tires du OnikkiMuqm (mode Panjgh), sur des cycles ryth-miques en 2/4 et 3/4.Abdulaziz Hashimov, tanburAkram Hashimov, dutr.Le marghul est une pice instrumentale quise droule sur le mme cycle rythmique quela pice vocale qui le prcde. Toutes lespices vocales du Onikki Muqm sont suiviesd'un marghul, except les chansons mashrapde la section finale. Panjgh (litt. 5e posi-tion), est un terme dsignant en Orient desmodes dont la gamme est apparente latonalit majeure.

    6. Kocha nakhshesi Abdurashid Ndirev, chant et dutrAbdughani Tokhtiev, tanbur.

    Ce cycle tir des Ili nakhshe commence ainsi :Bal kormay desing hargiz jahn ranlarinsuyma Otup Farhd o Shirindek, berip gham toghi aryurmaSi tu dis quil faut viter les catastrophes, il nefaut jamais aimer les beauts de ce mondeNe te promne pas dans les montagnes de ladouleur, comme Farhad et Shirin.

    7. Dostlarim mnAbdurashid Ndirev, chant et dutr.Il s'agit d'une chanson de Kashgar assezrpandue, mme parmi les Ouzbeks.

    Daryaning uyoghda uyoghda koringan terak,terak bizningSizni oylaganimden kuydi bu yurak, kuydiyurak ey bizning, dosltar mn, mn... Yurtumda musaferman, hlimden xabar olganLe peuplier que l'on voit de l'autre ct dufleuve est mon arbre J'ai tant pens lui que mon cur brle, moncur brle. Mes amis, l'aide, l'aideDans mon propre pays je suis un voyageur,demandez des nouvelles de moi.

    8. YruAripjn Muhamadov, ghijak, et ensemble. Il s'agit d'une composition instrumentaledans la tradition de Kachgar.

    9. Suite de chansons d'Ili par Ayshamgul Mamat, chant, et ensemble.

    La premire chanson commence ainsi :Dostim, jn dostim yuzinga nur yarashibdi Sening ishqi firqinda yurakka t tutashibdiDostlarim mn bolsin, Jn dostim, jnimdostimSen mendin xafa bolma ldimda kulup qoyip,rkamdin topa qilmaMon ami, la lumire convient ton visageSpar de ton amour, le feu consume moncur.Ne sois pas fch contre moi, devant moi tusouriais, derrire moi ne mdis point.

    JEAN DURING

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    Pour en savoir plus : Anderson Bakewell, Chine Xinjiang. Route de la Soie,Playasou nd, 1992 (CD et livret). Anna Czekanovska, Muqm in the tradition of theUygurs, in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music,vol. 6, New-York, London, 2002 (995-1008). Dvenadtsat Uygurskikh Mukamov, (Les 12 muqm-sOugours), par les ensembles Uzbekskiy AnsamblMukamusov et Uyghursky Ansambl Mukamistov,10 disques vinyles, Tashkent, Melodia, s.d., 1983,1986. Les deux premiers muqm, Rak et Chabbiyat ont t transcrits en 108 pp. par Tamara Alibakieva, dans

    Onikki Muqm, Alma Ata, d. ner, 1988. Jean During et Sabine Trebinjac, Turkestan Chinois /Xinjiang, Musiques Ougoures, OCORA-Radio France,C5590 92-93, 1990 (CD et livret). Jean During et Sabine Trebinjac, Introduction l'tudede la musique Ougoure, Bloomington, 1991. Sabine Trebinjac, Le pouvoir en chantant, vol. I,Nanterre, Societ d'Ethnologie, 1998. Sabine Trebinjac, When Uygurs entertain them-selves, in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music,vol. 6, New-York, London, 2002 (989-993).

  • Aripjn Muhamadov, ghijak d

    Ayshamgul Mamat h

    g Abdulaziz Hashimov, tanbur

  • Akram Hashimov, dutr d Abdughani Tokhtiev, tanbur d

    g Abdurashid Ndirev, dutr

  • A people with a high cultureThe Uighurs are a large Eastern Turkic ethnicgroup descended from the Huns whose his-tory stretches back over many centuries.Their first homeland lay in an area occupiedby present-day Mongolia, where they estab-lished an empire and from which, beginningin the 9th century, they gradually occupiedthe territory that now comprises ChinasXinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. MostUighurs still live in Xinjiang, and with apopulation of more than 8 million, they arethe provinces largest ethnic group. Uighursalso live in the Ili Valley of Kazakhstan, fur-ther to the west, and in diaspora communi-ties in the neighboring Central Asianrepublics. These commmunities grew rapidlyduring Chinas Cultural Revolution, with thelargest groups in Kazakhstan (200,000) andUzbekistan (300,000). The Uighurs, whosenationhood is affirmed in inscriptions dat-ing from the 5th century, were the firstTurkic people to possess a system of writingand develop a high culture. These achieve-ments enabled the Uighurs to exercise a civ-ilizing influence over other peoples withwhom they came in contact. In Chang'an(Xi'an), the Chinese capital of the Tang

    dynasty (7th century AD), there were at leasteight musical ensembles from Turkestan,including orchestras from Samarkand,Kashgar, Turfan, Khotan and Qumul. TheBuddhist frescoes of Qyzyl, near Kucha,which date back to about 500 AD, depictmusician gods and, in the scenes of paradise,long-necked three-stringed lutes, pear-shaped four-stringed lutes, and orchestraswith arched harps, zithers, oboes, transverseflutes, panpipes, mouth organs, hourglassdrums and various idiophones.

    Musicians of the diasporaEven after leaving their native land, Uighursin diaspora communities remained faithfulto their roots. These roots lie not so much ina geographical territory as in their culture,in particular, music and dance, for whichtheir passion is well known. The communi-ties established in Kazakhstan, the KyrgyzRepublic, and Uzbekistan kept alive thesocial customs that provided an importantcontext for their music. In the conditions ofdiaspora, Uighurs have been able to preservetheir music and original lyrics and restorerepertories that had been distorted byreforms or novelties.

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    Centra AsiaMUSIC OF THE UIGHURS

    Traditions of Ili and Kashgar

  • Two of the performers featured on the pre-sent CD have played an important role inthis process: Abdulaziz Hashimov, who tran-scribed the entire repertory of Ili music thathe learnt in Gulja in his youth, and AripjnMuhametov, conductor of the UighurMuqm Ensemble in Tashkent in the 1980s.This ensemble made a valuable recording ofthe abridged version of the Onikki Muqm inthe form in which it had been transmittedin the north by master musicians fromKashgar. The ensemble was subsequentlydisbanded and never reassembled. Onlylater, at the initiative of the Maison desCultures du Monde in Paris, did a group ofperformers come together to present theirmusic in its most authentic form.The present CD was produced from a record-ing of a concert given by the AbdulazizHashimov group in March 2002. This con-cert was something of a landmark, since it isvery rare for Uighur musicians to perform inthe West, especially in free-ranging concertscovering a number of different styles andtraditions. The Paris concert also appears tohave marked the first appearance of aUighur diaspora group in Europe. The rarityand high quality of the concert pursuadedRadio-France to broadcast it.

    Traditions and schoolsThe music of the Uighurs is both very richand remarkably original. It has its roots in aglorious cultural history that has incorpo-

    rated elements of ancient Indo-Iranian civi-lizations (Tokharian and Sogdian), followedby Buddhism, Manicheanism, Turkic cultureand, finally, Islam. The Uighurs are close tothe Uzbeks in both their language and cus-toms. These days, Uighurs still frequentlycross the border between China and theCentral Asian republics of the former SovietUnion, but this trade notably betweenKashgar and Ferghana, in Uzbekistan wasat its most extensive in the 19th century.Affinities between Uighurs and Uzbeks areevident in their music, in particular, its con-ceptual underpinnings, instruments, genres,and social functions. Another importantshared feature is the formation of a repertoryof large suites similar to the Arabo-Andalusian nuba or Persian dastgh. Whilethe structuring and systematization of thisrepertory may have been influenced byIslamic culture, one must not forget that theprinciple of the suite (muqm or maqom inthe terminology of the Uighurs, Uzbeks, andTajiks) existed well before the Middle Easternnuba and might even have been its source.The musical monument of the Uighurs is theOnikki Muqm, the 12 suites in 12 differentmodes (muqm), each lasting some two hoursin the tradition of the Kashgar region. Thenames of each of these muqm echo Persian-Arab musical theory, but taken as a whole,they do not refer to the same melodic types asthose of the Middle East. The names of themuqm suites are: Rk, Chabbiyt (chap Bayt),

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  • Chrgh, Panjgh, Ozhl (Ozzl), Ajam,Mushwrak, Ushq, Bayt, Nav, Segh, Erq. Inthe canonical version of Kashgar, which is themost widely performed, the repertory inclu-des 242 melodies set to 1,235 poetic couplets,or pairs of verse lines. Other surveys havelisted 316 separate units (hang). Other stylesand forms are found in other regions, forexample, the schools of Turfan, Urumqi andKhotan may be considered as sub-branches ofthe Kashgar school. The music of Dolan isquite different again, with its six-note modesand predilection for counterpoint or het-erophony, and still more different is thefirmly pentatonic muqm of Qumul.

    MuqmIn the Ili region, which is home to all themusicians featured on this CD, elements ofthe repertoires of the other regions exist side-by-side with local forms. In Ili, as in Kucha,the Onikki Muqm is played in an abbreviatedform. In the Kashgar version, each muqmconsists of three sections in addition to anunmetered overture (muqm bashi):a) Chong naghme (great songs), which con-sist of several vocal and instrumental piecesin different rhythms that are heavy andcomplex at the beginning, and becomesteadily lighter.b) Dstn naghme (narrative airs), instru-mental songs and pieces (marghul) that fol-low a series of three rhythmic forms: 4beats, 7 or 9 beats, and 3 beats. The poems,

    unlike those of the chong naghme, reflect apopular style and are often drawn from thelyrical epics (dstn) whose heroes are sunginto life throughout Inner Asia, e.g., Gharipand Sanam, Farhd and Shirin, Thir andZahra, or Yusup Ahmat.c) Mashrap, a term that evokes a festivesocial ceremony as well as the more rarefiedform of such a ceremony practiced bydervishes. The mashrap section includesshort songs in a lively rhythm withoutinstrumental pieces. As the Kashgar muqmspread to the northeast, only two of theabove sections were retained : Dstnnaghme and Mashrap.

    NakhsheThe idea of gathering pieces together intosuites was linked to the culture of the majorcities and the presence in these of a central-ized political power. Thus, each large urbanarea in Central Asia gave rise to a repertoryof suites: Khiva, BukharaSamarkand,Qoqand, KashgarYarken. In smaller cities,musicians were content to group songs intosmaller suites such as those from Ili.The typical genre of the Ili region is a set of 12suites (nakhshe, literally pictures) called Ilinakhshesi. These are of purely local origin andhave no connection with the muqm system: they are shorter (between 15 and 30 mn),with 5-12 parts, and sometimes open withan unmetered prelude; moreover, they have a variety of literary

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  • names unrelated to Middle Eastern musictheory Laylun, Qdir, Mastun heyrn, Gulzrey, Ulnm I and II, etc.; they are set to simple one- or two-beatrhythms. The only feature they share with the Muqmis the organizational principle by whicheach suite begins with an unmetered songand each song is linked to the precedingsong by means of a melodic motif, thusforming a continuous loop, as in themarghul of the Onikki Muqm.These suites are not designed for dancing, butfor careful listening at occasions such as thesocial gatherings known as mashrap, and as aresult, their melodies are more elaborate thanthose of the dance songs and airs known assanam. This latter genre can be found in anysizeable Uighur town. As with the OnikkiMuqm, there are twelve different sanam thatcorrespond to the number of principal townsin Xinjiang and evoke the symbolic signifi-cance of the number 12 among the Uighursas representing wholeness or totality. The Ilisanam is one of these twelve. Like all the oth-ers, it consists of a short suite played at a con-stantly accelerating tempo. Besides these repertories, each region, in par-ticular Kashgar and Ili, has a large number ofolder and newer songs which, while rela-tively complex, are more accessible to ama-teurs than the nakhshe and the muqm. TheUighurs are in fact renowned as great loversof music and dance. Their culture encour-

    ages opportunities for the exercise of thesearts, such as during the massive private fes-tivities known as toy, where hundreds ofpeople gather for a marriage or a circumci-sion, or at the mashrap, more restrainedgatherings that feature musical interludesbetween the various courses of a banquet. Incontrast to other neighbouring cultures,women have an important place in musicallife and many of them are able to accom-pany their songs on the dutr (long long-necked lute), rawap (short long-necked lute)or, at the very least, on the dap (tambourine).

    Some features of Uighur musicUighur melodic modes display the influenceof the various peoples who have contributedto the formation of Uighur identity: firstIndo-Europeans and Tokharians, then proto-Turks, and finally the Uighurs themselves,who in their turn have absorbed otherTurkic peoples. The melodies, particularly inthe Onikki Muqm, modulate frequently notonly within the seven-tone system (diatonicscales reminiscent of medieval Europeanmusic), but also from one system to another in other words, mixing Middle Eastern-liketonal systems with pentatonic elements thatevoke East Asia. There is no Chinese influ-ence per se, however. Rather, all the ele-ments present in Uighur music exist withinthe cultures of Central Asia itself. In general,the style of the Ili Valley contrasts with thatof the southeast by virtue of its simpler

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  • rhythms, more pentatonic melodic modes,and more restrained instrumentation. In Kashgar, by contrast, melodic modes areoften close to those of India, Uzbekistan orAfghanistan and the rhythms are more variedand often quite complex. In the older style,free of Chinese influence, certain Muqmmelodies evoke India or Kashmir. Melodiesprogress in large spans, as in pentatonic sys-tems, so that they quickly encompass morethan one octave, producing one of the dis-tinctive traits of the classical Uzbek-Tajikstyle. This style also has affinities with that ofthe Uighurs in such areas as instrumentation,language, modes, musical forms, and dance.In Ili the rhythms are frequently in 4-beats,sometimes syncopated (3+3+2), while 5, 6, 7and 9-beats are frequently encountered in theOnikki Muqm, together with complex group-ings of 12 or 13. In odd-numbered measures,the Uighurs introduce a subtle rhythmicgroove that neutralizes the pulse and fightswith the regular beat of accompanying per-cussion instruments. The dutr alone is usu-ally sufficient to mark the rhythm, with allthe transitions, variations and rhythmic-melodic asymmetries that are called for. In the Ili tradition, the ideal performanceforces consist of voice, dutr and tanbur,another long-necked lute. For songs as wellas muqm, the ghijak a spike fiddle heldupright and sometimes the rawap, chang(cimbalom) and transverse flute may beadded, as is typical in Kashgar. Percussion is

    never used in the Ili ensemble performancetradition with the exception of the sanamdance suites.

    InstrumentsThe dutr (literally two strings) is a long-necked lute played within a broad geo-graphical area that stretches from Kurdistanto Xinjiang. Each people within this regionhas adapted the size of the instrument andits sound qualities and performance to suitits own needs. In Central Asia it is stillstrung with silk strings tuned in fifths,fourths or in unison, while in Turkmenistanand Khorasan metal strings have been usedfor about the last fifty years. The Uighurdutr is the largest instrument in this family,with a vibrating string length of as much as105 cm. It is entirely made of mulberrywood, intricately inlaid with bone andhorn. It is used in popular music to accom-pany songs as well as in the muqm, in par-ticular in the Khotan school. Like all theUighur lutes, its frets are laid out so as toyield a chromatic scale. On a slightly smallerscale, the dutr is also widespread inUzbekistan and Tajikistan.The tanbur, another form of long-neckedlute, is also native to Central Asia. TheUighur tanbur is longer than those played bythe Uzbeks, Tajiks or Kashmiris, with avibrating string as long as 125 cm that cov-ers two-and-a-half octaves. The five metal-strings are tuned G G C (a fifth below)

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  • G G. Melody pitches are played on thedouble high strings while the other stringsserve as a drone. As with the other lutes thestrings are plucked with the index finger fit-ted with a metal pick.The ghijak, widespread in Asia under a vari-ety of names and in a variety of forms, is aspike fiddle whose sound-box is a truncatedsphere covered with goat or fish skin. In theform of this instrument that has recently

    become popular in China, the parchment isstretched across the inside of the resonatingchamber between the two hemispheres andsupports a sound-post in contact with thewooden soundboard. Diaspora musiciansreject this innovation, which distorts theinstruments timbre. By the same token,they never use new or reinvented instru-ments created for official orchestras such asthe bass rawap or khoshtr fiddle.

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    THE PIECES

    1. Muqm bashitaken from Muqm Rokhsari.Ayshamgul Mamat, voice,Aripjn Muhamadov, ghijak.Zikri Alpatta, a master from Ili who mademany important arrangements, composed anew Muqm in 1940 which he called Rokhsari.It was first sung by Abliskhan Mahmud. Themuqm bashi is inspired by a poem inChagatay by Ali Shir Navi (15th century).

    Junun vdisiga mil korarman jn uzarimniTilayman bir yoli buzmq buzulgan ruzgrimniWould that I could see my soul repentant inthe desert of MajnunWould that I could end this already brokenexistence.

    2. Suite of songs from KashgarAyshamgul Mamat, voice, and ensemble.

    The first of these popular songs begins:Qurguyim ucip ketti Kashqa yoliga qarapKozimning gawhari qdi yarning yoliga qarapKunda kormadim yrni kunida korarman depUmit uzmadim yorden olmasam korarman depMy sparrow hawk has flown down the roadto KashgarThe jewel of my eye has slipped from its socketto keep watch on the path of my beloved.As the days passed I had no sight of mybeloved, yet I hoped stillto see him one day.I despair not; if I continue to live, I shall seehim again.

    The second song:Kece bolsa yorqin oydin tiraklar boshiga qarapKozum kuysa, yuraghim qanlimidir, ey yrCilan bghqa kirmanglar, Cilan boghda ilan borMen yrim deganim bilan yrim xumrli, ey yrWhen night falls, gazing at the fronds of the

  • poplars bathed in moonlightOh my beloved, my eyes burn and my heartbleeds.Enter not into the garden of Chilan, a ser-pent lurks within.With the one I call my friend, Oh friend, asfor me, I am drunk.

    The third song:Cerayinni cmaysen, ey yr, konghling yrdayoq mi? ey yr.Gul qisqan mening yrim ey yr, gullar cilip qldi.Why do you provoke me so? Have you notsurrendered your heart to your loved one,my darling?My beloved has given me a rose and all therose buds have blossomed.

    3. Muqm bashitaken from the Muqm Chrgh.Abdurashid Ndirev, voice,Abdughani Tokhtiev, tanbur.

    Jahnda toptilar insn rizatden rahnamliqniTaningni el ucun aylap qilip bu jn jn-fedliqniAgar sen yaxshi bolmqa ishanseng yaxshiliq kopdirYamanliq izlama hargez, qiymatdin eltjliqniThrough self-denial, man seeks guidance inthis worldOffer your strength to society and dedicateyour soul completely.If you believe yourself to be good, there aremany good things you can do.Never seek to do evil, or when the Day of

    Judgement comes, you will have to beg for-giveness.

    4. Dstn and marghul taken from the Muqm Oshshq.Abdurashid Ndirev, voice,Abdughani Tokhtiev, tanbur,Aripjn Muhamadov, ghijak,Abdulaziz Hashimov, tanbur,Akram Hashimov, dutr.

    Kel gharib jn, sayl etilar dyim bu bghdaBulbul korsin gullarning tamshseniSl qolingni boynimga jnla sadaqaQizlar korsin bizlaning tamshmizniCome, dear stranger, into this garden wherewe are always walking.May the nightingale look down on this dis-play of flowers.Put your arm around my neckSo that the young girls can admire the dis-play we have offered.

    5. Marghul 1, 2, 3. Instrumental pieces taken from the OnikkiMuqm (Panjgh mode), in rhythmic cyclesof 2/4 and 3/4. Abdulaziz Hashimov, tanbur,Akram Hashimov, dutr.The marghul is an instrumental piece whichfollows the same rhythmic cycle as the vocalpiece which precedes it. All the OnikkiMuqm vocal pieces are followed by amarghul, except for the mashrap songs of the

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  • final section. In Eastern music the term panj-gh (literally, fifth position) designatesmodes with a scale somewhat akin to amajor tonality.

    6. Kocha nakhshesiAbdurashid Ndirev, voice and dutr,Abdughani Tokhtiev, tanbur.

    This cycle, which is taken from the Ilinakhshe, begins like this:Bal kormay desing hargiz jahn ranlarinsuymaOtup Farhd o Shirindek, berip gham toghi aryurmaIf you say that disaster must be averted,then you must not love the gracious peopleof this worldDo not walk among the mountains of suf-fering, like Farhd and Shirin.

    7. Dostlarim mn. Abdurashid Ndirev, voice and dutr.This song from Kashgar is widely performed,not only among Uighurs but also Uzbeks.

    Daryaning uyoghda uyoghda koringan terak,terak bizningSizni oylaganimden kuydi bu yurak, kuydiyurak ey bizning dosltar mn...Yurtumda musaferman, hlimden xabar olgan.

    The poplar which we see on yonder riverbank is our treeI have thought of you so long that my heartburns, my heart burns.Come help me, my friends, help me... I ama wayfarer in my own land, seek news of me.

    8. YruAripjn Muhamadov, ghijak, and ensemble.An instrumental composition in theKashgar tradition.

    9. Suite of Ili songs, Ayshamgul Mamat, voice, and ensemble.

    The first of these songs begins :Dostim, jn dostim yuzinga nur yarashibdiSening ishqi firqinda yurakka t tutashibdiDostlarim mn bolsin, Jn dostim, jnim dostimSen mendin xafa bolma ldimda kulup qoyip,rkamdin topa qilmaMy friend, the light blends with your faceWhen I am cut off from your love, my heartis consumed by fire.My friends, peace be with you, my dearfriend, my soulBe not angry with me, before me you weresmiling, after me, speak no words to malignme.

    JEAN DURING

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  • W 260113 INEDIT/Maison des Cultures du Monde 101, Bd Raspail 75006 Paris France tl. 01 45 44 72 30 fax 01 45 44 76 60 www.mcm.asso.fr

    Central AsiaMUSIC OF THE UIGHURSTraditions of Ili and Kashgar

    INEDITMaison des Cultures du Monde

    Asie centraleMUSIQUE DES OUGOURSTraditions dIli et de Kachgar

    Couverture (1 & 4) 27/06/06 13:05 Page 1

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    INEDITMaison des Cultures du Monde

    Catalogue disponible sur demande / Ask for the catalogueMaison des Cultures du Monde 101 Bd Raspail, 75006 Paris Francetl. +33 (0)1 45 44 72 30 fax +33 (0)1 45 44 76 60et sur internet / and on internet : www.label-inedit.come-mail : [email protected]

    W 260113 AD 090

    distribution NAIVE-AUVIDIS

    OP 2003INEDIT / MCM

    Made in France

    Collection fonde parSeries founded byFranoise Grnd

    dirige par / headed byPierre Bois

    Asie centrale MUSIQUE DES OUGOURSCentral Asia MUSIC OF THE UIGHURSTraditions dIli et de Kachgar Traditions of Ili and Kashgar

    Direction artistique etnotice : Jean During.Enregistrement, Maisondes Cultures du Monde(Paris, 2002).

    h 1. Muqm Rokhsari : muqm bashi [422] h 2. Chants deKachgar / Kashgar songs [1014] h 3. Muqm Chargh :muqm bashi [513] h 4. Muqm Oshshq : dstn &marghul [600] h 5. Onikki Muqm : marghul 1, 2, 3 [657]h 6. Kocha nakhshesi [1054] h 7. Dostlarim mn [427] h 8. Yru [517] h 9. Chants dIli / Ili songs [1523]

    total 6848

    3 298492 601134 >

    Ayshamgul Mamat, chant/voice Abdulaziz Hashimov, tanbur Abdurashid Ndirev, chant/voice & dutr Aripjn Muhamadov, ghijak Abdughani Tokhtiev, tanbur Akram Hashimov, dutr.