I am Uyghur/Men Uyghur/ Я-Уйгур

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Karahan N.M. I Uyghur. -Bishkek.: Continent 2013.-S. 340. The collection of reports, interviews and articles of the author, examines the problem of 25 million Uyghur people in the world. The book provides a brief analysis of the historical path of one of the oldest and most original people of the world, who lives today in the absence of their national statehood, facing the challenge of maintaining its identity and rich cultural heritage. And most importantly, we give a new vision of how to solve the current problems of the Uyghur people, in the context of globalization and the new challenges of XXI century.Карахан Н.М. Я-уйгур. –Бишкек.:Континент, 2013.-С. 340. Сборник докладов, интервью и статей автора, исследуется проблемы развития 25 миллионного уйгурского народа в мире. В книге дается краткий анализ исторического пути одного из древнейших и самобытных народов мира, живущий сегодня в условиях отсутствия своей национальной государственности, стоящий перед проблемой сохранения своей идентичности и богатого культурного наследия. А главное, предлагается новое видение путей решения сегодняшних проблем уйгурского народа, в контексте процессов глобализации и новых вызовов XXI столетия.

Transcript of I am Uyghur/Men Uyghur/ Я-Уйгур

  • 94(47) 63.3(2) 21

    21 . , 2013 348 .

    ISBN 978-9967-27-158-6

    , , - 25 . , , -. , - , XXI .

    Continent 500 .

    0503020000-13 94(47) 63.3(2) ISBN 978-9967-27-158-6 ., 2013

  • DevoteD to my mother, tursunay-aDzhim Kenzhieva

    When my mother was 25 years old, without a husband, with the three-year firstborn and one and a half months baby in her arms, with her mother and a brother- teenager, in a cold morning on April 9th, 1963, she was forced to leave her beloved homeland, saving us...Her stories about the relatives and the close ones, about the home town of Kuldzha, where we were born, became the starting point of my thoughts about my people, about their tragic fate, making me not only reflect upon this, but also to take up the pen.Will I be able to justify her dreams?Will I be able to thank her for love, patience and faith in me?Will I be able to become a worthy son of my people, whom she wanted to see me?My answer is, I will try my best, Mother!This is my first book, my manifesto of life, and I dedicate it to you, Mother!

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    25 , , - , --, 9 1963 , , , , , -, , , . ? , ? , ? , , ! , , , !

  • the uyGhur PeoPLe nationaL DeveLoPment Priorities

    the youth anD Future oF the uyGhur nation

    the uyGhurs soCiety oF KyrGyzstan ittiPaK to hoLD its iii KuruLtai

    ittiPaK on the eve oF a new staGe

    eConomy oF oPeninG uP LanD eXPansion anD eCoLoGy oF ethniCities

    three PersPeCtives on uyGhur ProBLems

    aBout the Present situation

    the uyGhurs neeD to BuiLD soCiety

    the Great way oF the uyGhurs


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  • uyGhur XeLQi miLLiy tereQQiyatninG enG muhim mesiLiLiri

    yashLar we uyGhur XeLQininG KLeChiGi

    ittiPaQ yenGi Dewr BasQuCh aLDiDa

    uyGhur mu'emmaLiriGha Ch Kz-Qarash

    BGnKi weziyet heQQiDe

    iQtisaDiy zLeshtrsh we miLLiy KoLoGiye

    uyGhurLarninG ByK yoLi

    PreFaCe to the seConD eDition

    Dear reader!

    It has been almost five years, since a small Edition, just 500 copies, of my first book in the form of reports, interviews and articles un-der the title I am Uighur was published. The decision to publish the book in that memorable year of 2009 was connected to the fact that the next World Congress of the Uyghurs was scheduled to be held in Washington, in the United States of America. As a man, whose whole life was connected with the Uyghur national move-ment, I was among the invited people to this conference. Despite a long way, with multiple landings and flights across continents and oceans, I have decided to bring a large number of copies of the book, to Washington. I hope that my dear reader will understand how important it was to me. At that time I was happy, just thinking that I could give my book to each participant of the Uyghur Con-gress, so they could personally get acquainted with my views on the problems of Uyghur people.

    I think that my feelings and hopes to be heard by rational people are clear to all. I believed very much that I would be able to find adherents on such solid meetings of the Uighur elite. With many of them I was personally acquainted for many years, with whom we were not only adherents, but also have organized Uyghur events, both local and international, which are still taking place today. I was certain that we would meet, talk openly about all our problems, and immediately begin to work on the conservation and restoration of the cultural heritage of one of the most ancient and indigenous peoples of the world, which I am proud to call myself part of it.










  • To my deep regret, the book, delivered with such difficulties to Washington for the Uyghur congress, was withdrawn as seditious and harmful for the Uyghur national movement by the head of the World Uyghur Congress, Mrs. Rabiya Kadyr. In addition, the books author was not allowed to participate in the Congress, de-spite the appeals of some delegates from among the scientific intel-lectuals, with a proposal to organize a discussion and listen to the author at the meetings of the Congress. Hence, people, who were fighting for the rights of a whole nation, trampled the right of one of the representatives of that nation, considering it as expenses of the Uyghur National Revolutionary Movement, the right to express publicly his views and protect them. They said No and have not let me make a speech. And, imagine where!? In America, the Cita-del of freedom and democracy! Near the White House, a stone's throw from the Capitol Hill!

    There have been many rumors and speculation about my views, ex-pressed in various international forums, where I had the courage to express my opinion, alternative to the existing majority of Uyghur politicians. Especially to those politicians, who talk about the need to fight for Uyghur independence, national sovereignty, with little work, or even doing nothing for their people today and now.

    Reviews of my views differ from the most enthusiastic to insecti-cidal offensive. I can only say: you judge, dear reader.

    Over these years, meeting and exchanging opinions with hundreds of people, with my fellow compatriots, I only believed stronger in my own views, found thousands of supporters, adherents. In fact, my first collection of work, entitled I Am Uyghur, just starting to appear widely. I hope, that now every Uyghur and not Uyghurs will personally, and not being distorted by various authors of angry letters, read and draw conclusions about my views on the future

    of the Uyghur people. Unfortunately, for a long time I could not publish them for financial reasons, our public press refused to pro-vide their pages, and at the same time, many Uyghur media struck me with caustic criticism, descending to the insults. Without under-standing and without accepting, most often without understanding, or without having examined at all my point of view, they accused me of apostasy; the betrayal of national idea, calling me the Chi-nese spy, they even boycott, with the requirement to expel me from society. It came to the point that even some of my yesterday's supporters, fearing the condemnation of acting leaders of public organizations, did not offer to shake hands on my greeting. I felt the icy breath of 1937 Stalins repressions and the suffocating atmo-sphere of times of Maoist cleanings and cultural revolutions for thinking differently than them. Thanks to Allah, this is over. I do not hold against them, God forgive them. I only ask the family to forgive me for not being able to protect them from unfair words, which hurt them to hearts: my old mother, wife, children, brothers and close friends for whom it was deeply offensive. Knowing that you are pure before Allah and people, understanding that they do it because of ignorance, gives you strength to forgive and love. I just want to repeat once again, to our homegrown politicians: stop, do not please your political ambitions and adventurism, in a bid to get miserable pittance, push the brightest people of the nation - ac-tive youth imprisoned in terrorist camps in Afghanistan.

    It is better not to think about your titles and positions, not about your prosperous life in Washington or Berlin, but about Uyghur people, take care of their prosperity, of modern education for youth, of entry into the global intellectual, financial and cultural elite.

    With respect,

    Nur Muhammad KARAHAN

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  • nur muhammaD Karahan /KenDzhiev/

    PuBLiC man

    Bonify, while you have power (Hass Hadzhibey Balasaguni)

    Nur Muhammad is Uyghur, born on September 17, 1960. In 1979, he has completed Frunze's Technical School of Soviet Trade with a major in merchandising and organization of trade with honours.

    From 1979 to 1983, he studied at the Kyrgyz State University,obtaining a major in merchandising and organization of trade. After the com-pletion of university, he worked at the republican trade organiza-tion for two years, and then from 1985 to 1987 was engaged in sci-entific research in the field of applied economics and also worked as a marketing specialist.

    In 1987-1990 years, Nur Muhammad gained organizational work experience in local governmental authority bodies, then was en-gaged in social activities. He was also elected as a deputy of the national parliament, which was responsible for the Kyrgyzstan's independence declaration, as well as realization of reforms in the country's political system. By serving as a deputy of Zhogorku Kenesh, he actively participated in the organization of democratic movement For democracy, civil peace and national concordance. Activities of this movement initiators became the fundamental fac-tor for presidential power institute creation.

    Nur Muhammad Karahan is one of the founders and the first chair-man of Kyrgyzstan's Uyghurs Society Central Council Ittipak national public organization aimed at development of the 55 000 Uyghur diaspora in the country. Ittipak represents interests of

    Uyghurs in the Kyrgyzstan's Nation Assembly and before the re-publican authorities. In 1996-1997, Mr. Karahan worked as the Vice-Chairman in interethnic relations in the Kyrgyzstan's Nations Assembly Council. Since 1993, Mr. Karahan is the vice-president of the Kyrgyz antinuclear movement Lop-Nor.

    Nur Muhammad Karahan actively participates in the international Uyghur movement for the nation revival he was elected as the vice-president of the Uyghurs Association in Central Asia and Ka-zakhstan (Almaty), vice-president of Joint Committee of Nations of Eastern Turkestan, Tibet, Inner Mongolia (Germany, Munich). Since 2008, he represents the Uyghurs of Central Asia in the Turkic Nations Assembly Central Council.

    From 2003 until present, he is the President of the Uyghur support foundation for development programs ERPAN.

    From 2009 until present, he is General Manager of Uyghur medi-cine company TADU International ltd.

    Nur Muhammad Karahan issued a collection of reports, statements and articles known as I am Uyghur.

    Mr. Karahan was awarded with a commemorative medal in honor of the 1000th Manas anniversary and with a medal in honor of the Kyrgyzstan's independence 10th anniversary.

    In addition, Mr. Karahan made hajj to Mecca. He has six children: Diar, Adiam, Diaz, Oguzhan, Ahmadiya and Erpan raising them by adopting the Yusuf Balasagun saying Let son inherit from father the gold word of sage.

    The most significant event to this day was the adoption of the Kyr-gyzstan independence declaration. Lifelong credo is serving good. Main hobbies are reading such as philosophical and historical books, he also likes Middle Eastern poetry.

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  • statement thesis delivered by nur muhammaD Karahan, people of Kyrgyzstan assembly Deputy Chair, ittipak uyghur society of Kyrgyzstan Chair, at the ii international turkologists Conference (istanbul, turkey. october 21-23, 1996).

    the uyGhur PeoPLe nationaL DeveLoPment Priorities

    In the name of Allah, the Merciful One! Assalamu-Aleikum, the highly esteemed Presidium, High conference participants, Dear fellow countrymen!

    ConCLusions anD reaLitiesThe XX century is coming to its end a century that raised such grandiose hopes and that severely shook the world.

    Today, just like a hundred years ago, the humanity is being torn apart by wars and discords, one nation oppresses and annihilates another one. Along with the great breakthroughs of the mind, ex-amples of fine political co-organization in human co-existence, the world of supertechnology and comfort emergence, there are pov-erty and backwardness, wars and interethnical discords, imperial impudence of one group of nations and violation of rights of the other group. There is no justice in the world today, just like one hundred years ago.

    The historical fate of Uyghurs is at the center of our scholar con-ference participants attention. The historical fate of any nation in-habiting the planet is full of ups and downs, prosperity and decline. But, our people have been granted unique, unconventional path by Allah.

    There are not many nations on Earth who started their long as-cension to the future with Uyghurs. There are not that many still

    around, whose mind, will, and labor faceted the very foundation of human civilization, its bases, laying preimages of spirituality, economical world order, democracy worthy of mature communities back in a hardly visible contour of human culture.

    What is also true is that there are not many nations on Earth whose cultural, and spiritual inheritance was both substantial and inacces-sible to its creators. Among those presently living nations, the Uy-ghurs alone have a bitter share to recognize such a humiliating and terrifying in its brutality chasm between the mighty sovereignty and a status of a nonpleasant one, a guest hardly tolerable at a last piece of land with his own house, piece of his own land. Among presently existing nations, only Uyghur people have a bitter share of ascension towards its might, not to the future, but back to its past.

    We, Uyghurs, are facing challenging times today. The world merci-lessly passes by arrogantly considering us as a civilization having already passed away a long time ago. We ourselves, have experi-enced in the middle of this century a next in turn strike of the fate countless one! are close to a historical disappointment, to losing the will for a future, the faith for our star.

    There is plenty of ground for disappointment today.

    As a result of a number of historical reasons and events, there is an emerging real threat of going impoverished, watered down, assimi-lated for such basic foundations of an ethnical identity as language, script, customs and traditions, national lifestyle, culture, mentality, national self-consciousness.

    As the research shows, (according to the experts estimates) up to 20% of Uyghurs, (I am taking an average for the whole nation, not based on locations) cannot read, and 10% cannot even speak their native language. And there is an extremely small number of those who are able to understand the ancient Uyghur language that cap-tured the greatest achievements of the Uyghur culture.

    Today, according to various estimates, there are over 600 thousand Uyghurs in the world, who are counted as part of other ethnicities,

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  • by their good will or by the will of circumstances. I shall not be talking about other countries, but in Kyrgyzstan alone just several years ago, people were afraid to publickly acknowledge their Uy-ghur origin due to a risk of getting deprived of a good education and work opportunities. And even today when many things have changed for the better, there is still not a single Uyghur school in place for a 55 000 Uyghur population.

    Uyghurs' social and activity orientations have changed along with a system of the relevant values. First of all, the intellectual activity orientations have been lost that once were a distinctive feature of the Uyghurs; a very important resource for developing a nation, a criterion for placement within the world community.

    It is not possible to present authentic data on Uyghurs as a whole, but only speaking of the Uyghurs living in former Soviet Union Re-publics with a relatively high average educational level, the number of Uyghurs having a higher education makes only 1-2 persons per one thousand, which puts us to the last place in the world. There is a very small number of intellectuals.

    As a result of absence of a sufficient stratum of intellectuals with a higher education and numerous involuntary transfers from one script to another the cultural script of generations has been distorted or cut off; the generational cultural succession and impartation. The philosophical schools have ceased to exist, along with the cultural centers, literary creative works. The nation that was the first one to actually print the first book has lost even its own book publishing. The majority of the nation does not have an opportunity to access the achievements of its own history and culture due to the archival storages, the book fund and other literary funds being closed both in the XUAR and CIS, and a difficult access to the Western centers and libraries.

    There is a risk of heavily serious consequences resulting from the nation having found itself in a zone rendering hard access to the achievements of the world civilization, particularly to the spheres

    of education, science, and production that define the social progress. Particularly it concerns the access to the electronic communication means and systems, the contemporary educational systems of the West and East, the contemporary technology in all the economic industries. There is no commuting network, no Uyghur specialists and scientists exchange programs corresponding with various inter-national organizations assisting the scientific and cultural exchange (the turkologic, business, womens and youths conferences, semi-nars, internship programs). There is no access to training programs for military specialists, space industry specialists. There are no Uy-ghur specialists in the international financial structures who would be able to design and put an effective national financial system to work.

    The nation having had a recent fame for talented leaders today has been even deprived of its long aged culture. In the CIS republics the share of Uyghurs involved in leading, managerial, and administra-tive spheres is several times less than the share held by our ethnicity within the entire population. And that list may be continued end-lessly.

    There is a large concern about Uyghur population being watered down (diluted) in regional areas. As a result of Uyghur emigration out of the Peoples Republic of China, assimilatory policies estab-lished by the Chinese authorities, the cutback of areas favorable or even tolerable for living in the area of Tarim that are conditioned by the social and economical reasons for the Uyghur migration from the Central Asian republics to other countries, first of all to the West, Turkey and Arabic states; the density and compactness of the Uyghur habitat areas is being reduced which has always been one of the features that made up the national identity. Within the condi-tions of low level communicational opportunities, this leads to los-ing ethnical traditions and customs, language and communication.

    One of the most significant consequences of all of these processes is losing a sense of nation identity, sense of recognition of the com-mon problem, the need for a unified movement. It is also reflected

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  • in the national ideology, psychology, and national movement.

    Amidst the Uyghurs, the ideology of personal enrichment is gain-ing its influence momentum, dominance of material values over the spiritual ones, the physiological needs are taking priority, replac-ing the cultural ones, the daily life has the majoring highlights of being-well and showing off, and status-wastefulness of the means. The sense for solidarity and mutual support has weakened, it has become more lucrative to serve the stronger ones, the more titled nations of the inhabited countries.

    The Uyghurs, who once used to spread and promote religious spirit and culture of Buddhism in China, Mongolia and furtherdown to Korea, who used to be conducting vessels of enlightenment, of lit-eracy, of the state leadership science have lost their orientation for missionary activity.

    the hoPes anD the waysIt is clear for anyone thinking robustly that if these processes in the Uyghur nation do not get stopped, get refracted, the nation will find itself at the edge of a historical abyss, where there is no way back from. It is today or tomorrow that irreversible consequences of the historical sleep and regress will befall the Uyghur people. And op-portunity for a breakthrough, for stepping forth in development will be lost forever. And a fate of the dozens and hundreds of ethnicities that we read about in the literature admiring their achievements and grieving because of their extinction, is awaiting us.

    Our belief principle and the perspective are such that at this criti-cal moment the historical predestination of those who deeply care about the Uyghurs fate, who want to bring it to the future, there is a need to answer the contemporary challenging times, find and sug-gest ideas and ways to the nation which will enable to restore the national spirit and call and unwind the presently conserved spiri-tual, and cultural potential that has emerged along the ages of the unceasing work of the minds, hearts, and hands of our ancestors.

    With its power, similar to a power of a well hardened and solidly compressed metal spring for ages, we will be able and will have to render a breakthrough at the cutting edge of the world society development, and human culture progress.

    We think that the most urgent objective today is to design prin-ciples, foundational ideas, strategies, core working directions and forms, capable, when pulled together, to provide for pursuit of the core goal of implementing the real challenges within the historical process directed towards transformation of the Uy-ghur society to a state of an accelerated development based on its historical identity, self-consciousness of its own place and role, envisioning own future within the global community of the world nations.

    The national development program should be founded not by for-mal, situational and political, historical and ambitious, and other fast-vanishing impetuses, but by the key value of keeping and de-veloping the Uyghur nation, its identity, culture, historically ac-cumulated potential, cultural and spiritual values, to get associ-ated with the achievements of the civilization, to the progress, to cultivate an ability to live as one whole, unified community regardless of any state borders.

    First of all, it is important to highlight that all the efforts in the national development sphere shall have success only if they are rooted not in intentions no matter how appraisable they may be, but in realities no matter how unpleasant they may be.

    These realities include the following:

    The Uyghur nation does not have its own sovereign statehood,

    The Uyghur live on territories belonging to the several presently existing states,

    The international law as it is today aims at fixed state borders and resists any demarcation,

    None of the states, which territories are occupied by the Uyghurs,

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  • are willing to give up a single piece of their own territory and will put its best efforts to combat any attempts of the Uyghurs state-hood identity promotion,

    This situation may be changed only as a result of a long transfor-mational process in international public and legal thinking.

    The participants of our conference analyzing the situation of the Eastern Turkistan within the contemporary world and its relational system, the situation inside the region, have uncovered the reality multilaterally, have defined the grounds for the points, and demon-strated all of its complexity and problems.

    Particularly, the statements delievered by Kemal Karpat, Profes-sor and Doctor, Aidin Bolack, the Turkish Oil Fund Chair, Ahat Andijany, Professor and Doctor, are very significant for us in un-derstanding the situation and unrolling the efforts on provisions for ethnical development.

    On a large scale, there are two basic approaches today to national development problems. Advocates of the more common approach think that the main goal should be to achieve the sovereign state-hood by any means (and the approaches within it are different), and then think about the nation and its development. The other ap-proach taken by those who do not believe that there is a possibil-ity to gain (at least in near future) the statehood, think that one should not raise a question of national development at all, it will take its own place naturally and independently within a context of the world development.

    We think that on one hand, it is impossible to trust a miracle to happen doing nothing, believing that the flow of events will take Uyghurs through spontaneously, and on the other hand, it is inap-propriate to think about fighting for the Uyghur statehood by any means, and postponing the matters of own situation and develop-ment until later.

    Change in the present situation is possible only in a result of a studious, persistent, regular multilateral work on shaping na-

    tional potential in all of the spheres.

    National development efforts foundations need to comprise five vectors, five constituent elements, five basic foundations, five working zones:

    1. Shaping economical system of the community and economi-cal national development bottom line principles

    2. Shaping the national unifying cultural concept and ideology

    3. Shaping the national unifying informational system

    4. Shaping the national unifying educational and professional training systems

    5. Shaping the national unifying political system

    1. For any of those states that are currently inhabited by Uyghurs, providing necessities and some substantial support to the national development of the Uyghurs is a problem. All these countries and their people themselves are undergoing challenging times, econom-ic transformations, suffering from low living standards and low hu-man development indicators.

    Meanwhile, it will take time shaping a powerful resource base and of course an economical system able to build economical develop-ment foundations, in order to cope with lagging factors in all of the life spheres.

    The root changes taking place within the former Soviet Republics of Central Asia economies, and a new economical course in China provide most favorable environments for such efforts, for it is ob-vious that it will be based upon international cooperation opportu-nities, transnational economical structures. Considering the favor-ability of products market and workforce market in this area, and extensive experience of working in these conditions that the Uy-ghur businessmen have, one can speak about a unique chance for a powerful economical breakthrough and entrance into the world economical activity parameters.

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  • 2. Second most important working zone is shaping conceptual foundations of the national development and a new ideology based on them.

    The unified national cultural and historical concepts is a kernel, a pivot that can draw the Uyghur people united around having gained a new historical objective, new understanding of its place and role within the human civilization.

    Absolutely, framing such a concept is not an office act and is not a mindful perspective of individual Uyghur thinkers. That is a quin-tessence of the entire national wisdom, a result of a critical cog-nition of the entire Uyghur history without any complacency and self-admiration which are so common to us; it is a philosophical summation of centuries-old intellectual achievements of the Uy-ghur thinking school.

    The task is of a great difficulty. It will require creating and launch-ing a number of scientific schools, shaping a certain prototype of an Uyghur Academy, not as a community of bureaucratic clerks repre-senting science but as a center drawing together the Uyghur think-ers, the Uyghur scientists. It will require creating special centers that would study extensively rich cultural inheritance of the Uy-ghurs and make it publicly available and credited for, which the in-heritance monuments have been scattered around the whole world.

    3. One of the most significant conditions for a breakthrough to-wards the front line of the world development today is forming a full-value effectively shaped national informational space through framing our own national informational systems of regional and global types.

    Within the conditions of territorial dispersion and low information-al supply of the regions inhabited by Uyghur, it is impossible to render a regular functioning of all community systems, impossible to provide for involving all the Uyghur into active work on national building without framing strong branched off information bearing channels in al the inhabited regions.

    It is particularly important to render training in the area of modern technology among the youth, the children, having created favorable conditions for it in each educational unit, in the townships inhabited by the Uyghur. The very life and life conditions push our nation to a need to make the Uyghur one of the most information supplied communities.

    4. The vocational training problems become key ones and defining in our work. It is impossible to overestimate all that work performed by our leading public activists abroad putting enormous efforts orga-nizing educational opportunities for the Uyghur youth in the world leading educational units. Due to their efforts the key link for the future national educational and training systems is being formed.

    Meanwhile the demand for authorizing, publishing and distribut-ing study, fiction, specialized literature in Uyghur language firstly to the children and youth is urgent and acute. In this area it is also difficult to count for sufficient assistance from the governments of the inhabited states. Even having a desire to assist, they do not have enough budget for culture and education. We think that we need a special international program under the help of the UN and UNESCO and intend to present elaborated proposals to these orga-nizations soon.

    5. Recent years, mostly at the cost of the Central Asian republics which used to be a part of the Soviet Union, a public self-organiza-tion system among Uygurs has begun to emerge. In these 5 coun-tries, there are 10 registered Uyghur organizations functioning plus another three that have not yet been registered due to some reasons.

    And if firstly, at the initial stage, only unified national and cultural units or purely political organizations were created, today the num-ber of the national public organizations is growing and they are incorporated for multiple features. That is very significant, because those are public structures covering various life spheres, various population strata, expressing various interests: from the political to the cultural and learning ones.

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  • They all are real issues of the Uyghur national public structures. They need to be filled with a content more extensively, to work on the internal participatory mechanisms, democracy mechanisms, public self governance.

    This is the way to shaping the unifying national political system, breeding it not on ambitions and made-up schemes of individual political leaders or people striving to become such, but on the real grounds of the people.

    I think this is the way for us to undoubtedly come to national po-litical unity, to shape a team of national leaders who are given real support and trust among the people.

    A special attention should be given to developing and strengthening ties between the national Uyghur organizations of the XUAR and the diasporas abroad. Today such contacts and joined efforts are practically non-existent. This situation should be changed. We have a vast space for the joined work and we want to open it up in spite of the challenges and biases that we have.

    I think that we need to continue the practice of the kurultay national assemblies, to enhance it through a larger number of participants, and more legitimate representatives of the local Uyghur commu-nities. We are willing to discuss a possibility to organize an all-Uyghur kurultay in XUAR with the Chinese government, which shall be focused at the problems of the further development of the education and culture of the Uyghur.

    Thus, not cavalry swoop, not political fuss, but comprehensive scrub work on shaping the national development foundations that is the foundational way of the national movement, its core ob-jective and content.

    The Uyghur people has a historical base for a development unique in its potential, significance, and richness. We are talking about an anciently rooted distinctive history, spiritual values of multiple re-ligions, culture that has been nurtured at the junctions of three civi-lizations.

    And we are to be worthy of our ancestors, to be able to use our inheritance, to disclose and fulfill the peoples potential, to take its history to a new powerful stage.

    This is a life purpose worthy, a moving power for all of our activity and deeds.

    That is Allahs commandment!

    In the conclusion of my concise statement, I would like to thank par-ticularily the organizing stuff of the present scientific conference, this authoritative meeting of major scholars and political statesmen, such as Muhammad Khafiz, World Muslim League (Rabit) General Secretary Deputy, Mehmet Saray, Professor and Doctor, Nevzat Yalchintash, Professor and Doctor, Turan Yazgan, Professor and Doctor, Muzaffar Ozdag, famous researcher and writer, Mustafa Kafaly, Professor and Doctor, Mehmet Tutunju, Professor and Doc-tor, Andulkadyr Donuck, Professor and Doctor. And I would like to share my confidence that the conference materials shall be ap-prehended with great interest in the world and first of all within the Uyghur nation, and also express my hope to have similarly great pleasure to meet again with such eminent persons, the very fellow-ship with whom has brought a very useful and learning experience for which I am very thankful.

    May the Allah grant you well-being and favor!

    ALLAH in the name of The Most Affectionate, the Merciful. All praise unto Allah, Lord of all the worlds. The most Affectionate, The Merciful. Master of the Day of Requital. We worship You alone, and beg You alone for help. Guide us in the straight path. The path of those whom You have favoured. Not of those who have earned Your anger and nor of those who have gone astray.

    al-Fatiha, Koran.

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  • welcoming address thesis delivered by nur muhammaD Karahan, at the world uyghur youth meeting (munich, Germany. november 9-12, 1996).

    the youth anD Future oF the uyGhur nation

    In the name of Allah the Merciful! Highly esteemed Presidium! Dear friends!

    Not a single nation shall have a future if it does not regard its own youth, if it is not duly thoughtful of the purposes and meanings of their lives.

    That is why several years ago we found ourselves standing at the very birth of the contemporary Uyghur Youth movement.

    That is why it is an amazing pleasure for me to welcome you, the participants of the II World Uyghur Youth forum.

    It was not accidental and not for the reasons of political careful-ness that our meeting was contrived and prepared as a cultural one. I know that many are trying to convert the youth movement to a purely political one, striving to use youth energy and will for mo-mentary political objectives. Undoubtedly, it is impossible to par-ticipate in political affairs without young people. It is at all times and everywhere that the youth has been an impetus producing force for any social transformations; the revolutions have been per-formed, the new states have emerged, the empires have been born with the youths minds and hands.

    But the history tells us about other sides as well. The fate of gen-erations thrown into furnace of political battles is sad, if it is not sanctified by a great purpose, if it is not predestined from above, is not enlightened by an ideal of national happiness and prosperity.

    I will tell this without any exaggerations that there is a critical,

    determining, turning milestone moment in the Uyghur people fate now. This may seem strange to you, but the foundational trouble of the Uyghur nation is not about having lost its statehood. During its ancient, centuries-old history the heavily suffering Uyghur nation lost its statehood multiple times (even though nobody was ever able or is able today to deprive it of its motherland), regained its state-hood and lost it again numerously.

    The main trouble is that today, Uyghurs are facing a real pos-sibility of losing what has been constituent to the very essence for the nation; its culture, its spirit, its historical predestination.

    As a result of historical collisions the Uyghur nation which a certain time ago stood at the headwaters of the Central Asian civilization origins, provided for an intellectual momentum for their develop-ment, today is finding itself at a margin of the world movement, in a threatening regressing and stagnation zone, and social extinction.

    Irreversible transformations began to take place, firstly in forms of disappearing national identity basic foundations such as language, script, customs and traditions, national lifestyle, culture, mentality, national self consciousness.

    A great concern is risen by the dissolving processes of the Uyghur-inhabited areas. As a result of Uyghur migration from the Peoples Republic of China, and from the Central Asian republics to other countries, first of all to the West, Turkey, the Arabic countries, the compactness of the Uyghur habitats is reduced, while the compact-ness has always been one of the significant national formational features. Within conditions of low level communication opportuni-ties this all leads to losing national customs and traditions, language and simply communication.

    The social and functional orientation vectors of the Uyghur community and the relevant values' systems have been changed. First of all, it is orientation to intellectual activity that has been lost, which used to be a distinctive feature of the Uyghurs, a significant national development resource, and a criteria for defining its role within the world community.

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  • As a result of absence of a sufficient stratum of intellectuals hav-ing higher education and numerous involuntary transfers from one script to another the cultural script of generations, the generational cultural succession and impartation have been distorted or cut off. The philosophical schools have ceased to exist, along with the cul-tural centers, literary creative works. The nation that was the first one to actually print the first book has even lost its own book pub-lishing. The majority of the nation does not have an opportunity to access the achievements of its own history.

    All of these matters were discussed with great concerns by the par-ticipants from all over the world of a recent scholarly turcologic conference that took place in Istanbul.

    That is why from perspective of the Uyghur nation survival and providing for its future there is no significant objective for the Uyghur youth, but to restore the Uyghur spirituality, culture, intellectual and willful energy, to restore our nation to a status of a real participant of the world historical development.

    Of course for those who strive to get involved in politics, dream of immediate liberalization of the nation, of the fame radiating when being national leaders, for those who call the people to go into the streets and start the insurgent battles, my objectives will seem non relevant, and my words will seem boring.

    But what I earnestly desire above all things in the world is for the Uyghur youth to take an honorary place within the global intellec-tual, business, financial, cultural elite, for the Uyghur children to have equal with others opportunities for most privileged education, for access to the most contemporary informational technology, so that immeasurable treasures of the national thought and creativity presently kept under a bushel become a fertile soil for raising emi-nent scholars, outstanding entrepreneurs, writers, poets, musicians, who would be of Uyghur origin!

    The World cultural meeting of the Uyghur youth could become a start in framing and launching a whole set of programs designed to

    shape a vast youth movement for the national restoration and development founded on the national traditions and national culture within the contemporary world development course.

    Youth development programs can and should cover such priority areas as education, information, national entrepreneurship, art.

    I think that your forum may put out an initiative of framing and implementing special international program under the auspices of the UN and UNESCO designed to preserve and develop the nation that is left to exist in such specific conditions as inhabiting several states by the power of the historical realities. And these states dif-fer in their social, political, and cultural orientations, each having its own cultural realms, each belonging to different branches of the world culture and religious traditions.

    Uyghur youth movement is just originating at the moment. Prob-ably this forums participants will come to certain conclusions as a result of discussing the problems. It is just important to understand that the youth movement will not emerge at a moment, or just as a result of a decision made for it to be. There is long and complex work still to do in shaping the priorities and objectives, organiza-tional formation. Meanwhile the youth movement should represent real youth masses, be their fruit, avoiding mistakes common to its organizers before, including organization of this meeting.

    It is very important to protect the youth movement from any politi-cal adventurism and momentary attempts, from being used for the own interests of certain political groups.

    It is important to learn to use the political, intellectual, and organi-zational potential of the international children and youth organiza-tion for the interests of our national development, establish contacts with various international youth public forces and fill them with a content.

    The historical meaning can be carried only by a movement that manages to organize practical work in framing sufficient develop-ment opportunities for the Uyghur youth, accumulating and attract-

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  • ing resources and structures necessary for it. The Uyghur youth organization has to become a certain projecting and organizational center for shaping the future of the Uyghur people. Nobody except for the youth will be able to shape a real historical chance for the XXI century.

    I would like to wish all of you success in this work! I would like to express confidence that there is a better future for the Uyghur people! I believe in your historical star! Allah is with us!

    the uyGhurs soCiety oF KyrGyzstan ittiPaK to hoLD its iii KuruLtai

    Our correspondent met with the Societys Council Chairman Nurmuhammed Kendzhiev and asked him to tell about pro-cesses going in the Uyghur national movement in our country and national situation at the modern period.

    Mister Nurmuhammed Kendzhiev, how do You think, what is typical today for the state of things in Uyghur diaspora of Kyr-gyzstan and what the society Ittipak comes up to its Kurultai with?

    A little more than four years passed from the moment of our pre-vious Kurultai.

    In its first years Ittipak had the purpose to achieve its recogni-tion, to assert itself in socio-political life of Kyrgyzstan, and we have done it, within the reporting period all efforts were aimed at increasing the role of the Society in solving the most essential prob-lems of Uyghur nation in Kyrgyzstan. The accent was transferred more from narrowly political issues to social, economic, and cul-tural ones, to things which form a daily life of the Uyghurs.

    And it can be fully explained. The past years were hard for the Uyghurs. In conditions of reforms in Kyrgyzstan, all our problems also sharply became aggravated.

    Unemployment, life standards going down to a critical point, lack of means for maintenance of national culture typical for the repub-lic sharply influenced on Uyghur population. We have lost practi-cally all few sources of support for national development which existed earlier.

    In these conditions it was necessary not to allow bigger losses in culture, education, language, than those that were already present.

    Ittipak strived to be occupied with this. We accomplished some goals, but did not make a lot. You can find more detailed informa-tion about it in report on work for the reporting period of the Coun-cil of Ittipak which was published in press. Also we will talk about it at the forthcoming Kurultai.

    Nevertheless, what, in Your opinion, is the main thing in forthcoming work?

    The main thing is to make transfer from episodic and in many respects inconsequent work on solving of problem of the Uyghurs to realization of sound program of the national development for our diaspora consisting of more than 40 000. Ittipak as one of the leading Uyghur organizations can and should take upon itself the main load of this work.

    We suppose that daily problems of Uyghur people: economic, so-cial, cultural and educational ones should be in its highlight.

    But many think that Ittipak first of all is a political organi-zation intended to assert rights of the Uyghurs with the help of political means in political sphere?

    Ittipak asserted and will assert the rights of Uyghur nation of the Kyrgyz Republic provided by Constitution of the country. In this sense, we always actively worked and work. More detailed informa-tion about it is provided in the report, that is why I will go into detail.

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  • But political work is just a part of all areas of our activity, though of course , a very important one. Moreover, at certain stages it gets a primary importance. And such stage was in 1989-94 years. It was necessary to achieve the constitutional strengthening of civil rights of representatives of all nationalities, our right for development of own culture, language, religion, and traditions. It was necessary to achieve the right and really to create public structures which would represent the interests of the Uyghurs, and assist in solving of their problems. At that period I was deputy of Jogorku Kenesh and I should achieve solving of these problems rather actively, it can be said without exaggeration together with many other deputies to struggle for recognition of the democratic rights and freedom in Kyrgyzstan.

    Whether all was solved or not in political sphere? Of course, not all. In future we also should expand legislative guarantees of the rights of national groups. We cannot stand aside from problems of our na-tive land, the Uyghurs living on the territory of Peoples Republic of China.

    But, today the whole complex of not less complicated and urgent problems is spotlighted. The matter already concerns national sur-vival: economic, social and cultural.

    People which some time ago have made an enormous contribution to a world civilization, just to economic and spiritual fields, today, as a result of historical collisions, were thrown off on a roadside of the world historical development.

    What else should we say, the matter is simple: how members of large Uyghur families should survive, how to give worthy educa-tion to children and how to keep the language, traditions, and cul-ture.

    When you think about these simple questions touching each Uy-ghur and try to find a way for solving them, it becomes somehow awkward to listen to sonorous jabber of all who suddenly became the Uyghur politician and worry more about a political position

    they occupy, than about a daily bread for the people. Just look at what the organization which identifies itself as the Association of Uyghur businessmen is doing. Do you think that it is occupied with business? Now, there are politicians only! And they are so radical, that they even accuse Ittipak almost of disregard of national in-terests.

    Interests of the people should be protected with not political ap-peals, they, generally, are good only for receipt of cheap political capital, but with the help of practical work on satisfaction of na-tional needs and problems. I think Ittipak should be occupied with such things more persistently and consistently.

    But there is also another point of view, in accordance with which Ittipak should be occupied with cultural work only.

    I do not agree on this also. Of course, Ittipak is not Uyghur government in Kyrgyzstan, but it is not just the national cultural center. We were actively occupied, and I think will be occupied with matters on revival, retention and development of the national culture and language. A lot in this sense was made by Ittipak in the reporting period also. Our information gives it in details.

    But we cannot and should not confine ourselves just work on cul-ture. Regardless of our wish Ittipak is one organization repre-senting today in Kyrgyzstan the interests of the whole Uyghur na-tion. So it is established in this way. And it is not going anywhere. We cannot say people that the culture and language is our problem, and we will not take up the problems on population employment, social status of people, development of national economy, protec-tion of rights of the Uyghurs in authorities.

    Therefore I suppose that Ittipak should constantly expand area of its activities in order to cover all aspects of people's lives.

    Another matter is that at the same it is logical that we will create more new structures which will resolve some issues. So, the Wom-ens Council, mass media agencies, youth groups have been created within the past period. Things are leading to creation of scientific

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  • society, cultural organizations, economic funds and others. The life is difficult and diversified!

    All these structures are necessary and, thanks God that they appear, that there are people, activists shouldering problems. I will say that in this sense we put many hopes on the Association of businessmen, Uyghur department and other structures and organization existing today already out of Ittipak. Our newspaper became also inde-pendent, television and radio office is growing in strength. And it is wonderful! The more we will have actively and independently working organizations, the more we can do for people, for solving problems. It is necessary to work, instead of having a bone to pick with each other, and finding out who is more important and who to whom submits! Whole national federations joining and coordi-nating efforts of all many national organizations without pressure and limitation with strict hierarchical scheme already exist for a long time all over the world, in the developed democratic countries with the polyethnic population. And it does not interfere, and on the contrary, guarantees successful representation and protection of interests of these nationalities in the state bodies.

    Yes. Talks about split and necessity of joining exist among people.

    Thanks God, there is no, and I hope there will be no split among people.

    All these talks are excited by political intriguers trying at the ex-pense of collision of people, leaders to fish in troubled waters, to provoke them to sharp actions, conflicts, to make the way on supervising posts.

    In this sense, the thing which already happened now, during prepa-ration of Kurultai is significant. Unexpectedly, under the pretense of democracy and necessity to join efforts, some of the most ardent in past opponents of Ittipak suddenly attended so much its problems, that have rushed to organizing committee for prepara-tion of our Kurultai having forgotten that they are members, and

    even heads of absolutely another organization by no means relating to Ittipak. The purpose was simple: using authority of Ittipak among people to transform it into kind of governing body of all Uyghurs, of course under their power. And here the Kurultai of It-tipak gets in their interpretation the status of nationwide one, the whole pre-election political campaign developed, though the mat-ter was not about election of President of the country, but just about management of a public organization management was developed. But at the same time they speak about unity, but do not dismiss the organization, what if they will fail to win elections!

    I can say once again, there is no split among people and it cannot exist. Moreover, ordinary people do not care if we have one orga-nization or ten; they just want to see good use of it, work provided for common business in a friendly manner, but not sorting out their relationship and playing politics.

    But, besides flubdubbed efforts to earn political dividends on shouts about the split and necessity to join our new-fledged politicians, this matter has another much more serious ground.

    I am talking about the general Uyghur tendency for people unifica-tion.

    I just was going to ask you about it. Recently You participated in a number of large international events.

    Yes, last fall was rather intense in this sense. The international scientific-theoretical conference on problems of Eastern Turkestan was conducted in Istanbul in October, then the 11th World meeting of Uyghur Youth was carried out in Munich in November, and in December our delegation participated in events devoted to the an-niversary of death of eminent Uyghur statesman and national leader Aisa Yusup Aleptekin and establishment of the International Fund in his name, which were carried out in Istanbul also.

    All these events were far from being just formal actions and re-quired thorough preparation and hard work. I was delivering the report at conference at which all the greatest specialists in Turkic

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  • philology and specialists studying the Uyghur nation of the world participated, I delivered speeches at the meeting of youth and events in Istanbul. Moreover, many meetings with the Uyghur pub-lic people, scientists, Uyghur students studying abroad, meetings, conversations and debates with specialists and scientists were car-ried out both in Germany, and Turkey. There just was not a spare minute either in the afternoon, or at night.

    All these trips, events and meetings were of great importance for me. For the first time it was possible to get acquainted so widely with a state of affairs in the foreign Uyghur diasporas, existing points of view on a condition and development of problem of the Uyghurs, in a context of worldwide processes to understand the place and the role of our people in the world community more deeply.

    I would like to note the most important thing: everybody distinctly feels and notes the necessity and approaching of a new stage in his-tory of the Uyghur nation, its national movement. On the one hand, it is connected with a problem of Uyghur statehood. But even more it is connected with vital necessity to stop a national regress and, on the basis of historical potentialities of people avoid crisis in the national development, which will be able to return our people in the forefront of the world progressive advance.

    I have also already said about it in my statements.

    Different points of view about it exist in society.

    Yes, my statements caused controversies even to those who heard them, what can we say about people who heard rumours only. Meanwhile, their meaning is simple, I was grounding and develop-ing the same point of view, that is: if today ahead of XXI century Uyghur people will not use a chance of breakthrough, they may sink into oblivion, as many other earlier well developed nations, it will fall by the fate of many nations its historical contemporaries, whose names remained today only in history textbooks.

    Such formulation of question was not clear for many. At best, they accuse me of globalism, unwillingness to solve those questions

    which are considered by many people as actual. And at worst they call me the apostate and the destroyer of everything that until present time has been built and was sacred.

    And how You would explain your position?

    I dont want to make excuses.

    Those should make excuses, who for the sake of their own tomor-row's historical ambitions are ready to throw today the people in carnage and consider it the main objective of the national move-ment.

    Those should make excuses, who set their own insults or political claims above interests of national unity, covering all this up by con-versations about firm line, adherence to principles, irreconcilability to those who think another way.

    Those should make excuses, who happily living in satisfied coun-tries accuse us that we, here in the Central Asia, do not rebel against governments of our republics, allegedly not understanding that picketing of the Chinese embassy in Bonn or Washington and Bish-kek is not the same. And we do not solve it, you see?

    All these people have their eyes covered with an ardour of political strike, in heat of which they do not see and do not wish to see the main thing, and to ask themselves the main question: what is this all for, and what is a political strike for? Is it an end in itself of national movement?

    If we consider their views and intentions as the core purpose of the national movement, I do not want to participate in such a move-ment.

    I want and I will participate in the national movement the objective of which is not satisfaction of political ambitions of people consid-ering or wishing to consider themselves leaders of Uyghur nation, but simple everyday solving of problems of the Uyghurs regardless of their residence place today but not tomorrow, simple daily and uphill work for improvement of living conditions of people.

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  • I want hardworking Uyghur people to live not worse than other people. I want keen-witted Uyghur people to get education at the best world standards level. I want the well-known Uyghur scientific and social ideas contribute to the best world achievements. I want beautiful centuries-old culture of the Uyghurs to live today fully, pleasing an eye and ear of all nations in the world.

    I know that it is more difficult to achieve this, than just to talk about freedom of the nation. That is why I have no excuses to make to my people. I dream about freedom of our people and wish to achieve it not less than others!

    I met tens and hundreds people in all countries, Uyghurs and other interesting people from different background. I know that many people share my views and I am sure that Allah the Almighty will help us to pass along the way on which it can be made. We need just to work more together.

    summary report by the uyghurs society ittipak Chairman in Kyrgyzstan nur muhammaD Karahan (Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. 1992-1997).

    ittiPaK on the eve oF a new staGe

    Exactly seven years have passed from the moment of formation of the society Ittipak the public organization which has united the Uyghur population of Kyrgyzstan.

    No great length of time has elapsed, but it was enough to draw a defi-nite conclusion that our decision to create a national public organiza-tion was not just necessary, but it was also the only plausible option.

    Before Ittipak society was created, not many people in the re-public knew about the problems and existence of Uyghurs, not to mention people out of the republic. There was no information in press about this, as if authorities did not notice the existence of the Uyghur diaspora.

    It is already difficult to imagine, that in the conditions of those years such decision was not just difficult for accepting, but it also seemed to be impossible to execute. There were warnings and sometimes explicit threats all around, including among the Uyghurs. The re-publican authorities of that time very nearly saw in creation of the national public organization the encroachment on interethnic con-cord in the republic, and accused us of nationalism, separatism and many other things.

    However Ittipak has been created and became the first portent in present widely developed process of national self-awareness of all ethnic groups living on the territory of Kyrgyzstan. This process has resulted, as you know, in the creation of the Kyrgyzstan Nations Assembly the unique and unparalleled in the world association of the national organizations for the sake of interethnic piece and civil concord, strengthening of good neighbourliness of all nations, for the sake of development of each of them!

    Four and a half years ago, at the II conference of the Uyghurs of Kyrgyzstan, in July of 1992, we summed up the first results of the societys work, not that much yet, discussed problems, tried to de-fine the purposes of the movement, forms and methods of work more accurately. As you remember, it was decided not to be iso-lated in narrow frameworks of cultural-educational work. The new charter was accepted which has defined a wide scope of works in all aspects of life of the Uyghurs in the republic before society. In this way the activities of the republican Council elected by Kurultai were growing and progressing

    soCio-PoLitiCaL worKThe Central Council had to solve the whole complex of questions in social and political aspect.

    Of course, one of the most important events in social and political life of the diaspora was the meeting with the Kyrgyz Republic Pres-ident Askar Akaev in July of 1995. The meeting was carried out in

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  • the Palace of Culture in the Levedinovka district. It can be noted that it was a unique meeting, there was nothing like it. Many delegates of Kurultai participated at this meeting and they remember how this meeting was notable for its warm atmosphere. Contribution of It-tipak society in carrying out of democratic and economic reforms, strengthening of interethnic concord and stability in Kyrgyzstan, active participation of its representative in Jogorku Kenesh were highly appreciated by the Kyrgyz Republic President .kaev. Also the President mentioned that just Ittipak was the first orga-nization which has conducted Days of Uyghur Culture with motto: Kyrgyzstan is our home that became already the heart-warming tradition. The president assured us in deep understanding of prob-lems of the Uyghurs and readiness to assist in their solving in every possible way. The idea to open of Uyghur Russian school at the places of close residence of the Uyghurs, assigning of representa-tives of Uyghur youth to institutions of higher education abroad, and increase of broadcasting time of Uyghur radio and television programs on the state television and radio broadcasting company (Gosteleradio) were supported at the meeting.

    The Uyghur public viewed the attention of the President with thanks and hope. We believe that the President will have the opportunity to revert once again to our issues and wishes expressed at this meet-ing; we hope such meetings can become regular.

    All of this is necessary, because last year we saw a tension in rela-tions between authorities and our social movement. In March last year, the Ministry of Justice of the republic even took the deci-sion on adjournment of the societys activities for 3 months. The reason for such decision was, generally, publishing of our news-paper, as well as some actions of Ittipak society, in which calls to an infringement of sovereignty of other countries, particularly China, were discovered, which are forbidden in accordance with the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan. The situation becomes clearer, if we remember that the Head of People's Republic of China has paid a visit to Kyrgyzstan just at that very time.

    It was necessary not just to strengthen the right of our national organization, to represent and defend the interests of the Uyghur population in the process of solving by authorities of all questions, but to make real mechanisms for realization of this right. It is not easy task. Until present, besides a constitutionally vested equality of all nations in society and country, the legal and normative acts establishing procedure and guarantees of realization of this right are not worked out in the republic.

    Council of the society took a quite number of measures for lobby-ing these decisions.

    An active participation was taken in elections to Kenesh at all lev-els. In total, 9 candidates ran for election at places with concen-trated Uyghur population. However, we noted that only 3 people were elected to Novo-Pokrovskiy aiyl Kenesh. It is a result of both of our insufficient work in hustings, and defects in legislation, not providing representation of national minorities. Therefore, in the result of the elections, the letter with request to make alterations in the Act on elections in order to provide representation of small na-tions and nationalities in state structures has been sent on behalf of the Uyghur public to the Kyrgyz Republic President Askar Akaev. At our initiative, the international seminar with participation of rep-resentatives of OSCE, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the repub-lic, the Assembly of Nation of Kyrgyzstan was conducted on this matter, international experts and deputies of Jogorku Kenesh were invited to this seminar. Opinions of participants were also sent to Jogorku Kenesh and the Government. Also, we were insisting on necessity of assignment of quotas in elections to authorities in the process of discussion of the draft law on right of national minori-ties, introduced by group of Jogorku Kenesh deputies. Our opinion is also shared by representatives of other national social organiza-tions included into the Nations Assembly of Kyrgyzstan. Once and for all the matter will be decided in the process of consideration of the appropriate draft law in Jogorku Kenesh, apparently it will be close to the next election. We will continue to increase a tension in

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  • this matter in the process of its consideration.

    Ittipak society also has used all other opportunities to inform the public about issues and vital needs of Uyghur nation. Speeches of its heads were devoted to that matter at Kurultais (Congress, gen-eral meeting of some Mongolian and Turkic nations) of the nation of Kyrgyzstan, in mass media, participation in membership of the Nations Assembly of Kyrgyzstan in annual meetings with the Presi-dent A. Akaev and the Prime Minister A.Jumagulov.

    The prominent step of Ittipak society, its obvious achievement became a solving of matters concerning formation of own mass media.

    In 1994 (March) the first issue of the newspaper in history of Uy-ghurs of Central Asia, written both in Uyghur and Russian languag-es, was published. In connection with that, we would like to express great gratitude to the chief editor Muzapparkhan Kurbanov, mem-bers of an editorial board Akbar Baudinov, Ali Ayup, Sabitzhan Babadzhanov, Rabiiam Yakup. Also, I suppose that the contribution of deceased Abliz aka Rozi and Hakim aka Rozi will not be forgot-ten. As of today, the newspaper circulation reached 1300 copies, of course, it is not enough. Activists of Ittipak make considerable efforts for wider distribution of the newspaper. The newspaper says a lot and thoroughly about history of the Uyghurs, that is, undoubt-edly of exceptional importance, particularly for youth. Its circula-tion could increase even more, if the newspaper gives more atten-tion to todays life issues of the Uyghurs too, helps with its means in their decision.

    It requires not just to be engaged in enlightenment, though it is ur-gent also, but to take up the real problems of real life.

    By our request to direction of the republican state television and ra-dio broadcasting (Gosteleradio) and with the assistance of our busi-nessmen, the operation of Uyghur television and radio broadcasting was organized, that also became the prominent step of Ittipak for formation of the integral information system.

    At the present time, the project for formation of computer informa-tion system is developed in the Council; this will enable us to en-ter the world information space, to join thousands of our people in modern means of communication and world information channels. Now, we are greatly involved in search of external financing for this project, since we still have no our own opportunities for this. I suppose, recently established Association of Uyghur entrepreneurs headed by dear Ildan Gabbasov, could help us in this.

    An aspiration to expand front of socio-political work, to involve in it as wide as possible circle of activists was the important task of Ittipak society.

    The special place here was assigned to Council of aqsaqals (elder, honourable persons of Turkic nations). This respectable body has brought a considerable contribution in solution of major matters of a life of Uyghur diaspora. At its initiative, fund raising was orga-nized, assistance to needy families was rendered, work on ordering of carrying out of tois and funerals, work on solving of problems concerning burial of urban residents in Kok-Jar cemetery, and as-sistance in settlement of disputes and complaints in social life of mahalli (traditional Muslim community, ward, housing committee) was conducted.

    Local councils of aqsaqals or their representatives were formed at the places of compacted residence of Uyghur population in order to solve issues of peoples daily life and to help people. Here we should particularly note the work of the Chairman of the Council of aqsaqa-ls Salim adzhi Iminov, Abdumazhit kari adzhi Paltaev, Ismail aka Gaparov, Hamit aka Kenzhi, Nugmanbek aka Polotbekov, Abduke-rim adzhi Osmonov, Tursun adzhi Baraev, Mirzakim adzhi Adulov, Tursun adzhi Kurbanov, Tavekkul aka Alem, Nizhat Akbarov.

    In July of 1994, the conference of Uyghur women was organized and conducted with the purpose of wider involvement of activists to work, at which the Womens Council was created. Much work has been done by it within the past period. Solemn meetings de-

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  • voted to International Womens Day the 8th of March were to be conducted. At the initiative of the Womens Council charity dinners and concerts were organized regularly in Serafimovskiy Home for elderly of Kant region, for children from boarding school, the blind and the deaf. On this occasion, we would like to express a particular gratitude to our dear mothers and sisters for their efforts and display of mercy to children and old people. Work of the following persons also should be noted: Gulaiym adzhi Kambarova, Gulbustan adzhi Munarova, Chimengul ade Tilyakova, Mukkaddes Gabbasova and Nailia Husainova.

    Steps for formation of Uyghur youth organization were taken. Its delegations have participated in work of the World Forum of Uy-ghur Youth in Almaty city in October of 1995, and at the II World Meeting of Uyghur Youth in Munich city, in November of 1996.

    Thereby, the last three years we actively and purposefully have worked at expansion of the field of socio-political activity of It-tipak. As the result: Ittipak overgrew its clothes, and the cir-cumstances were such that in the republic the whole net of Uyghur organizations was formed or is ready to be formed. This is the natu-ral process of development enabling us to cover more new areas of life of our people, and to solve their problems more specifically and widely.

    In connection with formation of new organizations, some of our fellow citizens suppose that Ittipak should confirm its command-ing position in relation to appearing organizations. On this basis the whole political struggle is springing up, and leaders of different organizations are clashing.

    Others on the contrary suppose that there is no need to form the strict hierarchy, and to search the head. All these organizations have their own coverage, its range of interests and it will be enough to come to an agreement about coordination of efforts, for instance, within the framework of the Association of Uyghur Organizations of Kyrgyzstan.

    Both viewpoints have their advantages and disadvantages. Dele-gates can and have the right to find their own position in this matter and to take the appropriate decision. The main thing is that such decision in order to please someone's political interests should not run counter to requirements of life, and should assist in solving of issues of nations and ensure its unity.

    CuLture anD eDuCationBy tradition, already since first years of work of Ittipak, the most important place in its activity was assigned to issues of retention and development of the national culture, language and education.

    At the same time, the work on retention and return of achievements of the national idea, culture, art, popularization of nations tradi-tions, and its glorious history to daily life of the nation is more highlighted.

    The prominent step in this regard became the first in history of Kyr-gyzstan discovery of exposition devoted to Uyghur nation in M.V. Frunze museum. Within the last 2,5 years more than 10 thousands residents of the republic, generally, young people, have seen pieces of this exposition.

    The measures of Uyghur public in connection with the 70th an-niversary of the eminent modern Uyghur scientist, Doctor of Phi-losophy Aziz Narynbaev, meetings with veterans of the National Liberation Army of Eastern Turkestan and the Great Patriotic War, commemoration meetings in memory of tragic events in Barin, in memory of poet Abdrim Otkur, the commemoration meeting de-voted to the 75th anniversary of Uyghur geologist Ahmetzhan Ki-birov, the 80th anniversary of Ahmedzhan Kasimi and many others measures were organized.

    As already stated, our newspaper was actively highlighting pages of Uyghur history.

    The cultural activities differed with unusual breadth. Days of Uy-

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  • ghur culture with participation of professional Uyghur artists, cul-tural figures from other countries and with active participation of our creative groups were conducted every year in the reporting pe-riod. Conducting of such Days with participation of members of the Government, Jogorku Kenesh, deputies, national cultural centers, and many residents of the republic of all nations became one of the important forms of popularization of early and original Uyghur folk art, the means for wide familiarization of children and youth with this treasury of the nation.

    Expansion of contacts with professional artists and groups from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomic Region should also be noted. Their con-certs in the republic, meetings with public became already the year-ly tradition. This enables us not just to take pleasure in folk art once again, but to learn more about the life of our fellow countrymen.

    Some exhibitions devoted to works of Uyghur artists were orga-nized by Ittipak in the reporting period, including exposition of the 1st international exhibition together with the Association of Uy-ghur artists Min oi, exposition of the artist from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Kerim Nasirdin, and artists Sabit Babadzha-nov and Shavkat Tairov.

    The guest performances of Uyghur musical comedy theater from Almaty city were organized and conducted with great success. A charity fundraising marathon was conducted for building an Uy-ghur theater in Almaty city.

    Our creative groups conduct popularization of national art. Within four years they conducted more than 30 concerts. They participated in all governmental concerts during public holidays and important events.

    Collection of books in Uyghur language has begun for formation of the national library under Ittipak.

    The Council was giving a special attention to education of the youth. It made purposeful efforts to provide access for Uyghur youth to higher education, including education abroad. The Coun-cil of Ittipak has sent a list of Uyghur entrants to the Ministry of

    Education, Science and Culture in order to control impartiality of evaluation of their knowledge in the process of entering and pro-vide assistance. With the assistance of the society, today 10 Uyghur students study at institutions of higher education inTurkey, 2 start-ed to study religious education abroad, and at the request of the Ministry of Education one entrant is recommended for study in the USA. It assisted with organization of entering education in institu-tions of higher education of Kyrgyzstan: 9 students from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and 1 from Turkey.

    500 alphabet books were purchased through entrepreneurs from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and distributed among dense-ly populated Uyghur areas in order to study Arabic writing system.

    At the same time, issues of development and enrichment of the cultural heritage require more efforts. Repeatedly, running foul of the problem of lack of resources for these purposes, the Council of Ittipak insufficiently used the opportunities of foreign and inter-national organizations and funds, and was not insistent enough in involving Uyghur businessmen and entrepreneurs, including those residing in Kyrgyzstan and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for financing of education and culture.

    At the present time, three special general Uyghur programs are developed for solving matters concerning retention and return to active being and increasing achievements of the national culture, particularly the achievements of scientific and social idea. In this regard we put high hopes in Uyghur educational institutions in Kyr-gyzstan, number of which is needed to be increased using all avail-able opportunities.

    worK with youthRather more, insufficient attention was paid to the work with youth.

    Two youth groups under association Ittipak were organized: one headed by M. Ahmetov and another in the state farm Ala-Too headed by K.Niiazov. They aim at managing the whole work with

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  • youth on the basis of self-organization and self-management, upon initiatives of youth itself. At the present time, one of these groups promotes the project developed in Ittipak for creation of the Cen-ter of computer education for children and youth, it is sent to some international funds, and presented to UNDP.

    5 entertaining evenings for youth Uyghur-show were conducted in 1995-1996.

    Youth actively gets international general Uyghur contacts.

    In the near future we reckon on formation of sufficiently strong independent youth organizations capable to be deeply involved in problems of youth, to determine and solve them.

    We should already think about opportunities and forms of social work with children.

    soLvinG oF soCiaL issuesIttipak did not have and does not have yet enough opportunities to solve social issues of the Uyghurs on a minor scale.

    Within the reporting period a material assistance was given to 107 families with insufficient material support, and assistance for or-ganization of funeral was given to four families. Total 23170 soms were allocated for these purposes. Five families have got the hu-manitarian aid through the fund Large family.

    Ittipak participated in solving the question regarding the burial place in Kok-Jar cemetery in 1995, and participates now when this question arises again.

    There were many private appeals of citizens on which measures have been taken. In total, within these years more than 300 per-sons applied to Ittipak with different requests. Issues of the most people were solved to one extent or another.

    At the same time, we understand that we have not used all possibili-ties for expansion of the base for solving of social issues of people.

    The necessity to form a single National Fund appeared, where un-der control of the Supervisory Board consisting of society we could accumulate funds from all possible sources and channel them for solving of both daily and prospective social issues requiring heavy spending. Ittipak started negotiations with entrepreneurs on this matter. Not all respond, many prefer to speak from the scaffold about needs of people only for own political benefit, and imme-diately retreat when it comes to practical assistance. But there are people who understand us. Among them, first of all, the follow-ing persons should be noted: Abdreim Azizov, Rozmamat Adzhi Abdulbakiev, Yarmuhammed Halimov, Tursuntai Salimov, Dilshat Husainov, Artyk Adzhi Hadzhiev, Abduvali Kurbanov, Abdurashit and Tashtohti Sabitovs, Mavlian Ushurov and Mariam Salieva.

    internationaL aCtivityThe Government of Kyrgyzstan helps us solve our problems ac-cording to its possibilities, but we understand clearly that in such uneasy transition period the country has not many such possibili-ties.

    It is impossible to solve all our problems without active collabora-tion with all Uyghur organizations working in other countries, and without assistance of international organizations.

    Thereby, the Council of Ittipak gave particular attention to ex-pansion of international cooperation, strengthening of relations with international Uyghur organizations or with organizations be-ing able to provide assistance to us.

    Of course, here, the cooperation with Uyghur organizations in other countries was in the forefront.

    It is safe to say that today no one important event of general Uyghur scale is carried out without participation of Ittipak. The com-panys delegation consisting of 6 persons participated in the 1st World Kurultai of the Uyghurs devoted to discussion of issues of

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  • the national movement and which was conducted in Istanbul in De-cember 1992.

    Only in the past year the representatives of Ittipak participated in the II World Meeting of Uyghur youth in Munich, measures de-voted to death anniversary of the famous Uyghur leader Aisa Yusup Aliptekin, and in creation of the Fund named after him in Istanbul.

    We also get invitations to participate in international events carried out by international organizations, Turkic and Arabic countries.

    In December 1993, the conference of Joint Committee of Nations of Eastern Turkestan, Inner Mongolia and Tibet was carried out, where the information about situation in Central Asia and prob-lems of the Uyghurs were presented. The head of Ittipak Nur-muhammed Kenzhi was elected as Deputy Chairman of this Joint Committee.

    International seminars devoted to issues of legal protection of na-tional minorities rights organized by OSCE Office of the High Commissioner on National Minorities, issues of political concord conducted by US National Democratic Institute, measures in con-nection with the 5th anniversary of death of Aiatolla Homeini by invitation of the Embassy of Iran, scientific theoretical conference on problems of Eastern Turkestan in Istanbul, and the conference on human rights at Colombian University, New York city orga-nized by the Joint Committee of nations of Eastern Turkestan, Inner Mongolia and Tibet were carried out with participation of Ittipak representatives.

    Representatives of Ittipak actively participated in activity of the International antinuclear movement Nevada-Semipalatinsk, its Lop Nor division, which subsequently was reorganized into inde-pendent antinuclear movement Lop Nor. This movement orga-nized protest actions against nuclear tests in China by picketing the Chinese embassy in Bishkek. International scientific conference For nuclear-free Central Asia was conducted together with the

    Kyrgyz Republic Academy of Sciences in August of 1994.

    In August of 1993, the head of Ittipak as a member of parlia-mentary delegation met with deputies of the Great National Majlis of Turkey, and in March of 1994 with US congressmen. Ques-tions concerning position of Uyghur nation and its problems were brought up and discussed at these meetings.

    The representatives of Ittipak are also invited and participate in all ceremonial events conducted by embassies of countries accred-ited in the Kyrgyz Republic.

    And all that is not just formal meetings. During such meetings, problems of the Uyghurs of Kyrgyzstan begin to be a world pub-lic issue. We find like-minded persons, people and organizations which are ready to help us.

    The management of Ittipak considers necessary to expand the international activity in future, to use its possibilities for solving of our problems more full.

    Particularly, it is necessary to note the necessity to strengthen re-lations with Uyghur organizations, and simply relations with the public at large in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It is not allowed because of irreconcilable vies of some Uyghur politicians in relation to an official management of China to refuse possibili-ties to contact and cooperate with 30 millions people living on their historical native land.

    Ittipak, being the public organization, is standing now on the eve of a new stage in its activity. Formation period is finished, major areas of work are planned, and a sufficiently wide group of activ-ists is created. Unlike last years, from the self-affirmation period, now the matter depends on expansion of daily work in all directions with wide participation of people. The works intended for solving of imperious problems of people, improvement of their life, and development of the ancient Uyghur people according to time level and world civilization process on the eve of XXI century.

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  • statement delivered by nur muhammaD Karahan, the Director of information and Projects Center in Central asia at theoretical and practical conference titled as: BroaD sCaLe oPeninG uP eXPansion to the north-west anD soCiaL anD eConomiCaL DeveLoPment in areas inhaBiteD By ethniCaL minorities (urumqi, Xinjiang-uyghur autonomous region of China. october 8, 2001).

    eConomy oF oPeninG uP LanD eXPansion anD eCoLoGy oF ethniCities

    Most esteemed ladies and gentlemen, We have been living for a long time. The Uyghur people along with the Chinese people measure their lifetime not by years or decades but by centuries and thousands of years of their existence.

    We have been living together for a long time. The eras of wars and hostility were being replaced by eras of peace and trade intercours-es, but our ethnicities have not ceased and will never cease to live as good neighbors, we have nowhere else to leave for or move to.

    We have been living for a long time and have seen a lot. During the recent centuries we have witnessed the Western World originating, developing, and gaining its global power having grown into a civi-lization of technology, pragmatism, and money.

    Today we are all witnessing how the such type manufacturing sys-tems having gained their power are expanding all over the globe occupying more and more of the new territories, more and more of the new ethnicities.

    Is that Good or Evil? What are the ways the humanity and regions of the planet should develop? What is the economical growth price due that we can pay?

    You are all well aware that today even in the very Western countries there is a mass movement unfolding and gaining its momentum

    against merciless exploitation of the world resources to the interests of the global financial and industrial monopolies that for the sake of own profits are ready to transform the entire planet into a cheap workforce left to work for scanty earnings reward and to be satis-fied with consumption of cheap food, cheap culture products, cheap ethics products. Except for a dozen of the countries, the rest of the world gets rated among the third world countries.

    Corrosion created by globalization forces covers the world with ulcers of the unresolved contrasts between the wealth and the pov-erty, between prosperity and abject misery, omnipotence and impo-tency, between justice and a strong ones right, violence, between the good and the evil.

    I am not a prophet, but the humanity is entering a millennium when the very matter of its existence is being challenged. In these terms, the twentieth century with its wars and social shocks has been just a modest prelude.

    The East having always lived within the paradigm of prioritizing human neighborliness and spirituality, as it is gradually taking to the logics of development of the Western world undergoes real threats and faces the need to resolve more and more of problems stemming from globalization processes.

    These threats undoubtedly include the hazard of ethnical cata-clysms. Ethnic systems, ethnical identity and origin have no rel-evant place within