TX History Ch 18.3

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Transcript of TX History Ch 18.3

  • 1. Chapter 18:Texas & the Civil War Section 3:Campaigns in Texas & the Southwest

2. Bellwork

  • Why might the Union want to control parts of Texas?

3. The New Mexico Campaign

  • After the war began, Texas forces marched into New Mexico and claimed the territory
  • Fall 1861:three regiments sent to seize the Southwest

4. The New Mexico Campaign

  • Henry H. Sibley Confederate general who attempted to seize control of the Southwest in 1861

Henry H. Sibley 5. 6. The New Mexico Campaign

  • Sibley and his 2,000 troops defeat 2,500 Union troops at Valverde, NM
  • Texans seize Albuquerque & Santa Fe
  • Disease & lack of food

7. The New Mexico Campaign

  • March 28, 1862:Sibleys forces encounter Union forces at Glorieta Pass
  • Forced to retreat
  • Union retains control of Southwest

8. 9. Fighting at Galveston Island

  • Union Navy blockaded Texas ports
  • Oct. 1862:Confederate forces retreated Galveston Harbor
  • Galveston an important port

10. Fighting at Galveston Island

  • Plans made to recapture Galveston
  • Two steamboats converted to gunboats by lining sides with cotton bales

Cotton Bale 11. Fighting at Galveston Island

  • Jan.1, 1863:Cottonclads attack Galveston
  • Union ships retreat
  • Union troops captured

12. 13. The Battle of Sabine Pass

  • Union planned to retake Galveston
  • September 1863:Union troops set sail from New Orleans with 4,000 troops
  • Union plan:invade Texas at Sabine Pass, march to Houston, and capture Galveston

14. The Battle of Sabine Pass

  • Richard Dowling commander of the Confederate artillery at the Battle of Sabine Pass

Lt. Richard Dowling 15. The Battle of Sabine Pass

  • Based at Ft. Griffin
  • Sept 8, 1863:Union forces attempt to overtake Sabine pass

16. The Battle of Sabine Pass

  • Confederate gunners cripple two Union gunboats
  • Capture 300 Union soldiers

17. 18. The Coast & South Texas

  • Union troops wanted to take Brownsville and stop trade between Texas and Mexico
  • Cotton shipped overseas from Mexico
  • November 1863:Union forces capture Brownsville

19. The Coast & South Texas

  • Union Gen. Nathaniel Banks splits forces
  • Union troops under command of Col. E.J. Davis attack Laredo
  • Attack fails

20. The Coast & South Texas

  • Santos Benavides commander who successfully defended Laredo from Union forces

Santos Benavides 21. The Coast & South Texas

  • Union forces called out of Brownsville
  • Brownsville recaptured by the Confederates

22. The Red River Campaign

  • Union troops left Brownsville to take part in Red River Campaign
  • Union wanted to invade Texas from the NE
  • General Banks & 27,000 soldiers hoped to meet a group of Union soldiers from Arkansas

23. 24. The Red River Campaign

  • April 8, 1864:Banks intercepted by Confederate Gen. Richard Taylor at Sabine Crossroads
  • A Confederate force of only 9,000 force Union troops to turn back

25. The Red River Campaign

  • April 18, 1864:Confederate forces intercept Union army moving south from Arkansas
  • Union forces defeated at Poison Spring, Arkansas
  • Confederate troops turn back Union attacks on Texas