Tim hieu ve piping

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Bi 1: GII THIU C BN V H THNG NG NG (PIPING FUNDAMENTAL)Thnh TrnPipingTuesday, January 26, 2016PHN 1: PIPING FOUNDAMENTALCHNG 1: PIPING V CC THNH PHN TRONG H THNG PIPING1.1. PipingTrong cng nghip, Piping l mt h thng nhiu thnh phn lin kt vi nhau, baogm pipe, fitting, instruments ,bolts, gaskets, valves, supports dng chuyn ti lu chtt im ny ti im khc.

Piping c chia thnh 3 loi chnh (theo Size): ng c ng knh ln (Large bore pipe): thng bao gm ng c ng knh ln hn 2 inch. ng c ng knh nh (Small bore pipe): thng bao gm ng c ng knh nh hn hoc bng 2 inch. Tubing bao gm cc ng c ng knh ln n 4 inch nhng c dy thnh ng nh hn hai loi trn v c kt ni vi cc compression fittings (instruments). H thng ng bao gm: Pipe Fittings (e.g. elbows, reducers, branch connections, etc.) Flanges, gaskets, bolting Valves Pipe supports Instruments.

1.1.1. Piping classcificationC 7 class sau (Theo ASME): 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 v 2500.Chia Class ca piping cn c vo di p sut-nhit ca thnh phn chu p yunht.1.1.2. Cc tiu chun lin quan n vic to ra codes v material specification cho hthng ng ng:Cc tiu chun lin quan n vic to ra codes cho h thng ng ng: ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers ANSI - American National Standardization InstituteCc tiu chun ny a ra cc khuyn ngh k thut cho vic thit k h thng ngca cc nh my nng lng v ha cht. Chng bao gm: Cc cng thc tnh ton dy ca ng ng. Cc cng thc tnh ton dy extra m mt ng phi c khi kt ni vimt nhnh. Cc quy tc cho vic phn tch ng sut. Cc bng tra ng sut ln nht cho php i vi vt liu kim loi c xcnhn theo ANSI.Piping Codes:ASME B31.1 - Power PipingASME B31.2 - Fuel Gas .PipingASME B31.3 - Process PipingASME B31.4 - Liquid PipingASME B31.5 - Refrigeration PipingASME B31.8 - Gas Distribution and TransportationASME B31.9 - Building Service PipingASME B31.11 - Slurry PipingCc tiu chun lin quan n vic to ra material specification cho piping:ASTM - American Society for Testing Materials ASTM xy dng mt b tiu chun c tnh k thut vt liu c s dngtrong cc ngnh cng nghip. Specifications bt u bng ch A c s dng cho thp. Specificationsbt u bng ch B c s dng cho kim loi mu (ng thau, ng thic,hp kim ng Niken, hp kim nhm.v.v.). Specifications bt u bng chD c s dng cho vt liu plastic (nha PVC). Mt ASTM specification khng ch th hin cc thnh phn ha hc c bnca vt liu m cn th hin qu trnh hnh thnh hnh dng cui cng ca snphm.API-American Petroleum Institute Cc nguyn tc, ng dng v cc tiu chun du kh c ban hnh bi vinc p dng cho hu ht cc cng ty du kh trn th gii. Trong s nhiu tiu chun c ban hnh bi vin, c tiu chun API standard5L c s dng cho thit k ng ng Pipelines.1.2. Cc thnh phn piping: pipe, fitting, bolts, gaskets, valves, supports1.2.1. Pipe Pipe: ng c mt ct trn c kch thc ph hp vi tiu chun:+ ASME B36.10M: welded and seamless wrought steel pipe + ASME B36.19M: Stainless steel pipeKch thc ca pipe: c xc nh bi ng knh ngoi ca Pipe (OD) v dy pipe: Norminal pipe size (NPS): y l kch thc danh ngha ca pipe theo h inch. Cc NPS thng c s dng:1/8, , 3/8, , , 1, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10,12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24,28, 30, 32, 36, 40, 44, 4852, 56, 60 Cc NPS sau thng khng c s dng: 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 i vi cc ng c NPS 12 th OD NPS. i vi cc ng c NPS 14 th OD = NPSV d: Mt pipe c ghi kch thc l NPS 2 th c ngha l ng kch ngoi ca pipe l2.375 inch (Tra bng kch thc tng ng trong ASME B36.10). Nominal diameter (DN): y cng l ng knh danh ngha ca pipe nhng ghi trong h Mt (Metric).V d: DN 50 th tng ng vi NPS 2 (ch : Pipe vi NPS 2 th khng phi tng ng vipipe DN 2x25.4 =50.8).

dy ca Pipe: c xc nh bng Schedule (SCH) hoc ch chnh xc dythnh ng (WT Wall thickness). Schedule (SCH) c k hiu bi dy ch s:5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 20S, 30, 40, STD, 40S, 60, 80, XS, 80S, 120,140,160, XXSSTD: standard wall thickness, XS: extra, XXS: double extraK hiu S sau s SCH (10S, 20S) ch ra rng Pipe theo tiu chun ASME B36.19M, cho Stainless steel pipe. i vi cc ng c NPS 10, SCH 40 = STD i vi cc ng c NPS 8, SCH 80 = XSDa vo NPS (DN) v SCH ta tra bng ra chiu dy ca ng tng ng.Bng mt s thng s ca pipeBng. 1.2. Mt s thng s ca Pipe

V d: Vi Pipe NPS 2; SCH STD s c ng knh ngoi 2.375 inch, wall thickness0.154 inch=> http://engineervn.blogspot.com/2015/12/bai-2-piping-material.html- See more at: http://www.engineeringvn.com/2015/12/gioi-thieu-co-ban-ve-he-thong-uong-ong_3.html#sthash.yEnBvjM1.dpuf

Bi 9 : Tm hiu bn v Piping ( P& ID , ISOMETRIC ) part 1Thnh TrnPipingTuesday, January 26, 2016Chng 1:Tm hiu bn v Piping ( P & ID )A. Mc tiu sau bi hc :-Hiu c P&ID l g? Lm th no c c P&ID? Gip cc k s, gim st, operation hiu c nguyn l hot ng ca mt nh my, mt gin khai thc, mt gin cng ngh x l trung tm. T a ra cc phng n thicng piping hp l, khoa hc, gip vic qun l thi cng d dng, hiu qu ng thi gip cc operation, production team d dng theo thaotc, bo hnh v sau.

-Hiu c cc nguyn tc c bn ca P&ID.-Cc biu tng v k hiu chnh trn P&ID.-Vai tr ca P&ID.-Hn ch ca P&ID.B. Phm vi ca bi hc :

-Ni dung kha hc ch gii hn cho cc gim st trng, piping supervisor, cc piping engineer mi ra trng XCKLM nn vn cn nhiu thiu st. Do , ti liu ny khng c dung cho cc process engineer hay cc vn lien quan v thit k, mua sm. C. Li m u :-Nh ta bit, rt nhiu k s mi ra trng hoc tham gia nhiu d n nhng li vn khng chc rng mnh c kim sot c bn v P&ID? Hiu c tng th v nguyn l vn hnh ca mt nh my, mt gin khai thc u ging hay mt gin cng ngh x l trung tm nh gin x l trung tm PQP ca Bin ng 1 chng hn thng qua bn v P&ID. lm nhiu d n nhng cc k s, gim st vn cha hiu r v P&ID a ra cc Phng n thi cng khoa hc, qun l thi cng d dng v qun l c cc h thng mnh ang ph trch. Do , ti liu ny mt phn gip cc k s, gim st hiu v qun l cng vic thi cng tt hn thng qua P&ID.I. P&ID L G?-P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Diagram: L bn v s bao gm h thng piping, thit b, instrument v cc tn hiu iu khin (n gn ging bn v PFDS) nhng chi tit hn bn v s dng chy (EFD: Engineering Flow Diagram, MFD: Mechanical Flow Diagram, P&ID, SFD: System Flow Diagram). P&ID th hin qu trnh m t, qu trnh thit k tt c cc kha cnh ca mt nh my, mt gin khai thc u ging hay mt gin cng ngh x l trung tm. Trn bn v ny ta bit c cc thng s k thut v tn cc thit b, tn cc line, kch thc pipe v cc fitting, ng i ca cc loi tn hiu iu khin ti cc thit b bao gThit b ln v nh S khc bit gia nhng g ln so vi thit b nh l nhng thit b no l chnh.

Van cc loi bao gm: Manual valves, instrument valves, b phn p (bleeder), van an ton (Pressure safety valve, Pressure relief valve).

Cc thit b, bao gm cc thit b c s dng lin tc o lu lng, p lc, nhit hoc mt s thng s dng cho phn tch nh pH, nht, nng

B iu khin c lp C th hot ng c lp thc hin mt chc nng c th, ging nh iu khin PID hoc b m thi gian chuyn tip.

Cc nt n S dng kim sot ng c v cc thit b, c loi n, loi chuyn i v mt s loi khc.

ng c v b truyn ng Nhiu ng c c tc duy nht, khng o chiu, nhng c nhiu loi khc c nhiu cp tc khc nhau v c th chuyn ng theo c 2 hng.Cc thit b hn ch bao gm cc thit b m ch c mt trng thi lm vic, v d nh mt bn c mt thit b hn ch mc cht lng, hoc mt van hoc thit b truyn ng c th nh l cng tc gii hn hnh trnh.ng ng -Tt c cc ng ng, ng ng cho cc cng ngh v cc ng ng utility, ng cu ho, ng nc thi,... Khng ch l qu trnh ng ng vn c qu trnh c th, ngay c cc thit b khc cng c( hi nc, khng kh, nhiu liu).Cc thit b o trn mn hnh iu khin my tnh (thng l i tng i din phn nh th gii thc) c s dng tng tc vi nh my t phng iu khin/bng. Chng bao gm nhng th c th bm khi ng hoc dng thit b, vn hnh van, iu chnh cc thit lp b iu khin, bo ng, Cc phn mm lin kt thng b hn ch bi v n kh khn trong vic truyn t kim sot hon ton c ngha l chng ch s dng cc k kiu. Tuy nhin, n khng phi l vn quan trng nu qu trnh ang chy trn mt d n, s dng cc phn mm PDMS, Model review, cc phn mm demo.R rng, c rt nhiu thng tin th hin trn mt P&ID. V v l do ny, c nhiu mc chi tit khc nhau m mt cng ty thit k c th ni chung s chn hin th. Khng c tiu chun chnh thc cho s lng cc thng tin m mt bn v P&ID phi bao gm. Thay vo , n s theo ca cc process engineers tham gia, piping engineer, E&I engineer, HSE,..Trong cc iu khon v chi tit bn v c cp, mt bn v P&ID s c s cn bng r rng khng ln ln. Nu ta khng th nhn thy r qu trnh cho tt c cc biu tng, sau n c th l qu trn. Thng thng, cc process engineer phi layout v chnh sa lin tc cho tinh gn mt bn v P&ID, d phn bit cc thit b, cc qu trnh v cc biu tng rt logic v khoa hc nht.

I.CC NGUYN TC C BN : Trc khi chng ta bt u, hy nh rng c v hiu P&ID l mt yu cu ct li ca mt k s ng ng. Trong thc t, ta phi bit cng c ny trc khi ta bt u mt d n, v l thnh vin trong nhm phn tch mi nguy him. L mt k s, gim st piping, phi xem P&ID lKEY DOCUMENT m bo rng mnh hiu y v mt nguyn l hot ng ca mt gin khai thc v cc chc nng ca n a ra cc k hoch thi cng ph hp, khoa hc p ng yu cu ca Ban d n v Client, m bo tin , hiu qu, an ton.

II.NGUYN TC C BN KHI C P&ID:

Bn V P&ID d n Bin ng

c tTRI QUA PHIv tTRN XUNG DI c cc line chnh, h chnh sau cc nhnh kt ni vo Cc thit b, valve, c kt ni vi nhau trn cng 1 tuyn Mi bn v P&ID s th hin cc qu trnh kt ni vo 1 thit b hay nhiu thit b tu vo thit b c nhiu qu trnh kt ni vo hay khng. Mi bn P&ID s c s cn bng v cc qu trnh kt ni vi nhau, hay ni khc hn thng cc h utility hay process m c mi quan h vi nhau. V d: Gas phi c VENT v DRAIN, cc thit b o p sut, nhit , Mun c hiu nhanh P&ID phi c PFD hoc UFD trc. Bn v quy trnh (PFDs: Process Flow Diagram, UFD: Utility Flow diagram) l bn v dng chy n gin minh ha cc dng chy trong nh my ni chung, cc thit b chnh v cc vng iu khin chnh. Chng cng cung cp hng lot cc chi tit, d liu cn bng nng lng cng vi cc dng thnh phn v tnh cht vt l. P&ID bt ngun t PFD. ng ng v cc chi tit k thut vt liu. Trang thit b v thng s k thut. Phn mm CAD hin i c s dng to ra bn v P&ID i khi c gi l thng minh bi v n c th kt hp cc chi tit k thut, tiu chun v chi tit m i vo thit k. Cc ti liu kim sot chc nng v qu trnh, chng m t chi tit cch m mt s gin khai thc hot ng. Mt s s bao gm cc tiu chun u tin cho s dng trn mn hnh iu khin.

3.2.1CC K H