Tim hieu ve_te_bao_goc_5928

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  • 1. TM HIU V T BO GCLm Trn Mnh Hng C.SsR., S.T.D(nguyn tc Anh ng, Tr Mi chuyn sang ting Vit)DN NHPT nhiu th k nay cc nh khoa hc bit rng mt s loi vt c th ti tocc b phn mt trn c th chng. Con ngi chng ta cng c chung c imny, ging nh loi sao bin. Mc d c th chng ta khng th ti to c mtcng chn hay ngn tay b mt, nhng t bo mu, t bo da hay cc t bo khcvn thng xuyn c ti sinh trong c th ca chng ta. Nhng t bo "tonnng" gip chng ta ti to m, ln u tin c pht hin trong qu trnh tinhnh th nghim vi ty xng, vo nhng nm 1950 dn n pht hin v stn ti ca T BO GC (1) trong c th; t pht trin k thut cy ghp tyxng hin ang c ng dng rng ri trong y hc. Khm ph v t bo gc thp sng hy vng v tim nng y hc ca k thut ti sinh. Ln u tin trong lchs, cc bc s c th ti to m b hy hoi nh mt ngun cung cp mi mnhng t bo khe mnh bng cch p dng kh nng c nht v nh ca t bogc nhm to ra nhiu loi t bo khc bit trong c th.Khi cc nh khoa hc nhn ra c tim nng y hc ca k thut ti to thng quathnh tu cy ghp ty xng, h tip tc qu trnh tm kim nhng t botng t trong phi. Nhng nghin cu ban u v qu trnh pht trin ca conngi chng minh c rng t bo ca phi c kh nng sn sinh ra mi loit bo trong c th. How it works from Embryo to Stem cell : Cch thc to t bo gc t phi (1) Embryo : Phi - Trng c th tinh hoc nhn bn v tnh to phi. Phi bt u phn chia. (2) 1 To 5 Days : 1 n 5 Ngy

2. Phi phn chia nhiu ln v c dng khi cu c gi l phi nang/phi bo. (3) 5 To 7 Days : 5 n 7 Ngy Vo thi im ny, t bo gc phi c th quan st c v c kh nng pht trin thnh bt k loi t bo no ca c th. (4) Stem Line : Dng T Bo Gc T bo gc c tch ra v pht trin trong a nui cy. Khi chng phn chia chng to ra dng t bo gc. (5) Tissue Production : Sn Xut T Bo p dng nhiu cng thc dinh dng phi hp vi cc yu t khc nhau, cc nh khoa hc hy vng c th bin i t bo gc thnh hn 200 loi t bo khc ca c th nh: Pancreatic Islet Cells : T Bo Ty Tng - C th s dng iu tr tiu ng Muscle Cells : T Bo C - C th dng khi phc hoc thay th tim b tn thng Nerve Cells : T Bo Thn Kinh - C th c ng dng trong iu tr chng mt tr v bnh Parkinson cng nh iu tr chn thng ct sng.T nhng nm 1980, cc nh khoa hc tch chit thnh cng t bo gc phi cachut. Nhng ch n nm 1998, mt nhm cc nh khoa hc thuc i hcWinsconsin ti Madison di s ch o ca gio s James Thomson ln u tin thnh cng tch bit t bo gc phi ngi. H bit h tch c t bo gc,l v nhng t bo khng bit ha trong khong thi gian di; chng cng vngi nguyn kh nng c th bin i thnh nhiu loi t bo chuyn bit trong c t bo c, t bo rut, t bo thn kinh v t bo sn. Nh sinh hc kim gio s ngnh gii phu hc, Prof. James Thomson ngng lm vic vi chic laptop computer trong vn phng ti i hc Wisconsin - Madison. ng ch o nhm nghin cu v tuyn b tch thnh cng dng t bo phi ca mt loi ng vt linh trng vo nm 1995. Khi u ny em n thnh tu ln u tin tch c dng t bo gc phi ngi vo nm 1998. 3. The Promise of Stem Cell Research : Trin vng ca nghin cu t bo gc Drug Development and Toxicity Tests : Nghin cu dc phm v xt nghim c tnh Experiments to Study Development and Gene Control : Th nghim nhm pht trin nghin cu v kim sot gen Cultured Pluripotent Stem Cells : T bo gc ton nng ang c nui dng Tissues/Cells for Therapy : T bo ng dng trong iu tr Bone marrow : Ty xng Nerve Cells : T bo thn kinh Heart Muscle Cells : T bo c tim Pancreatic Islet Cells : T bo ty tngV th l nghin cu t bo gc c nhiu nh khoa hc eo ui vi hy vng tc nhng bc t ph ln trong y hc. H lun n lc tm ti nhng liuphp khi phc hoc thay th cc t bo tn thng nh nhng t bo to ra t tbo gc; ng thi mang hy vng n cho nhng ngi ang phi chu ng cnbnh ung th, tiu ng, cc bnh tim mch, chn thng ct sng cng nh ccchng ri lon khc. C t bo gc phi v t bo gc trng thnh u l nhngc s cc nh khoa hc pht trin nhng phng thc mi, c gi tr nhm snxut dc phm v xt nghim.The Promise of Stem Cell Research :Trin vng ca nghin cu t bo gcCultured Pluripotent Stem Cells :T bo gc ton nng ang c nui dngIdentify drug targets and test protential therapeutics :Xc nh mc tiu dc phm v th nghim tim nng liu php iu trToxicity Testing : Xt nghim c tnh 4. Study Cell differentiation : Nghin cu qu trnh bit ha ca t boTissues/Cells for Transplantation : T bo ng dng trong cy ghpUnderstanding, prevention and treatment of birth defects :Tm hiu, phng nga v iu tr khim khuyt bm sinhBone marrow for leukemia & chemotherapy :Ty xng sn xut bch cu v ng dng trong ha hc tr liuNerve Cells for Parkinsons & Alzhiemers disease :T bo thn kinh ng dng trong iu tr chng mt tr v bnh ParkinsonHeart Muscle Cells for heart disease :T bo c tim ng dng trong iu tr bnh timPancreatic Islet Cells for diabetes :T bo ty tng gip iu tr tiu ngT bo gc cng l cng c hu hiu gip tin hnh cc nghin cu sinh hc c s,nhm c c nhng hiu bit su sc hn v c th ngi. Nh vo cc chuyngia khoa hc, bc s, cc chuyn gia o c sinh hc v nhng ngi khc na, cChnh ph cng vi Gio hi nghin cu tim nng ca k thut t bo gctrong y hc, ng thi lp nn mt din n tho lun ngha o c cng nhnhng vng mc v mt o c trong vic nghin cu t bo gc.I. KHI QUT V T BO GCT bo gc l mt trong nhng lnh vc sinh hc li cun nht hin nay. Nhngcng ging nh rt nhiu lnh vc khoa hc ang ln mnh, nghin cu v t bogc lm ny sinh nhng cu hi v c mt khoa hc ln mt o c ngay khi nt c nhng thnh tu u tin.1. T BO GC L G V TI SAO T BO GC LI QUAN TRNG ?T bo gc l t bo nn mng ca tt c cc t bo, m v c quan trong c th.V c bn, mi t bo trong c th ngi u c ngun gc t trng th tinh(cn c gi l hp t) - chnh l s kt hp gia tinh trng v trng. 5. Fertilised egg : Trng th tinhTotipotent stem cells : T bo gc tng nng (2)Blastocyst containing pluripotent stem cells :Phi nang cha t bo gc ton nng (3)Isolated pluripotent SCs from inner cell mass :T bo gc ton nng c tch ra t khi t bo ni tiHematopoeitic SCs : T bo gc muNeural SCs : T bo gc thn kinhMesenchymal SCs : T bo gc trung mTissue-specific SCs : T bo gc chuyn mCultured pluripotent SCs : T bo gc ton nng c nui cyBlood cells : T bo muCells of nervous system :T bo thn kinhConnective tissue: bones, cartilage, etc.: M lin kt: xng, snNhng c th chng ta c n hn 200 loi t bo khc nhau, ch khng phi chmt loi duy nht. Tt c nhng loi t bo ny u hnh thnh t mt vn t bo 6. gc giai on pht trin sm nht ca phi. Trong giai on ny, cng nh giaion pht trin sau , cc loi t bo gc hnh thnh nn t bo chuyn bit haybit ha ri thc hin cc chc nng c th trong c th ngi; v d nh tbo da, t bo mu, t bo c v t bo thn kinh.T bo gc c mt kh nng v song, l chng c th pht trin thnh nhiu loit bo khc trong c th. ng vai tr l h thng sa li cho c th, v mt lthuyt, chng c th phn chia khng hn nh thay th cc t bo khc, v ngthi m bo s lng cc loi t bo trong c th, min l con ngi hay con vtcn sng. Khi mt t bo gc phn chia, mi mt t bo mi va c kh nng trthnh t bo gc va c th tr thnh mt loi t bo khc vi chc nng chuynbit nh t bo c, t bo hng cu hay t bo no.Cell Differentiation - Qu trnh bit ha t boSkin cells of epidermis : T bo biu bNeuron of Brain : Nron trong noPigment Cell : T bo sc tEctoderm (External Layer): Ngoi b (lp ngoi)Sperm : Tinh trngEgg : TrngGerm Cells : Giao t 7. Zygote : Hp tBlastocyst : Phi boGastrula : Phi dMesoderm (Middle Layer): Trung b (Lp gia)Cardiac Muscle : C timSkeletal Muscle Cells : T bo c xngTubule Cell of the Kdney : T bo ng trong thnRed Blood Cells : T bo hng cuSmooth Muscle (in Gut): T bo c trn (trong rut)Endoderm (Internal Layer): Ni b (lp trong cng)Lung Cell (Alveolar Cell): T bo phi (T bo ti phi)Thyroid Cell : T bo tuyn gipPancreatic Cell : T bo ty tngQU TRNH PHN CHIA V BIT HA T BOTt c cc loi t bo gc, d bt ngun t u, cng u c 3 c tnh chung:chng c kh nng phn chia v t ti to trong khong thi gian di; chng khngb bit ha; v chng c th pht trin thnh cc loi t bo chuyn bit. iukin thch hp, t bo gc c th pht trin thnh cc m v c quan chuyn bit.Nhng c tnh c nht v nh ny l yu t ha hn, khin t bo gc tr thnhngun cung cp t bo, nhm iu tr cc chng bnh nh chng mt tr nh, ungth, bnh Parkinson, tiu ng loi 1, chn thng ct sng, t qu, bng, bnhtim, vim khp xng mn tnh v vim khp dng thp. Ngy nay, cc m hay cquan b bnh, b hy hoi u c thay th t ngi hin tng. V c bn, slng ngi cn cy ghp vt xa s lng b phn thay th sn c. T bo gcchnh l ngun tim nng cung cp cc t bo v m c th c ng dng trongiu tr nhiu cn bnh, do t bo gc c th t phc hi v to ra cc t bochuyn bit.Nh bi chnh c tnh ny ca t bo gc khin cc nh khoa hc say m nghincu hu tm kim cc bin php iu tr y hc nhm thay th cc t bo b hyhoi hoc thng tn.II. NGHIN CU T BO GC1. T bo gc bt ngun t u? 8. 1. Fertilization : S th tinh2. 8-Cell embryo : Phi gm c 8 t bo. Trong giai on pht trin ny, t bo gcphi c coi l t bo gc tng nng (Totipotent stem cells); mi t bo ny ctim nng pht trin thnh mt con ngi.3. Blastocyst : Phi bo. Trong giai on pht trin ny, t bo gc phi c coi lt bo gc ton nng (Pluripotent stem cells); mi t bo ny c tim nng pht trinthnh bt k t bo no trong c th.4. Fetus : Bo thai. Trong giai on pht trin ny, t bo gc phi c coi l tbo gc ton nng (Pluripotent stem cells); mi t bo ny c tim nng pht trinthnh bt k t bo no trong c th.5. T bo gc cng tm thy ni c th trng thnh. Chng duy tr v cha tr cth. Chng c nh v ti nhiu t bo trong c th. Cc t bo gc trng thnhc tim nng nhn ly nhng tnh cht ring bit, hu c th to nn cc t bo cs lng hn nh trong cc m. Chng c coi nh l cc t bo gc a nng(Multipotent stem cells).Tt c chng ta u khi u s sng t mt t bo duy nht, gi l hp t, hnhthnh sau qu trnh th tinh. Hp t phn chia to thnh hai t bo; mi mt t botrong li phn chia v c tip din nh vy. Chng my chc, khong 5 ngysau khi th tinh, hp t c dng mt qu bng rng, vi khong 150 t bo cgi l phi bo (blastocyst). Phi bo thm ch cn nh hn mt ht ct, bao gm 2nhm t bo: nguyn bo nui phi (trophoblast) v khi t bo ni ti trong phibo. T bo gc phi l nhng t bo hnh thnh nn khi t bo ni ti (inner cellmass). Do t bo gc phi c th hnh thnh, nn bt c loi t bo no trong cth ngi trng thnh nn n cn c coi l t bo gc ton nng (pluripotentstem cell). 9. T bo gc cng c th tm thy mt s loi m nht nh ngi pht trinton din, t tr em n ngi trng thnh, vi s lng rt t. V d, t bo gcty xng (t bo gc mu) c trong ty ca xng, chng pht trin thnh tt ccc loi t bo mu chuyn bit.QU TRNH BIT HA T BO GC TY XNGLiver : GanBrain : NoCNS stem cells : T bo gc CNSSkeletal muscle : C xngBone : XngBlood cell : T bo muBlood vessel : Mch muBone marrow stromal cell : t bo m ty xngEpithelial cell : T bo